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Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043694/-long-term-results-of-hypospadias-surgery-urinary-and-sexual-function-and-psychological-impact
#1
J Rojas-Ticona, G Zambudio Carmona, L Delmas Benito, M Fernández-Ibieta, P Y Reyes Ríos, I Martínez Castaño, V Villamil, A Sánchez Sánchez, M J Guirao Piñera, J I Ruiz Jiménez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the current status of the patients operated on for hypospadias in our region, in order to adapt the surgical technique to their real needs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive and observational study. Interviews were conducted with hypospadias surgery patients in our hospital between 1976 and 1996, focusing on their urinary and sexual function and psychological impact. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis and comparisons between types of hypospadias (SPSSv19)...
July 20, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043070/bacterial%C3%A2-vaginosis
#2
REVIEW
Phillip Hay
Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. It can have a major impact on quality of life and psychological wellbeing if frequently recurrent and strongly symptomatic. The use of molecular techniques to study the vaginal microbiome is increasing our understanding of the dynamic changes in flora that occur in health and disease. It might soon be possible to separate Gardnerella into different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Many groups are studying compounds that can disrupt the biofilm which is dominated by Gardnerella and Atopobium vaginae...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038950/firing-a-loaded-gun-during-sleep-in-an-elderly-man-with-a-perfect-storm-of-risk-factors-including-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Francesca Ingravallo, Carlos H Schenck, Ernesto D'Aloja, Monica Puligheddu
PURPOSE: We report a case of firing a loaded gun during sleep in a geriatric patient with undiagnosed major sleep disorders and multiple risk factors for sleep violence. Polysomnographic findings, diagnostic challenges, and forensic implications in this unprecedented geriatric case are discussed. METHODS: A 75-year-old employed man, married for 32 years, presented to a sleep center reporting to having fired a shot in his bedroom during sleep while his wife was away, without memory of hearing the gunshot...
October 16, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036361/chronic-pain-and-neuropathy-following-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#4
Lise Ventzel, Caspar S Madsen, Páll Karlsson, Hatice Tankisi, Baris Isak, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders B Jensen, Anni R Jensen, Troels S Jensen, Nanna B Finnerup
Objective: To determine symptoms and characteristics of chronic sensory neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin and docetaxel, including patterns of somatosensory abnormalities, pain descriptors, and psychological functioning. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: A chronic pain research center. Subjects: Thirty-eight patients with chronic peripheral pain and/or dysesthesia following chemotherapy...
September 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033866/neural-substrate-of-group-mental-health-insights-from-multi-brain-reference-frame-in-functional-neuroimaging
#5
Dipanjan Ray, Dipanjan Roy, Brahmdeep Sindhu, Pratap Sharan, Arpan Banerjee
Contemporary mental health practice primarily centers around the neurobiological and psychological processes at the individual level. However, a more careful consideration of interpersonal and other group-level attributes (e.g., interpersonal relationship, mutual trust/hostility, interdependence, and cooperation) and a better grasp of their pathology can add a crucial dimension to our understanding of mental health problems. A few recent studies have delved into the interpersonal behavioral processes in the context of different psychiatric abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026519/squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-in-familial-gingival-fibromatosis-a-rare-case-report
#6
Dilasma Ghartimagar, Ujjwal Koirala, Arnab Ghosh, Manish Kiran Shrestha, Sushma Thapa, Raghavan Narasimhan, O P Talwar
Familial gingival fibromatosis is a rare hereditary condition due to chromosomal abnormality which can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome and has an incidence of 1:350 000. This condition leads to esthetic, functional, psychological and masticatory disturbance of the oral cavity. Here, we present a case of 21-year-old female with severe enlargement of gums in maxilla and mandible. Deciduous teeth were erupted at normal age but the permanent teeth in the oral cavity were not erupted. Her grandmother, father and younger sister were also affected with the same condition...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026436/relationship-between-menstruation-status-and-work-conditions-in-japan
#7
Mariko Nishikitani, Mutsuhiro Nakao, Shinobu Tsurugano, Mariko Inoure, Eiji Yano
BACKGROUND: Menstrual problems can significantly impact daily and work life. In reaction to a shrinking population, the Japanese government is encouraging more women to participate in the labor force. Actual success in achieving this aim, however, is limited. Specifically, participation in the workforce by women during their reproductive years is impacted by their health, which involves not only work conditions, but also traditional family circumstances. Therefore, it is important to further assess and gather more information about the health status of women who work during their reproductive years in Japan...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023080/depression-is-linked-to-dementia-in-older-adults
#8
COMMENT
Vyara Valkanova, Klaus P Ebmeier, Charlotte L Allan
Depression and dementia are both common conditions in older people, and they frequently occur together. Late life depression affects about 3.0-4.5% of adults aged 65 and older. Depression occurs in up to 20% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and up to 45% of patients with vascular dementia. Rather than a risk factor, depression with onset in later life is more likely to be either prodromal to dementia or a condition that unmasks pre-existing cognitive impairment by compromising cognitive reserve. Depression can be a psychological response to receiving a diagnosis of dementia...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022404/the-significance-of-breastfeeding-on-sleep-patterns-during-the-first-48%C3%A2-hours-postpartum-for-first-time-mothers
#9
O Hughes, M M Mohamad, P Doyle, G Burke
Postpartum women sleep less during the early days following delivery. Long-term sleep disturbance and fatigue can have significant implications for physical and mental health, relationships, employment and parental competence. Most studies focus on the quality and quantity of maternal sleep between weeks one and six postpartum. We explored sleep patterns and reasons for wakefulness of first-time mothers immediately following delivery. Thirty first-time mothers completed a postnatal sleep questionnaire, detailing their total sleep time (TST), the reasons for being awake and their level of fatigue...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020649/neuroendocrine-stress-reactivity-of-male-c57bl-6n-mice-following-chronic-oral-corticosterone-exposure-during-adulthood-or-adolescence
#10
Ziasmin Shahanoor, Razia Sultana, Madelyn R Baker, Russell D Romeo
Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors...
October 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020466/improving-post-stroke-cognitive-and-behavioral-abnormalities-by-using-virtual-reality-a-case-report-on-a-novel-use-of-nirvana
#11
Rosaria De Luca, Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Giovanni Bonfiglio, Provvidenza Tomasello, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cognitive impairment, as well as mood and anxiety disorders, occur frequently in patients following stroke. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combined rehabilitative treatment using conventional relaxation and respiratory techniques, in a specific rehabilitative virtual environment (by using Bts-Nirvana). A 58-year-old woman, affected by hemorrhagic stroke, underwent two different rehabilitation trainings, including either standard relaxation techniques alone in a common clinical setting or the same psychological approach in a semi-immersive virtual environment with an augmented sensorial (audio-video) and motor feedback (sensory motor-interaction)...
October 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#12
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991767/anorexia-anormal-phobia-of-normal-weight
#13
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Tatjana Zorcec, Aneta Demerdzieva
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors. Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988577/pathophysiology-of-the-effects-of-alcohol-abuse-on-the-endocrine-system
#14
Nadia Rachdaoui, Dipak K Sarkar
Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979609/examining-microstructural-white-matter-in-active-duty-soldiers-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-traumatic-stress
#15
Michael N Dretsch, Rael T Lange, Jeffery S Katz, Adam Goodman, Thomas A Daniel, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Thomas S Denney, Grant L Iverson, Jennifer L Robinson
BACKGROUND: There is a high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with largely overlapping symptomatology, in military service members. OBJECTIVE: To examine white matter integrity associated with PTS and mTBI as assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHOD: Seventy-four active-duty U.S. soldiers with PTS (n = 16) and PTS with co-morbid history of mTBI (PTS/mTBI; n = 28) were compared to a military control group (n = 30)...
2017: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972453/impaired-eye-contact-in-the-fmr1-premutation-is-not-associated-with-social-anxiety-or-the-broad-autism-phenotype
#16
Jessica Klusek, Alexis Ruber, Jane E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 (FMR1) premutation is a common genetic abnormality, affecting ~1:150 women in the United States. Clinical neuropsychologists are becoming increasingly aware of their role in the clinical management of the FMR1 premutation, which is associated with risk for a range of cognitive, executive, neuromotor, and psychological impairments, including neurodegenerative disease. This study investigated atypical eye contact as a critical neuropsychological phenotype associated with the FMR1 premutation...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970706/brain-microstructural-correlates-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-clinically-and-biochemically-normal-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#17
Ajay Kumar, Amar Deep, Rakesh K Gupta, Virendra Atam, Samir Mohindra
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study examined correlates of the brain's neurocognitive performance among clinically and biochemically normal adult patient with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We hypothesized that anti-HCV positive individuals would demonstrate structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction as well as the changes in cell component and extracellular space in the white matter regions of brain in asymptomatic HCV infection by using diffusion tensor tractrography (DTT) metrics...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964981/altered-appetitive-conditioning-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#18
Karolien van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Anita Jansen
Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase...
September 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958055/familial-risk-for-insomnia-is-associated-with-abnormal-cortisol-response-to-stress
#19
Christopher L Drake, Philip Cheng, David M Almeida, Thomas Roth
Objectives: Abnormalities in the stress system have been implicated in insomnia. However, studies examining physiological stress regulation in insomnia have not consistently detected differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response to stress. One explanation may be that deficits in the stress system are associated specifically with a biological vulnerability to insomnia rather than the phenotypic expression of insomnia. To examine stress response as a function of vulnerability to insomnia, this study tested response to the Trier Social Stress Test in a sample of healthy sleepers with varying familial risk for insomnia...
August 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954113/hemoporfin-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-port-wine-stain-birthmarks-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Yunjie Zhang, Shuang Jiang, Hongxia Chen, Xianbiao Zou
Port-wine stain is a type of common congenital superficial telangiectasia in the dermal layer mostly occurring on the forehead, face, and neck. The affected skin shows abnormal red or purple lesions, which darken and thicken. Nodular changes may develop with advancing age. If untreated, port-wine stains scarcely regress, which can have serious lifelong psychological impact on patients and affect their quality of life. In this report, we focused on two cases of port-wine stain in pediatric patients; the youngest patient was only 1...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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