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Simple virus encephalitis

Yuki Takamatsu, Leo Uchida, Muhareva Raekiansyah, Mark Anthony Luz, Kouichi Morita, Daisuke Hayasaka
For the development of effective treatment strategies for Japanese encephalitis (JE), it is important to identify the viral factors causing severe disease during JE virus (JEV) infection. In this study, we assessed whether amino acid substitutions are critical factors for higher mortality of JaTH160 compared with JaOArS982 in mice using the technique of infectious cDNA clones. We raised the possibility that two amino acids of C124 and NS3482 of JaTH160 may contribute to increased mortality in mice. However, simultaneous substitutions of these amino acids did not significantly increase the virulence of JaOArS982, suggesting that high mortality due to JaTH160 viral infection cannot be simply attributed to the specific amino acids...
February 3, 2018: Viruses
Thérèse Atieh, Antoine Nougairède, Raphaëlle Klitting, Fabien Aubry, Anna-Bella Failloux, Xavier de Lamballerie, Stéphane Priet
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus)...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Goren, J Mccoy, M Kovacevic, M Situm, N Lonky
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As a consequence of HSE, up to 75% of infected individuals die or experience irreversible neurological damage. While the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown, it is traditionally hypothesized that the viral infection occurs by neuronal transmission directly from peripheral sites. Non-neuronal modes of infection have generally been overlooked as the brain is protected by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The BBB poses an effective barrier to pathogens as well as to drugs such as chemotherapies...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Scott C Weaver, Caroline Charlier, Nikos Vasilakis, Marc Lecuit
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
Marieke Pingen, Michael A Schmid, Eva Harris, Clive S McKimmie
Mosquito-borne infections are increasing in number and are spreading to new regions at an unprecedented rate. In particular, mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as those that cause Zika, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, and chikungunya, have become endemic or have caused dramatic epidemics in many parts of the world. Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are the main culprits, spreading infection when they bite. Importantly, mosquitoes do not act as simple conduits that passively transfer virus from one individual to another...
August 2017: Trends in Parasitology
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Hao Zheng, Xuchen Zheng, Wu Tong, Fei Liu, Chao Liang, Tao Wang, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Tongling Shan, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
Flavivirus cDNA clones frequently demonstrate genetic instability in transformed bacteria, which hampers the construction and manipulation of cDNAs for infectious flaviviruses. In this study, we developed a stable, full-length cDNA clone, pJEHEN, of a GI JEV strain HEN0701 using a medium-copy-number pBR322 vector and propagating cDNA clones at room temperature. The virus vJEHEN recovered from the infectious clone was indistinguishable from the parent virus HEN0701 with respect to plaque morphology, growth kinetics, and virulence characteristics...
February 2017: Virus Genes
Jeremy V Camp, Norbert Nowotny
The development of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays are described herein for the detection of two orthobunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae), which represent the two main serogroups found in mosquitoes in Central Europe. The RT-LAMP assays were optimized for the detection of Ťahyňa virus (a California encephalitis group virus found in Aedes sp or Ochlerotatus sp mosquitoes) and Batai virus (also called Čalovo virus, a Bunyamwera group virus found in Anopheles maculipennis s...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Xinna Li, Kai Nie, Ji Wang, Dan Zhang, Li Guan, Jun Liu, Yuehua Ke, Hangyu Zhou, Xuejun Ma
Given the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the risks of spread to other regions, a rapid, sensitive and simple method for the detection of the Ebola virus (EBOV) is of great significance for the prevention and control of Ebola. We developed a simple colorimetric isothermal multiple self-matching initiated amplification (IMSA) for rapid detection of the Zaire subtype of the Ebola virus (EBOV-Z). This method employed six primers that recognized seven sites of the EBOV-Z nucleoprotein gene for amplification of nucleic acids under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for 1 h...
January 2016: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Javier Campos-Gomez, Fahim Ahmad, Efrain Rodriguez, Mohammad F Saeed
The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc...
September 2016: Virology
Soumya Banerjee, Jeremie Guedj, Ruy M Ribeiro, Melanie Moses, Alan S Perelson
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen that has decimated bird populations and caused severe outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans. Currently, little is known about the within-host viral kinetics of WNV during infection. We developed mathematical models to describe viral replication, spread and host immune response in wild-type and immunocompromised mice. Our approach fits a target cell-limited model to viremia data from immunocompromised knockout mice and an adaptive immune response model to data from wild-type mice...
April 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Tehmina Bharucha, Anisone Chanthongthip, Soumphou Phuangpanom, Ooyanong Phonemixay, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Sue Lee, Paul N Newton, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
BACKGROUND: The use of filter paper as a simple, inexpensive tool for storage and transportation of blood, 'Dried Blood Spots' or Guthrie cards, for diagnostic assays is well-established. In contrast, there are a paucity of diagnostic evaluations of dried cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spots. These have potential applications in low-resource settings, such as Laos, where laboratory facilities for central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics are only available in Vientiane. In Laos, a major cause of CNS infection is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eri Inagaki, Mizuki Sakai, Minato Hirano, Memi Muto, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Kentaro Yoshii
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. A wide range of animal species could be infected with TBEV in endemic areas. A serological survey of wild animals is effective in identifying TBEV-endemic areas. Safe, simple, and reliable TBEV serodiagnostic tools are needed to test animals. In this study, ELISA was developed to detect anti-TBEV specific antibodies in multi-species of animals, using recombinant subviral particles (SPs) with an affinity tag and protein A/G...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Autumn J Ruiz, Elizabeth M Hadac, Rebecca A Nace, Stephen J Russell
UNLABELLED: Mengovirus, a member of thePicornaviridaefamily, has a broad cell tropism and can cause encephalitis and myocarditis in multiple mammalian species. Attenuation has been achieved by shortening the polycytidine tract in the 5' noncoding region (NCR). A poly(C)-truncated strain of mengovirus, vMC24, resulted in significant tumor regression in immunocompetent BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic MPC-11 plasmacytomas, but the associated toxicities were unacceptable. To enhance its safety profile, microRNA target sequences complementary to miR-124 or miR-125 (enriched in nervous tissue), miR-133 and miR-208 (enriched in cardiac tissue), or miR-142 (control; enriched in hematopoietic tissues) were inserted into the vMC24NCRs...
April 2016: Journal of Virology
A Hiscox, R Hirooka, K Vongphayloth, N Hill, S W Lindsay, M Grandadam, P T Brey
During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, visual inspection and emergence trapping were carried out in over 300 latrines during the rainy seasons of 2008-2010. Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were nine times more likely to be found in latrines (mean catch: 3...
March 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Brian J Johnson, Tim Kerlin, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Andrew F van den Hurk, Giles Cortis, Stephen L Doggett, Cheryl Toi, Ken Fall, Jamie L McMahon, Michael Townsend, Scott A Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light traps in our trials...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Lonneke van der Linden, Katja C Wolthers, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
The Enterovirus (EV) and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV). They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes...
August 10, 2015: Viruses
Dimitri Renard, Elodie Nerrant, Catherine Lechiche
DWI has been described in some reports to be superior to FLAIR in early stage herpes simple virus encephalitis (HSE). Few data exist on detailed topographical MRI analysis in HSE. Our aim was to study DWI and FLAIR, and analyse topographically these sequences in non-neonatal HSE patients with MRI performed within 60 days. Eleven HSE patients were analysed retrospectively. For topographical analysis, we developed a radiological 50-point score (25 points for each hemisphere, with each point corresponding to a brain area)...
September 2015: Journal of Neurology
M Veciana, J L Becerra, P Fossas, D Muriana, G Sansa, E Santamarina, C Gaig, M Carreño, A Molins, C Escofet, M Ley, R Vivanco, J Pedro, J Miró, M Falip
INTRODUCTION: The anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis-associated syndrome includes neuropsychiatric symptoms, impaired consciousness, seizures, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity throughout the course of the disease has still not been well documented. We reviewed electroclinical data of patients with NMDAr encephalitis to characterize their EEG and its clinical correlation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 16 patients with NMDAr encephalitis from 8 Spanish medical centers, 15 of whom underwent video-EEG in the acute phase...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hai-Qiong Yu, Xian-Quan Cai, Zhi-Xiong Lin, Xiang-Li Li, Qiao-Yun Yue, Rong Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world. RESULTS: We developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of PPV. Primers targeting the VP gene were highly specific, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related viruses, such as porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
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