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Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410473/offering-pregnant-women-different-levels-of-genetic-information-from-prenatal-chromosome-microarray-a-prospective-study
#1
Jane L Halliday, Cecile Muller, Taryn Charles, Fiona Norris, Joanne Kennedy, Sharon Lewis, Bettina Meiser, Susan Donath, Zornitza Stark, George McGillivray, Melody Menezes, Sian K Smith, Della Forster, Susan Walker, Mark Pertile, David J Amor
This study aimed to examine the choice pregnant women make about the amount of fetal genetic information they want from chromosome microarray. Women having invasive prenatal testing in the absence of fetal structural abnormality were recruited in Victoria, Australia. A decision aid for women described 'targeted' analysis as reporting only copy number variants implicated in a highly penetrant and well-described phenotype and 'extended' as additionally reporting variants of uncertain or unknown significance. Participant's choice and demographics were collected by survey before chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis; psychological data were also collected then and again about 10 days after receiving results...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406995/functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-conversion-disorder-a-role-for-microglial-based-plasticity-mechanisms
#2
Chris P Stephenson, Ian J Baguley
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386716/guidelines-for-medical-management-of-nuclear-radiation-emergencies
#3
REVIEW
Velu Nair, D N Karan, C S Makhani
Management of victim of radiation injury poses a wide spectrum of challenges to the health care provider starting with the evaluation of the damage, the kind of hospitalization and treatment and the regular monitoring of the patient. Undesirable clinical outcomes are probable if prodromal stage evolves rapidly and is severe. Critical systems like neurovascular, gastrointestinal, haematopoietic and cutaneous are afflicted in Acute Radiation Syndrome. Three main elements which are essential for assessment of prognosis and selection of treatment are vomiting onset time, kinetics of depletion of lymphocyte, and chromosome abnormalities...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382558/damage-to-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-impairments-in-both-spontaneous-and-deliberative-moral-judgments
#4
C Daryl Cameron, Justin Reber, Victoria L Spring, Daniel Tranel
Implicit moral evaluations-spontaneous, unintentional assessments of the moral status of actions or persons-play a pivotal role in supporting moral behavior, yet little research has attempted to model variability in these moral evaluations across healthy and clinical populations. Prior research reveals that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a critical area underpinning affect and morality, and patients with vmPFC lesions show abnormalities in moral judgment and moral behavior. We use indirect measurement and multinomial modeling to understand differences in implicit moral evaluations among patients with vmPFC lesions...
January 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366841/bi-directionality-of-brain-gut-interactions-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#5
David J Gracie, Elspeth A Guthrie, P John Hamlin, Alexander C Ford
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with mood disorders, such as anxiety or depression, but it is not clear whether one contributes to development of the other, or if the interaction is bi-directional (anxiety or depression contributes to the progression of IBD, and IBD affects psychologic health). We performed a 2-year longitudinal prospective study of patients in secondary to care investigate the bi-directionality of IBD and mood disorders. METHODS: We collected data from 405 adult patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from November 2012 through June 2017...
January 20, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366438/changes-in-emotion-processing-following-brief-augmented-psychodynamic-interpersonal-therapy-for-functional-neurological-symptoms
#6
Isobel Anne Williams, Stephanie Howlett, Liat Levita, Markus Reuber
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) are considered non-volitional and often very disabling, but are not explainable by neurological disease or structural abnormalities. Brief Augmented Psychodynamic Interpersonal Therapy (BAPIT) was adapted to treat the putative emotion processing deficits thought to be central to FNS aetiology and maintenance. BAPIT for FNS has previously been shown to improve levels of distress and functioning, but it is unknown whether improvements on such measures correlate with changes in emotion processing ‒ which this treatment focuses on...
January 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356007/the-research-evidence-for-schizophrenia-as-a-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#7
Bjorn Rishovd Rund
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that starts very early. In this review we describe the empirical evidence for the neurodevelopmental model. First, by outlining the roots of psychological research that laid the foundation of the model. Thereafter, describing cognitive dysfunction observed in schizophrenia, and the course of cognitive functioning in the illness. Then, research findings that speak for and studies that speak against the view that schizophrenia is a degenerative process is discussed...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354617/depression-and-quality-of-life-among-postmenopausal-women-in-bangladesh-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Mamun Ibn Bashar, Kawsar Ahmed, Muhammad Shahin Uddin, Farzana Ahmed, Abdullah-Al Emran, Aditi Chakraborty
Objectives: The aims of the research are to examine the problems of abnormal menopausal women: the relationship between depression and menopausal-specific quality of life (MENQOL)-symptoms among postmenopausal women; the association of MENQOL-symptoms between pre- and postmenopausal female society in Bangladeshi real community. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 435 women of Tangail, aged (≥ 17) years, using a structured questionnaire where is inaacluded the information of MENQOL and one of the main outcomes "depression" is measured by beck depression inventory...
December 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332111/prevalence-of-menstrual-problems-and-their-association-with-psychological-stress-in-young-female-students-studying-health-sciences
#9
Nazish Rafique, Mona H Al-Sheikh
To identify the prevalence of various menstrual problems in young females studying health sciences and to identify their association with academic stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the health colleges of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia between February 2015 and February 2016. Seven hundred and thirty-eight female students aged 18-25 years anonymously completed menstrual problem identification and perceived stress scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#10
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327097/-clinical-and-cognitive-aspects-of-functional-psychogenic-tremor
#11
REVIEW
K E Zeuner, R Schmidt, P Schwingenschuh
Functional (psychogenic) tremor is the most common functional movement disorder. Characteristic clinical features, so called red flags, can help to make the clinical distinction of this type from other tremor disorders. The most common features include the variability of frequency and amplitude. Clinical examination should include different types of distraction including motor or cognitive tasks or testing the influence of suggestibility on tremor amplitude, frequency or direction. Patients often report sudden onset and remissions that may last for months or even years...
January 11, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320524/patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-fatigue-present-with-depressive-symptoms-and-selected-cognitive-deficits-but-with-normal-attention-performance-and-brain-structure
#12
Roman Zenouzi, Janina von der Gablentz, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Christina Weiler-Normann, Marcial Sebode, Hanno Ehlken, Johannes Hartl, Anja Fellbrich, Susanne Siemonsen, Christoph Schramm, Thomas F Münte, Ansgar W Lohse
BACKGROUND: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) fatigue is a major clinical challenge of unknown etiology. By demonstrating that fatigue in PBC is associated with an impaired cognitive performance, previous studies have pointed out the possibility of brain abnormalities underlying fatigue in PBC. Whether structural brain changes are present in PBC patients with fatigue, however, is unclear. To evaluate the role of structural brain abnormalities in PBC patients severely affected from fatigue we, therefore, performed a case-control cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) study and correlated changes of white and grey brain matter with the cognitive and attention performance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319723/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-intensive-care-unit-survivors-experience-of-a-multidisciplinary-outpatient-clinic-in-a-teaching-hospital
#13
Péricles A D Duarte, Jaquilene Barreto Costa, Silvana Trilo Duarte, Sheila Taba, Claudia Regina Felicetti Lordani, Erica Fernanda Osaku, Claudia Rejane Lima Macedo Costa, Dalas Cristina Miglioranza, Daniela Prochnow Gund, Amaury Cesar Jorge
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of an outpatient clinic with the multidisciplinary evaluation of intensive care unit survivors and to analyze their social, psychological, and physical characteristics in a low-income population and a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Adult survivors from a general intensive care unit were evaluated three months after discharge in a post-intensive care unit outpatient multidisciplinary clinic over a period of 6 years (2008-2014) in a University Hospital in southern Brazil...
December 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313407/sense-of-coherence-smoking-status-biochemical-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-body-mass-in-blue-collar-workers-short-report
#14
Anna Najder
The crucial cause of cardiovascular disorders is atherosclerosis developed by abnormal cholesterols levels or disorders affecting blood glucose. One of the best-known cardiovascular risk factors is also tobacco smoking. Simultaneously, sense of coherence (SoC) as a personal resource motivating to managing one's own health behaviors, such as avoiding tobacco smoking, was reported to be protective against coronary heart disease. Such association was observed in white-collar workers but not in blue-collar workers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298845/safety-and-tolerability-of-one-year-intramuscular-testosterone-regime-to-induce-puberty-in-older-men-with-chh
#15
Agnieszka Pazderska, Yaasir Mamoojee, Satish Artham, Margaret Miller, Stephen G Ball, Tim Cheetham, Richard Quinton
We present herein our 20-year experience of pubertal induction in apubertal older (median age 56 years; range 38.4-69.5) men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (n = 7) using a simple fixed-dose and fixed-interval intramuscular testosterone that we originally pioneered in relation to achieving virilisation of natal female transgender men. This regime was effective and well tolerated, resulting in complete virilisation by around 1 year after treatment initiation. No physical or psychological adverse effects were encountered in this group of potentially vulnerable individuals...
January 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297196/psychophysiological-evaluation-of-patients-with-transient-loss-of-consciousness-of-uncertain-origin
#16
Donatella Brisinda, Lara La Brocca, Anna Rita Sorbo, Gianmarco Lombardi, Francesco Fioravanti, Riccardo Fenici
BACKGROUND: Psychological profile (PsyP) of patients with transient loss of consciousness (TLoC) evidences high prevalence of anxiety and depression. However, the mechanistic link between abnormal PsyP and TLoC is still unclear. AIM: This study aimed at evaluating: 1) prevalence of abnormal PsyP in TLoC patients; 2) cardiac autonomic response to Head-up Tilt Test (HUTT) in patients with (PsyP+) or without abnormal PsyP (PsyP-), developing syncope (HUTT+) or not (HUTT-)...
January 3, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294547/-application-of-association-rule-in-mental-health-test-for-employees-in-a-petrochemical-enterprise
#17
L F Zhang, D N Zhang, Z P Wang
Objective: To investigate the occurrence ruleof common psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers using association rule. Methods: From July to September,2014,the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)was used for the general survey of mental healthamong all employees in a petrochemical enterprise.The association rule Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the data of SCL-90 and investigate the occurrence rule of psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers with different sexes,ages,or nationalities...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#18
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#19
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277091/-bloating
#20
REVIEW
Hyun Jik Lee, Kyung Sik Park
Bloating is one of the most common and troublesome problems in a large proportion of patients with gastrointestinal disorders but the mechanism is not completely understood. Several factors, including gas-producing intestinal microbiota, disturbed handling of intestinal gas, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal viscero-somatic responses, fermentable diet, and psychological factors, have been suggested as mechanisms. For an assessment, thorough medical history-taking and physical examination are the first steps...
December 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
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