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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691944/developmental-performance-of-5-year-old-bulgarian-children-an-example-of-translational-neuroscience-in-practice
#1
Ralitsa Yordanova, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental testing is essential for early recognition of the various developmental impairments. The tools used should be composed of items that are age specific, adapted, and standardized for the population they are applied to. The achievements of neurosciences, medicine, psychology, pedagogy, etc. are applied in the elaboration of a comprehensive examination tool that should screen all major areas of development. The key age of 5 years permits identification of almost all major developmental disabilities leaving time for therapeutic intervention before school entrance...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690969/molecular-pathogenesis-of-chewable-tobacco
#2
Saeeda Baig, Zile Rubab, Wasfa Farooq
In Pakistan, extensive use of several precarious chewable tobacco formulations has made oral cancer the second leading malignancy. Selection of literature was done by a survey of studies published from 1990 to 2017 mainly, from PUBMED and few from other search engines, on naswar, gutka, areca nut and betel quid, which included published reviews, original articles and other data sources on chewable tobacco, its epidemiology, pathological implications, and psychological effects. These studies have revealed that the chemicals in these formulations bind and mutate DNA of oral mucosa through down regulating cellular repair pathways and upregulating genetic networks associated with pathogenesis...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687534/higher-prevalence-of-joint-hypermobility-in-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
A Zweig, V Schindler, A S Becker, A van Maren, D Pohl
BACKGROUND: Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is characterized by excessive connective tissue laxity manifest as joint hypermobility (JH) together with musculoskeletal symptoms. Previous studies have shown an association between JH/JHS and gastrointestinal symptoms, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although its association with specific IBS subtypes is incompletely understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence of JH according to the subtypes of IBS, in particular IBS-C and IBS-D...
April 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684290/determinants-of-healthy-ageing-and-its-relation-to-10-year-cardiovascular-disease-incidence-the-attica-study
#4
Natasa Kollia, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Christina Chrysohoou, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Charalabos Papageorgiou, Christos Pitsavos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand determinants of ageing in relation to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events at population level, and to explore determinants of healthy ageing and its relation to 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: In the context of the ATTICA study 453 apparently healthy men (45±13 years) and 400 women (44±18 years) with complete psychological evaluation were studied and followed during 2002-2012...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681793/autonomic-and-brain-morphological-predictors-of-stress-resilience
#5
REVIEW
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience . Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681099/2016-children-s-tumor-foundation-conference-on-neurofibromatosis-type-1-neurofibromatosis-type-2-and-schwannomatosis
#6
Michael J Fisher, Allan J Belzberg, Peter de Blank, Thomas De Raedt, Florent Elefteriou, Rosalie E Ferner, Marco Giovannini, Gordon J Harris, Michel Kalamarides, Matthias A Karajannis, AeRang Kim, Conxi Lázaro, Lu Q Le, Wei Li, Robert Listernick, Staci Martin, Helen Morrison, Eric Pasmant, Nancy Ratner, Elisabeth Schorry, Nicole J Ullrich, David Viskochil, Brian Weiss, Brigitte C Widemann, Yuan Zhu, Annette Bakker, Eduard Serra
Organized and hosted by the Children's Tumor Foundation (CTF), the Neurofibromatosis (NF) conference is the premier annual gathering for clinicians and researchers interested in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis (SWN). The 2016 edition constituted a blend of clinical and basic aspects of NF research that helped in clarifying different advances in the field. The incorporation of next generation sequencing is changing the way genetic diagnostics is performed for NF and related disorders, providing solutions to problems like genetic heterogeneity, overlapping clinical manifestations, or the presence of mosaicism...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672447/effects-of-human-papillomavirus-awareness-and-knowledge-on-psychological-state-of-women-referred-to-cervical-cancer-screening
#7
Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Olivera Djuric, Natasa Maksimovic, Svetlana Popovac, Vesna Kesic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and knowledge on physiological state and quality of life of women referred to colposcopy and/or HPV testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at University Hospital, Belgrade, Serbia. The women with abnormal Pap test results obtained at the primary care centers requiring colposcopy and/or HPV testing were included. Before gynecological examination, participants filled the questionnaire on demographic characteristics, gynecological history, questionnaire for the evaluation of HPV awareness and HPV knowledge level, a set of self-report questionnaires assessing the anxiety level, quality of life, and concern about the smear and colposcopy results and perceived risk of developing cervical cancer...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670354/inhibitory-effect-of-the-kampo-medicinal-formula-yokukansan-on-acute-stress-induced-defecation-in-rats
#8
Yasuaki Kanada, Ayami Katayama, Hideshi Ikemoto, Kana Takahashi, Mana Tsukada, Akio Nakamura, Shogo Ishino, Tadashi Hisamitsu, Masataka Sunagawa
Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms of abnormal defecation and abdominal discomfort. Psychological factors are well known to be involved in onset and exacerbation of IBS. A few studies have reported effectiveness of traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines in IBS treatment. Yokukansan (YKS) has been shown to have anti-stress and anxiolytic effects. We investigated the effect of YKS on defecation induced by stress and involvement of oxytocin (OT), a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, in order to elucidate the mechanism of YKS action...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#9
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651832/psychological-wellbeing-in-parents-of-children-with-phenylketonuria-and-association-with-treatment-adherence
#10
Lidia Borghi, Elisabetta Salvatici, Giuseppe Banderali, Enrica Riva, Marcello Giovannini, Elena Vegni
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disorder that leads to severe neurological abnormalities unless early treated with a strict phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. The parents' involvement in PKU management is crucial and could lead to psychological distress; however, few studies have explored the parents' psychological wellbeing. The study aimed to: 1) evaluate the presence of psychological distress and impaired quality of life among parents of children with PKU, assessing the load of the diagnosis and the load of the treatment management; 2) explore the associations with their children's blood-Phe levels...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649014/structural-mri-correlates-of-cognitive-event-related-potentials-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Artemios K Artemiadis, Maria C Anagnostouli, Ioannis G Zalonis, Konstantinos G Chairopoulos, Nikos I Triantafyllou
PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis has been associated with cognitive event-related potentials and MRI abnormalities. This study aims to explore for the first time the association between P300 and MRI in multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Fifty-eight relapsing-remitting patients (41.5 ± 10.5 years old, 41 women, disease duration 139.7 ± 84.9 months) and 51 healthy controls were used. Visual P300 responses and a set of 2- or 3-dimensional MRI indices were obtained...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628193/metabolism-metabolomics-and-inflammation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Synthia H Mellon, Aarti Gautam, Rasha Hammamieh, Marti Jett, Owen M Wolkowitz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by classic psychological manifestations, although among the characteristics are significantly increased rates of serious somatic comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, immune dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we assess the evidence for disturbances that may contribute to somatic pathology in inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and circulating metabolites (implicating mitochondrial dysfunction) in individuals with PTSD and in animal models simulating features of PTSD...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627509/neuroimaging-findings-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-of-psychotherapy-in-anxiety-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Veruska Andrea Santos, Dessana David Carvalho, Michael Van Ameringen, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Rafael Christophe Freire
Anxiety disorders are the largest group of mental disorders and a leading cause of impairment, implicating in high costs for health systems and society. Effective pharmacological and psychological treatments are available, but a significant fraction of these patients does not respond adequately to these treatments. The objective of this study is to identify neuroimaging findings that could predict response to psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. METHODS: The authors reviewed psychotherapy clinical trials with neuroimaging conducted with patients with anxiety disorders...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625700/quality-of-life-in-cushing-s-disease-a-long-term-issue
#14
Susan M Webb, Alicia Santos, Eugenia Resmini, Maria-Antonia Martínez-Momblán, Luciana Martel, Elena Valassi
The purpose of this review is to describe how quality of life (QoL) is impaired in patients with hypercortisolism due to Cushing's syndrome of any aetiology, including pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. It is worse in active disease, but improvement after successful therapy is often incomplete, due to persistent physical and psychological co-morbidities, even years after endocrine "cure". Physical symptoms like extreme fatigability, central obesity with limb atrophy, hypertension, fractures, and different skin abnormalities severely impair the affected patients' everyday life...
April 3, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610615/surgical-management-of-facial-features-of-robinow-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Aida M Mossaad, Moustapha A Abdelrahman, Mostafa A Ibrahim, Hatem H Al Ahmady
BACKGROUND: Robinow Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterised by abnormalities in head, face and external genitalia. This disorder exists in dominant pattern with moderate symptoms and recessive pattern with more physical and skeletal abnormalities. It was first introduced by Menihard Robinow in 1969. It was related to chromosome 9q22 ROR2 gene related to bone and cartilage growth aspects. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old Egyptian male presented to National Research Centre Orodental genetics Clinic with typical features of short stature and facial dysmorphism weighted 50 Kg and measured 150 cm height complaining of facial dis figurement...
March 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609146/effects-of-a-psychotherapeutic-group-intervention-in-patients-with-refractory-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-a-nonrandomized-controlled-study
#16
Amanda Cristian Serafim de Barros, Ana Eliza Romano Furlan, Lucia Helena Neves Marques, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho
PURPOSE: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal episodes superficially resembling epileptic seizures but are not associated with any electrical abnormalities. Despite the existence of recent evidence addressing psychological interventions on PNES, there is a scarcity of studies investigating such interventions on patients with dual diagnoses, such as in temporal lobe epilepsy/mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) with comorbid PNES; TLE-MTS is a very frequent epilepsy syndrome found in tertiary centers...
March 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607505/brain-heart-interaction-in-perseverative-cognition
#17
Cristina Ottaviani
The move from the concept of homeostasis to that of allostasis has led reactivity stress research to widen the object of its investigation: from the brief physiological response that occurs when one is facing a stressor to what happens when one is anticipating or recovering from a stressor. A paradigmatic example is represented by perseverative cognition, during which human beings react "as if" they were constantly facing a concrete stressor. The core idea behind this review is that the cognitive inflexibility that characterizes perseverative cognition is reflected in both our body (by increased autonomic nervous system rigidity assessed by heart rate variability; HRV) and our brain (by reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity)...
April 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602470/the-possible-role-of-stress-induced-hormonal-disbalance-in-the-patophysiology-of-insulin-resistane-in-lean-individuals
#18
K Blaslov, I Kruljac, G Mirošević, Lora S Kirigin Biloš, M Vrkljan
Insulin resistance (IR) is a common denominator of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders simultaneously present in one person and responsible for elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular incidents. According to the latest research, IR is present in 25-45% of the general population. Therefore, the mechanism of its development is in the center of scientific and professional interest. Established or acquired factors, or combinations thereof, which disturb any step of the physiological insulin action mechanism: its binding to the cellular receptor, through the complex cascade of intracellular signaling pathways might cause IR...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600922/-trimethylaminuria-help-my-child-smells-of-fish
#19
T A Stehmann, B van Houten, J van der Deure
BACKGROUND: Trimethylaminuria is caused by a functional enzyme defect and is usually congenital. This metabolic disease is characterised by body odour resembling fish. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 7-year-old boy was referred with abnormal body odour, which his mother described as resembling fish. This odour caused mainly social problems. Because of the characteristic odour trimethylaminuria was considered. Further metabolic investigations showed a high concentration of trimethylamine in the urine, consistent with this diagnosis...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600524/symptom-experiences-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-as-reported-during-healthcare-encounters
#20
C-C Tang, C Draucker, M Tejani, D Von Ah
Symptom management is one of the primary goals of care for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) patients. The purpose of this study was to examine recorded healthcare encounters to better understand the symptom experiences of APC patients as told to healthcare providers (HCP). In this qualitative descriptive study, content analysis was used to analyze 37 transcripts of audio-recorded, naturally occurring encounters among APC patients, caregivers, and HCP. Transcripts were drawn from a larger randomized controlled study, which recruited advanced cancer patients and caregivers across the United States...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
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