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Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437681/predicting-wellbeing-among-people-with-epilepsy-using-illness-cognitions
#1
Kirstie A Salter, Kirsty N Prior, Malcolm J Bond
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the synergistic contribution of illness-related perceptions (stigma, severity, and threat) and illness behavior to wellbeing among people with epilepsy. Poorer wellbeing was expected among those who perceived greater stigma, illness severity, and threat and had more extreme illness behavior. METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of epilepsy (N=210), recruited through local and online support groups, completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and epilepsy-specific information, and validated measures of illness perceptions and behavior, epilepsy-related quality of life, and general psychological health...
April 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418237/what-gene-mutations-affect-serotonin-in-mice
#2
Richard C Tenpenny, Kathryn G Commons
Although serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders, the factors that drive dysfunction of the serotonin system are poorly understood. Current research regarding the serotonin system revolves around its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no database collating genetic mutations that result in serotonin abnormalities. To bridge this gap, we developed a list of genes in mice that, when perturbed, result in altered levels of serotonin either in brain or blood...
April 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414591/violence-victimization-social-support-and-papanicolaou-smear-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#3
Hsing-Fang Hsieh, Justin E Heinze, Ian Lang, Ritesh Mistry, Anne Buu, Marc A Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397153/meldna-score-is-associated-with-psychopathology-and-reduced-quality-of-life-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-a-liver-transplant-perspective
#4
Gabriele Cavaggioni, Edoardo Poli, Flaminia Ferri, Lucia Parlati, Valentina Monaco, Claudia Melcore, Barbara Lattanzi, Manuela Merli, Gianluca Mennini, Fabio Melandro, Massimo Rossi, Stefano Ginanni Corradini
Psychopathological symptoms and reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) are frequent in cirrhotics, but no data on their association with cirrhosis prognosis assessed by the MELDNa score are available. Prospective data on the long-term effect of deceased donor liver transplantation (LT) on psychopathological symptoms are needed. Before entering the LT waiting list, 44 consecutive LT cirrhotic candidates without a major psychiatric disorder underwent a psychopathological assessment, including Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ)...
April 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382197/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-use-factors-involved-in-prescribing-safety-aspects-and-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Jose Martinez-Raga, Amparo Ferreros, Carlos Knecht, Raquel de Alvaro, Eloisa Carabal
While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#6
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374937/physical-after-effects-of-colposcopy-and-related-procedures-and-their-inter-relationship-with-psychological-distress-a-longitudinal-survey
#7
Mairead O'Connor, Katie O'Brien, Jo Waller, Pamela Gallagher, Tom D'Arcy, Grainne Flannelly, Cara M Martin, Judith McRae, Walter Prendiville, Carmel Ruttle, Christine White, Loretto Pilkington, John J O'Leary, Linda Sharp
OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. DESIGN: Longitudinal survey. SETTING: Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. POPULATION: Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (+/- related procedures). METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to women 4-, 8- and 12-months post-colposcopy...
April 4, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365957/psychological-effects-of-concurrent-cytology-and-colposcopy-testing-in-women-referred-to-cancer-counseling-outpatient-clinic-in-belgrade
#8
Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Svetlana Popovac, Olivera Djuric, Zivko Perisic, Snezana Rakic
PURPOSE: To investigate the psychological effects of PAP smear and colposcopy performed simultaneously and receipt of abnormal tests' results on women's well-being and quality of life (QoL) using different relative questionnaires. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 324 women with abnormal PAP smear result obtained at the primary care centers, requiring repeat smear test and colposcopy in our hospital. Questionnaires regarding the patient demographic characteristics, 7-point Likert scales which indicate concern about the smear and colposcopy results and risk of developing cervical cancer, Bek Anxiety Inventory (BAI), European QoL questionnaire - Euro QoL (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) were used...
January 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365848/attenuation-of-cortical-activity-triggering-descending-pain-inhibition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-patients-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Yohei Matsuo, Jiro Kurata, Miho Sekiguchi, Katsuhiro Yoshida, Takuya Nikaido, Shin-Ichi Konno
PURPOSE: A considerable portion of chronic low back pain (cLBP) patients lack anatomical abnormality, resist conventional therapeutic interventions, and their symptoms are often complicated with psychological and social factors. Such patients have been reported to show cerebral abnormalities both in anatomy and function by neuroimaging studies. Here we examined differences in cerebral reactivity to a simulated low back pain stimulus between cLBP patients and healthy controls by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and their behavioral correlates from a psychophysical questionnaire...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356488/the-opinions-and-experiences-of-irish-obstetric-and-gynaecology-trainee-doctors-in-relation-to-abortion-services-in-ireland
#10
Kara Aitken, Paul Patek, Mark E Murphy
INTRODUCTION: The provision of abortion services in the Republic of Ireland is legally restricted. Recent legislation that has been implemented allows for abortion if there is a real and substantial risk to the woman's life, but in general Irish women must travel abroad for abortion services. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical experiences of Irish obstetric non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) that work in this environment and to assess their attitudes towards termination of pregnancy (ToP)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349350/visual-snow-a-potential-cortical-hyperexcitability-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Alaa Bou Ghannam, Victoria S Pelak
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of visual snow (VS) and provide information regarding current treatment options for VS. Visual snow (VS) is a rare disorder manifesting with a persistent visual phenomenon of seeing numerous tiny snow-like dots throughout the visual field, and it can cause debilitating visual and psychological consequences. It is emerging as a disorder separate from, but associated with, migraine visual aura, and neuronal cortical hyperexcitability is being considered as a theoretical mechanism for the persistent-positive visual symptoms...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348911/a-case-of-persistent-generalized-retrograde-autobiographical-amnesia-subsequent-to-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-in-2011
#12
Yuji Odagaki
Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344182/repair-of-frontoethmoidal-encephalocele-in-the-philippines-an-account-of-30-cases-between-2008-2013
#13
Amanda-Lynn Marshall, Pradeep Setty, Mark Hnatiuk, Daniel R Pieper
BACKGROUND: Frontoethmoidal encephalocele is a congenital abnormality of the anterior skull base involving herniation of cranial contents through a midline skull defect. Patency of the foramen cecum, along with other multifactorial variables, contribute to the development of frontoethmoidal encephaloceles. Due to limited resources, financial constraints, and lack of surgical expertise, repair of frontoethmoidal encephaloceles are limited in developing countries. METHODS: Between 2008-2013 an interdisciplinary team composed of neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons and nursing personnel, conducted surgical mission trips to Davao City in Mindanao, Philippines...
March 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341559/-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-kidney-angiodysplasia-in-a-child
#14
A Dibi, Z Maana, F Jabourik, A Bentahila
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease is a progressive, chronic occlusive vascular disease of the circle of Willis arteries leading to the development of collateral circulation to compensate the occlusion. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl presented an abrupt loss of consciousness and a right-sided motor deficit. Clinical examination found hypertension with 220/120mmHg arterial blood pressure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left hemispheric ischemic lesion...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336768/care-of-girls-and-women-with-turner-syndrome-beyond-growth-and-hormones
#15
Caroline Culen, Diana-Allexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering, Gabriele Haeusler
Turner syndrome (TS), although considered a rare disease, is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, with an incident of 1 in 2,500 female births. TS is characterized by distinctive physical features such as short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, an increased risk for heart and renal defects as well as a specific cognitive and psychosocial phenotype. Given the complexity of the condition, patients face manifold difficulties which increase over the lifespan. Furthermore, failures during the transitional phase to adult care result in moderate health outcomes and decreased quality of life...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328806/craniosynostosis-scheuermann-s-disease-and-intellectual-disability-resembling-shprintzen-goldberg-syndrome-a-report-on-a-family-over-4-generations-case-report
#16
Ali Al Kaissi, Zahra Marrakchi, Nabil M Nassib, Jochen Hofstaetter, Franz Grill, Rudolf Ganger, Susanne Gerit Kircher
RATIONALE: Craniosynostosis is a disorder characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures with subsequent development of abnormal craniofacial contour associated with variable skeletal and extra-skeletal abnormalities. In this family syndromic type of craniosynostosis was recognized and the etiology behind diverse forms of deformities have been diagnosed. PATIENT CONCERNS: The negative impact of the disorder on the child and his family is enormous. Particularly when the diagnosis is late and little can be done...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319528/postburn-microstomia-prevention-using-an-appliance-providing-simultaneous-horizontal-and-vertical-adjustable-forces
#17
Gregory S Antonarakis, Sandra Fastlicht, Taras Masnyi, Bryan Tompson
Microstomia, an abnormally small oral orifice, is a complication of perioral facial burns. In this case, contraction of the circumoral tissues and hypotonia of the musculature is responsible for this microstomia, which can produce aesthetic and functional impairment with eating, swallowing, communication (speech and facial expressions), compromised dental care and maintenance due to limited oral access, social interactions, and psychological well-being. Conservative management involves providing physical resistance to scar contracture, with opposing horizontal and vertical circumoral forces by means of appliances that aim to stretch the commissures and fibrotic muscles...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316164/-advances-in-the-research-of-signaling-pathway-in-pathologic-scar-formation
#18
J Jin, B Ma, Z F Xia
Scar is the natural end of wound healing, but pathologic scar will form with the excessive hyperplasia. The problems which thus come not only include the physiological and psychological disorders caused by the change of appearance or dysfunction, but also include the economic burden for both families of the patients and society induced by the requirement of plastic or functional reconstruction. The formation of pathologic scars is affected by many factors involved in the process of wound healing, such as excessive inflammation, abnormal tissue repair, and lingering repair termination, which involve a lot of signaling pathways...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314908/anatomy-and-aesthetics-of-the-labia-minora-the-ideal-vulva
#19
REVIEW
C Clerico, A Lari, A Mojallal, F Boucher
Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva...
March 10, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301764/reward-processing-neuroeconomics-and-psychopathology
#20
David H Zald, Michael T Treadway
Abnormal reward processing is a prominent transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. The present review provides a framework for considering the different aspects of reward processing and their assessment, and highlights recent insights from the field of neuroeconomics that may aid in understanding these processes. Although altered reward processing in psychopathology has often been treated as a general hypo- or hyperresponsivity to reward, increasing data indicate that a comprehensive understanding of reward dysfunction requires characterization within more specific reward-processing domains, including subjective valuation, discounting, hedonics, reward anticipation and facilitation, and reinforcement learning...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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