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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928832/downregulation-of-rab27a-contributes-to-metformin-induced-suppression-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Feixue Feng, Jianping Zhang, Xiaoxuan Fan, Fang Yuan, Yinghao Jiang, Ruihua Lv, Yanxia Ma
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with tumor initiation, therapeutic resistance, relapse and metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms CSCs use to preserve stemness are not yet fully understood. The present study demonstrated that the expression of RAB27A, member RAS oncogene family (Rab27a), which was reported to promote tumor progression by upregulating exocytosis of extracellular vesicles, was higher in mammosphere cells than in adherent MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Downregulation of Rab27A inhibited mammosphere formation by decreasing the proportion of CD44+CD24-/low cells of the MDA-MB-231 cell line...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928368/detection-of-clinically-relevant-copy-number-alterations-in-oral-cancer-progression-using-multiplexed-droplet-digital-pcr
#2
Curtis B Hughesman, X J David Lu, Kelly Y P Liu, Yuqi Zhu, Rebecca M Towle, Charles Haynes, Catherine F Poh
Copy number alterations (CNAs), a common genomic event during carcinogenesis, are known to affect a large fraction of the genome. Common recurrent gains or losses of specific chromosomal regions occur at frequencies that they may be considered distinctive features of tumoral cells. Here we introduce a novel multiplexed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay capable of detecting recurrent CNAs that drive tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Applied to DNA extracted from oral cell lines and clinical samples of various disease stages, we found good agreement between CNAs detected by our ddPCR assay with those previously reported using comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism arrays...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926591/no-evidence-for-the-presence-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-mobile-tongue
#3
Torben Wilms, Gulfaraz Khan, Philip J Coates, Nicola Sgaramella, Robin Fåhraeus, Asma Hassani, Pretty S Philip, Lena Norberg Spaak, Luigi Califano, Giuseppe Colella, Katarina Olofsson, Christos Loizou, Renato Franco, Karin Nylander
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926115/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-promotes-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-development-via-microrna-125b-stat3-axis
#4
Shi-Min Chang, Wei-Wei Hu
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as the most common type of oral cancer, is responsible for almost 3% of all malignant tumors worldwide. Non-coding RNAs such as lncRNAs and microRNAs have been involved in many cancers including OSCC. Recently, lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) has been reported to play an oncogenic role in OSCC metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of MALAT1 in regulating OSCC progression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of MALAT1 in OSCC development...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922023/fatty-acid-synthase-fasn-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer
#5
Javier A Menendez, Ruth Lupu
Ten years ago, we put forward the metabolo-oncogenic nature of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in breast cancer. Since the conception of this hypothesis, which provided a model to explain how FASN is intertwined with various signaling networks to cell-autonomously regulate breast cancer initiation and progression, FASN has received considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, despite the ever-growing evidence demonstrating the involvement of FASN as part of the cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming, translation of the basic science-discovery aspects of FASN blockade to the clinical arena remains a challenge...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919011/dabrafenib-plus-trametinib-in-patients-with-previously-untreated-braf-v600e-mutant-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-open-label-phase-2-trial
#6
David Planchard, Egbert F Smit, Harry J M Groen, Julien Mazieres, Benjamin Besse, Åslaug Helland, Vanessa Giannone, Anthony M D'Amelio, Pingkuan Zhang, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Bruce E Johnson
BACKGROUND: BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and acts as an oncogenic driver. Dabrafenib, alone or combined with trametinib, has shown substantial antitumour activity in patients with previously treated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess the activity and safety of dabrafenib plus trametinib treatment in previously untreated patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic NSCLC. METHODS: In this phase 2, sequentially enrolled, multicohort, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study, adults (≥18 years of age) with previously untreated metastatic BRAF(V600E)-mutant NSCLC were enrolled into cohort C from 19 centres in eight countries within North America, Europe, and Asia...
September 8, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905102/digestive-system-in-psoriasis-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Pietrzak, Aldona Pietrzak, Dorota Krasowska, Andrzej Borzęcki, Kinga Franciszkiewicz-Pietrzak, Beata Polkowska-Pruszyńska, Maja Baranowska, Kristian Reich
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disorder associated and often coexisting with many other immune-related clinical conditions including those affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Data obtained from the reviewed literature suggest an association between psoriasis and pathologies of the oral cavity, both psoriasis-specific lesions, as well as non-specific, such as geographic tongue or fissured tongue. These findings show the importance of thorough examination of oral mucosa in psoriatic patients...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903424/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-scyl3-ntrk1-rearrangement-in-a-colorectal-cancer-patient
#8
Massimo Milione, Elena Ardini, Jason Christiansen, Emanuele Valtorta, Silvio Veronese, Roberta Bosotti, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Adele Testi, Filippo Pietrantonio, Giovanni Fucà, Ge Wei, Danielle Murphy, Salvatore Siena, Antonella Isacchi, Filippo De Braud
In colorectal cancer patients, chromosomal rearrangements involving NTRK1 gene (encoding the TRKA protein) are shown in a small subset of patients and are associated with the constitutive activation of the kinase domain of TRKA. In turn, activated TRKA-fusion proteins are associated with proliferation and survival in colorectal cancer tumors. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of a new SCYL3-NTRK1 fusion gene in a 61-year-old colorectal cancer patient. To our knowledge, this fusion protein has never been previously documented in oncological patients...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892050/carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-6-ceacam6-promotes-egf-receptor-signaling-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-via-the-complex-n-glycosylation
#9
W-F Chiang, T-M Cheng, C-C Chang, S-H Pan, C A Changou, T-H Chang, K-H Lee, S-Y Wu, Y-F Chen, K-H Chuang, D-B Shieh, Y-L Chen, C-C Tu, W-L Tsui, M-H Wu
Aberrant protein glycosylation could be a distinct surface-marker of cancer cells that influences cancer progression and metastasis because glycosylation can regulate membrane protein folding which alters receptor activation and changes epitope exposure for antibody (Ab) recognition. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6), a glycophosphoinositol-anchored protein, is a heavily glycosylated tumor antigen. However, the clinical significance and biological effect of CEACAM6 glycosylation has not been addressed in cancers...
September 11, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886271/microrna-signature-in-the-chemoprevention-of-functionally-enriched-stem-and-progenitor-pools-fespp-by-active-hexose-correlated-compound-ahcc
#10
Émilie A Graham, Jean-François Mallet, Majed Jambi, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kohei Homma, Chantal Matar
PURPOSE: Many breast cancer patients use natural compounds in their battle against breast cancer. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC®) is a cultured mushroom mycelium extract shown to favorably modulate the immune system and alleviate cancer burden. Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of highly tumorigenic cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for recurrence. CSCs can be epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that AHCC may influence CSCs by modulating tumor-suppressor or oncogenic miRNAs...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880263/lrp6-is-identified-as-a-potential-prognostic-marker-for-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-maldi-ims
#11
Yao Yuan, Xiaoyan Xie, Yuchen Jiang, Zihao Wei, Peiqi Wang, Fangman Chen, Xinyi Li, Chongkui Sun, Hang Zhao, Xin Zeng, Lu Jiang, Yu Zhou, Hongxia Dan, Mingye Feng, Rui Liu, Zhiyong Wang, Qianming Chen
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with 500 000 new cases each year. However, the mechanisms underlying OSCC development are relatively unknown. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)-based proteomic strategy was used to profile the differentially expressed peptides/proteins between OSCC tissues and their adjacent noncancerous tissues. Sixty-seven unique peptide peaks and five distinct proteins were identified with changed expression levels...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843487/stat3-mediates-nilotinib-response-in-kit-altered-melanoma-a-phase-ii-multicenter-trial-of-the-french-skin-cancer-network
#12
Julie Delyon, Sylvie Chevret, Thomas Jouary, Sophie Dalac, Stephane Dalle, Bernard Guillot, Jean-Philippe Arnault, Marie-Françoise Avril, Christophe Bedane, Guido Bens, Anne Pham-Ledard, Sandrine Mansard, Florent Grange, Laurent Machet, Nicolas Meyer, Delphine Legoupil, Philippe Saiag, Zakia Idir, Victor Renault, Jean-François Deleuze, Elif Hindie, Maxime Battistella, Nicolas Dumaz, Samia Mourah, Celeste Lebbe
Mutated oncogenic KIT is a therapeutic target in melanoma. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial on the KIT inhibitor nilotinib in patients with unresectable melanomas harboring KIT alteration. The primary endpoint was the response rate (complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) following RECIST criteria) at 6 months. Pharmacodynamic studies using KIT sequencing, qPCR array and immunostaining of downstream KIT effectors were performed during treatment. Twenty-five patients were included and received 400 mg oral nilotinib twice daily...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834425/promotion-of-cell-proliferation-by-the-proto-oncogene-dek-enhances-oral-squamous-cell-carcinogenesis-through-field-cancerization
#13
Takayuki Nakashima, Hiroyuki Tomita, Akihiro Hirata, Kazuhisa Ishida, Kenji Hisamatsu, Yuichiro Hatano, Tomohiro Kanayama, Ayumi Niwa, Kei Noguchi, Keizo Kato, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Takuji Tanaka, Toshiyuki Shibata, Akira Hara
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops through a multistep carcinogenic process involving field cancerization. The DEK gene is a proto-oncogene with functions in genetic and epigenetic modifications, and has oncogenic functions, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. DEK overexpression is associated with malignancies; however, the functional roles of DEK overexpression are unclear. We demonstrated that DEK-expressing cells were significantly increased in human dysplasia/carcinoma in situ and OSCC...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819393/phosphoglycerate-mutase-1-predicts-the-poor-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-is-associated-with-cell-migration
#14
Dadong Zhang, Heming Wu, Xiaomin Zhang, Xu Ding, Min Huang, Meiyu Geng, Hongwei Li, Zuoquan Xie
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor with high metastatic potential. However, no good biomarker has been identified to refine which subtype is of high metastatic potential to make decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymphatic metastases. In this study, we investigated the role of the metabolic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) in OSCC. PGAM1 expression was examined in tissue samples of 122 OSCC patients using immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between clinicopathological expression and PGAM1 expression was determined...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819369/in-vitro-cytotoxic-activities-of-the-oral-platinum-iv-prodrug-oxoplatin-and-hsp90-inhibitor-ganetespib-against-a-panel-of-gastric-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Lukas Klameth, Barbara Rath, Gerhard Hamilton
Gastric cancer exhibits a poor prognosis and is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Chemotherapy of metastatic gastric cancer is based on combinations of platinum drugs and fluoropyrimidines, with added agents. Oxoplatin is a stable oral platinum(IV) prodrug which is converted to a highly active tetrachlorido(IV) complex under acidic conditions. In the present work, we studied the cytotoxic effects of oxoplatin against a panel of four gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, the role of HSP90 in chemoresistance of these lines was investigated using the specific inhibitor ganetespib...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806997/stathmin-is-overexpressed-and-regulated-by-mutant-p53-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Hai-Long Ma, Shu-Fang Jin, Wu-Tong Ju, Yong Fu, Yao-Yao Tu, Li-Zhen Wang, Jiang-Li, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Lai-Ping Zhong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the oncogenic function and regulatory mechanism of stathmin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: Two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass chromatography were applied to screen differentiated proteins during carcinogenesis in OSCC. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation, migration, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and a xenograft model were used to detect the function of stathmin...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801876/tumor-dna-an-emerging-biomarker-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Joseph A Bellairs, Rifat Hasina, Nishant Agrawal
Head and neck cancer (HNC) includes a diverse range of malignancies arising commonly from mucosal epithelia of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the most common form of HNC, develops in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and is associated with tobacco exposure, alcohol abuse, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Despite global advances in cancer care, HNSCC often presents with advanced disease and is associated with poor 5-year survival of ~50%. Genotyping tumor tissue to guide clinical decision-making is becoming commonplace in modern oncology, but in the management of HNSCC, tissue biopsies with cytopathology or histopathology remain the mainstay for diagnosis...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797464/relevance-of-chromosomal-band-11q13-in-oral-carcinogenesis-an-update-of-current-knowledge
#18
REVIEW
Pablo Ramos-García, Isabel Ruiz-Ávila, José Antonio Gil-Montoya, Ángela Ayén, Lucía González-Ruiz, Francisco José Navarro-Triviño, Miguel Ángel González-Moles
An important event in oral carcinogenesis is the amplification of chromosomal band 11q13, in which numerous oncogenes and some tumor-suppressor genes are localized and frequently co-amplified during the malignant transformation of oral epithelium. The objectives of this study were to review published data on the involvement of 11q13 amplification in oral cancer, to provide an update on novel concepts and terminology related to gene amplification, and to explore the composition of the 11q13 amplicon in OSCC, including its most relevant amplicon cores and potential drivers...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797448/dual-peptide-mediated-targeted-delivery-of-bioactive-sirnas-to-oral-cancer-cells-in-vivo
#19
Angela A Alexander-Bryant, Haiwen Zhang, Christopher C Attaway, William Pugh, Laurence Eggart, Robert M Sansevere, Lourdes M Andino, Lu Dinh, Liliana P Cantini, Andrew Jakymiw
OBJECTIVES: Despite significant advances in cancer treatment, the prognosis for oral cancer remains poor in comparison to other cancer types, including breast, skin, and prostate. As a result, more effective therapeutic modalities are needed for the treatment of oral cancer. Consequently, in the present study, we examined the feasibility of using a dual peptide carrier approach, combining an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide with an endosome-disruptive peptide, to mediate targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the targeted oncogene, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A)...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796803/adaptive-introgression-from-distant-caribbean-islands-contributed-to-the-diversification-of-a-microendemic-adaptive-radiation-of-trophic-specialist-pupfishes
#20
Emilie J Richards, Christopher H Martin
Rapid diversification often involves complex histories of gene flow that leave variable and conflicting signatures of evolutionary relatedness across the genome. Identifying the extent and source of variation in these evolutionary relationships can provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms involved in rapid radiations. Here we compare the discordant evolutionary relationships associated with species phenotypes across 42 whole genomes from a sympatric adaptive radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas and several outgroup pupfish species in order to understand the rarity of these trophic specialists within the larger radiation of Cyprinodon...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
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