Read by QxMD icon Read

Simple virus encephalitis

Marieke Pingen, Michael A Schmid, Eva Harris, Clive S McKimmie
Mosquito-borne infections are increasing in number and are spreading to new regions at an unprecedented rate. In particular, mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as those that cause Zika, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, and chikungunya, have become endemic or have caused dramatic epidemics in many parts of the world. Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are the main culprits, spreading infection when they bite. Importantly, mosquitoes do not act as simple conduits that passively transfer virus from one individual to another...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Hao Zheng, Xuchen Zheng, Wu Tong, Fei Liu, Chao Liang, Tao Wang, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Tongling Shan, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
Flavivirus cDNA clones frequently demonstrate genetic instability in transformed bacteria, which hampers the construction and manipulation of cDNAs for infectious flaviviruses. In this study, we developed a stable, full-length cDNA clone, pJEHEN, of a GI JEV strain HEN0701 using a medium-copy-number pBR322 vector and propagating cDNA clones at room temperature. The virus vJEHEN recovered from the infectious clone was indistinguishable from the parent virus HEN0701 with respect to plaque morphology, growth kinetics, and virulence characteristics...
February 2017: Virus Genes
Jeremy V Camp, Norbert Nowotny
The development of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays are described herein for the detection of two orthobunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae), which represent the two main serogroups found in mosquitoes in Central Europe. The RT-LAMP assays were optimized for the detection of Ťahyňa virus (a California encephalitis group virus found in Aedes sp or Ochlerotatus sp mosquitoes) and Batai virus (also called Čalovo virus, a Bunyamwera group virus found in Anopheles maculipennis s...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Xinna Li, Kai Nie, Ji Wang, Dan Zhang, Li Guan, Jun Liu, Yuehua Ke, Hangyu Zhou, Xuejun Ma
Given the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the risks of spread to other regions, a rapid, sensitive and simple method for the detection of the Ebola virus (EBOV) is of great significance for the prevention and control of Ebola. We developed a simple colorimetric isothermal multiple self-matching initiated amplification (IMSA) for rapid detection of the Zaire subtype of the Ebola virus (EBOV-Z). This method employed six primers that recognized seven sites of the EBOV-Z nucleoprotein gene for amplification of nucleic acids under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for 1 h...
January 2016: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Javier Campos-Gomez, Fahim Ahmad, Efrain Rodriguez, Mohammad F Saeed
The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc...
September 2016: Virology
Soumya Banerjee, Jeremie Guedj, Ruy M Ribeiro, Melanie Moses, Alan S Perelson
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen that has decimated bird populations and caused severe outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans. Currently, little is known about the within-host viral kinetics of WNV during infection. We developed mathematical models to describe viral replication, spread and host immune response in wild-type and immunocompromised mice. Our approach fits a target cell-limited model to viremia data from immunocompromised knockout mice and an adaptive immune response model to data from wild-type mice...
April 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Tehmina Bharucha, Anisone Chanthongthip, Soumphou Phuangpanom, Ooyanong Phonemixay, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Sue Lee, Paul N Newton, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
BACKGROUND: The use of filter paper as a simple, inexpensive tool for storage and transportation of blood, 'Dried Blood Spots' or Guthrie cards, for diagnostic assays is well-established. In contrast, there are a paucity of diagnostic evaluations of dried cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spots. These have potential applications in low-resource settings, such as Laos, where laboratory facilities for central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics are only available in Vientiane. In Laos, a major cause of CNS infection is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eri Inagaki, Mizuki Sakai, Minato Hirano, Memi Muto, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Kentaro Yoshii
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. A wide range of animal species could be infected with TBEV in endemic areas. A serological survey of wild animals is effective in identifying TBEV-endemic areas. Safe, simple, and reliable TBEV serodiagnostic tools are needed to test animals. In this study, ELISA was developed to detect anti-TBEV specific antibodies in multi-species of animals, using recombinant subviral particles (SPs) with an affinity tag and protein A/G...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Autumn J Ruiz, Elizabeth M Hadac, Rebecca A Nace, Stephen J Russell
UNLABELLED: Mengovirus, a member of thePicornaviridaefamily, has a broad cell tropism and can cause encephalitis and myocarditis in multiple mammalian species. Attenuation has been achieved by shortening the polycytidine tract in the 5' noncoding region (NCR). A poly(C)-truncated strain of mengovirus, vMC24, resulted in significant tumor regression in immunocompetent BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic MPC-11 plasmacytomas, but the associated toxicities were unacceptable. To enhance its safety profile, microRNA target sequences complementary to miR-124 or miR-125 (enriched in nervous tissue), miR-133 and miR-208 (enriched in cardiac tissue), or miR-142 (control; enriched in hematopoietic tissues) were inserted into the vMC24NCRs...
April 2016: Journal of Virology
A Hiscox, R Hirooka, K Vongphayloth, N Hill, S W Lindsay, M Grandadam, P T Brey
During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, visual inspection and emergence trapping were carried out in over 300 latrines during the rainy seasons of 2008-2010. Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were nine times more likely to be found in latrines (mean catch: 3...
March 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Brian J Johnson, Tim Kerlin, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Andrew F van den Hurk, Giles Cortis, Stephen L Doggett, Cheryl Toi, Ken Fall, Jamie L McMahon, Michael Townsend, Scott A Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light traps in our trials...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Lonneke van der Linden, Katja C Wolthers, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
The Enterovirus (EV) and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV). They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes...
August 10, 2015: Viruses
Dimitri Renard, Elodie Nerrant, Catherine Lechiche
DWI has been described in some reports to be superior to FLAIR in early stage herpes simple virus encephalitis (HSE). Few data exist on detailed topographical MRI analysis in HSE. Our aim was to study DWI and FLAIR, and analyse topographically these sequences in non-neonatal HSE patients with MRI performed within 60 days. Eleven HSE patients were analysed retrospectively. For topographical analysis, we developed a radiological 50-point score (25 points for each hemisphere, with each point corresponding to a brain area)...
September 2015: Journal of Neurology
M Veciana, J L Becerra, P Fossas, D Muriana, G Sansa, E Santamarina, C Gaig, M Carreño, A Molins, C Escofet, M Ley, R Vivanco, J Pedro, J Miró, M Falip
INTRODUCTION: The anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis-associated syndrome includes neuropsychiatric symptoms, impaired consciousness, seizures, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity throughout the course of the disease has still not been well documented. We reviewed electroclinical data of patients with NMDAr encephalitis to characterize their EEG and its clinical correlation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 16 patients with NMDAr encephalitis from 8 Spanish medical centers, 15 of whom underwent video-EEG in the acute phase...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hai-Qiong Yu, Xian-Quan Cai, Zhi-Xiong Lin, Xiang-Li Li, Qiao-Yun Yue, Rong Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world. RESULTS: We developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of PPV. Primers targeting the VP gene were highly specific, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related viruses, such as porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Asiye Akbarian, Mohammad Hassan Shahhosseiny, Somayeh Vafaei, Elham Moslemi, Maryam Ghahri
BACKGROUND: PCR is a molecular technique for herpes simplex virus (HSV) detection that can cause life-threatening infections such as encephalitis and keratitis. However, the main issues, false-negative results causing by PCR inhibitors, of this technique that reduce PCR efficiency. To overcome this problem, a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was constructed for conventional PCR using the PCR-cloning technique. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the design of competitive IAC for PCR diagnosis of HSV, which in fact is the main cause of keratitis and viral encephalitis in developed countries...
February 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Hai-Qiong Yu, Xian-Quan Cai, Zhi-Xiong Lin, Xiang-Li Li, Qiao-Yun Yue, Rong Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world. RESULTS: We developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of PPV. Primers targeting the VP gene were highly specific, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related viruses, such as porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
December 2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Lauriane de Fabritus, Antoine Nougairède, Fabien Aubry, Ernest A Gould, Xavier de Lamballerie
Large-scale codon re-encoding (i.e. introduction of a large number of synonymous mutations) is a novel method of generating attenuated viruses. Here, it was applied to the pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans in forested regions of Europe and Asia. Using an infectious clone of the Oshima 5-10 strain ("wild-type virus"), a cassette of 1.4kb located in the NS5 coding region, was modified by randomly introducing 273 synonymous mutations ("re-encoded virus")...
March 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Ruikun Du, Feifei Yin, Manli Wang, Zhihong Hu, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng
The prM glycoprotein is thought to be a chaperone for the proper folding, membrane association and assembly of the envelope protein (E) of flaviviruses. The prM-E and E proteins of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were expressed in insect cells using both the baculovirus-expression system and the transient expression method. Protein expression was analysed by Western blotting and the cytopathic effect was observed by microscopy. In the baculovirus-expression system the E protein, with or without the prM protein, induced syncytial formation in Sf9 cells...
May 2015: Journal of General Virology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"