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metabolically healthy obesity

Yu Sasaki, Yasuhiko Abe, Hiroaki Takeda, Shoichi Nishise, Takao Yaoita, Makoto Yagi, Kazuhiro Sakuta, Naoko Mizumoto, Masakuni Shoji, Yusuke Onozato, Sumio Kawata, Yoshiyuki Ueno
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis through its amplification of insulin secretion in response to oral nutrients; however, its role in human CRA remains unknown. We investigated oral glucose-mediated GLP-1 secretion in patients with adenoma. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 15 nondiabetic patients with pathologically diagnosed CRA and 10 age-matched healthy controls without adenoma...
March 14, 2018: Digestion
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Shabana, Saleem U Shahid, Uzma Irfan
The human GI tract harbors a diverse and dynamic microbial community comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microbes, which varies in composition from individual to individual. A healthy microbiota metabolizes various indigestible dietary components of the host, maintains host immune homeostasis and nutrient intake, but, an imbalanced microbiota has been reported to be associated with many diseases, including obesity. Rodent studies have produced evidence in support of the causal role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity, however, such causal relationship is lacking in humans...
March 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
I Arias de la Rosa, A Escudero-Contreras, S Rodríguez-Cuenca, M Ruiz-Ponce, Y Jiménez-Gómez, P Ruiz-Limón, C Pérez-Sánchez, M C Ábalos-Aguilera, I Cecchi, R Ortega, J Calvo, R Guzmán-Ruiz, M M Malagón, E Collantes-Estevez, A Vidal-Puig, Ch López-Pedrera, N Barbarroja
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at increased risk of insulin resistance (IR); however, the specific mechanisms mediating this association are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the inflammatory activity associated with RA accounts for the observed defective glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism in these patients. METHODS: We followed two main strategies: (i) extensive metabolic profiling of a RA cohort of 100 patients and 50 healthy control subjects and (ii) mechanistic studies carried out in both a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned serum from RA patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Silva Hovsepian, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Marjan Mansourian, Mahin Hashemipour, Mohamadhasan Tajadini, Roya Kelishadi
Background: Genetically, predisposed children are considered as at-risk individuals for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to compare the frequency of four-lipid regulatory polymorphism in obese and normal-weight children with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this nested case-control study, 600 samples of four groups of participants consisted of those with normal weight with and without cardiometabolic risk factors and obese with and without cardiometabolic risk factors...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Bahareh Sedaghati-Khayat, Maryam Barzin, Mahdi Akbarzadeh, Kamran Guity, Mohammad-Sadegh Fallah, Hoda Pourhassan, Fereidoun Azizi, Maryam S Daneshpour
BACKGROUND: Obesity is currently an international epidemic and metabolic derangements pose these individuals at greater risk for future morbidity and mortality. Genetics and environmental factors have undeniable effects and among genetic risk factors, FTO/CETP genes are important. The current study examines the interaction between obesity phenotypes and FTO/CETP SNPs and their effects on lipid profile changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 954 adult subjects from TCGS (47...
March 10, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Banaz Al-Khalidi, Samantha M Kimball, Jennifer L Kuk, Chris I Ardern
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies assessing the prognosis of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) have been limited by a lack of a harmonized definition of MHO phenotype. Furthermore, obesity is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency and low vitamin D status has been associated with a higher risk of mortality; however, few studies have evaluated the joint association between vitamin D, metabolic health phenotype, and mortality risk. Using a harmonized definition, we investigated whether MHO is associated with subsequent all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality, and whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] modifies these associations...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hanifi Ucpunar, Ismet Yalkin Camurcu, Serda Duman, Esra Ucpunar, Hakan Sofu, Avni Ilhan Bayhan
Background and purpose - Patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) are phenotypically overweight or obese and may therefore require clinical follow-up of obesity-related disorders. We evaluated obesity-related disorders such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and vitamin-D deficiency during the postoperative period in patients with SCFE. Patients and methods - 51 patients who were operated and followed-up for SCFE and 62 healthy adolescents without SCFE (control group) were included in this retrospective study...
March 9, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Ivy N Haskins, Julietta Chang, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Tavankit Singh, Neal Mehta, Arthur J McCullough, Stacy A Brethauer, Philip R Schauer, Ali Aminian
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is also strongly correlated with extrahepatic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk of NAFLD among obese individuals who are otherwise metabolically healthy is not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of NAFLD in individuals with metabolically healthy obesity. SETTING: A tertiary, academic, referral hospital...
March 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Silvia Burlina, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Annunziata Lapolla
The prevalence of gestational diabetes in the developed world is increased and parallels that of obesity. Apart from the maternal and fetal complications occurring during pregnancy, GDM is characterized by a high subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we outline the different factors to consider in assessing the future risk of diabetes developing in women with a history of GDM. Looking at the modifiable risk factors, it is worth noting that promoting a healthy diet and lifestyle before (physical activity), during and after pregnancy (breast feeding) in women of fertile age are fundamental to the success of efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes in these young people...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ilona A Dekkers, Paul de Heer, Maurice B Bizino, Aiko P J de Vries, Hildo J Lamb
BACKGROUND: Renal steatosis (fatty kidney) is a potential biomarker for obesity-related renal disease; however, noninvasive assessment of renal fat content remains a technical challenge. PURPOSE: To evaluate reproducibility and explore clinical application of renal metabolic imaging for the quantification of renal triglyceride content (TG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS). STUDY TYPE: Reproducibility and clinical cohort study...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Lukas Streese, Arne Deiseroth, Juliane Schäfer, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
Background: Age is a key determinant for the development of cardiovascular disease and higher age coincides with an increased prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The study examines the influence of physical activity on aging processes of physiological systems focusing on the mechanisms of vascular aging. Methods/Design: The study consists of two parts. The cross-sectional approach aims at examining the association of physical fitness and cardiovascular risk with large and small artery function in healthy older active (HOA, n = 40) and sedentary (HOS, n = 40) persons as well as older sedentary individuals with increased cardiovascular risk (OSR, n = 80) aged 50-80 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sergey Kachur, Rebecca Morera, Alban De Schutter, Carl J Lavie
Prehypertension (pHTN) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both lifestyle diseases that are potentiated by increased adiposity, as both disease processes are closely related to weight. In the case of pHTN, increased adiposity causes dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) as well as adipokine- and leptin-associated increases in adrenergic tone. In MetS, excess weight potentiates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance which causes positive feedback into the RAAS system, activates an inflammatory cascade that potentiates atherosclerosis, and causes lipid dysregulation which together contribute to cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF)...
March 6, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Miguel A Lanaspa, Masanari Kuwabara, Ana Andres-Hernando, Nancy Li, Christina Cicerchi, Thomas Jensen, David J Orlicky, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Takuji Ishimoto, Takahiko Nakagawa, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Paul S MacLean, Richard J Johnson
Dietary guidelines for obesity typically focus on three food groups (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and caloric restriction. Intake of noncaloric nutrients, such as salt, are rarely discussed. However, recently high salt intake has been reported to predict the development of obesity and insulin resistance. The mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we show that high intake of salt activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the liver and hypothalamus, leading to endogenous fructose production with the development of leptin resistance and hyperphagia that cause obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anita Szentpéteri, Hajnalka Lőrincz, Sándor Somodi, Viktória Evelin Varga, György Paragh, Ildikó Seres, György Paragh, Mariann Harangi
BACKGROUND: Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide, derived from preproghrelin. Although many of its effects are unclear, accumulating evidence supports positive actions on both metabolism and cardiovascular function. To date, level of obestatin and its correlations to the lipid subfractions in non-diabetic obese (NDO) patients have not been investigated. METHODS: Fifty NDO patients (BMI: 41.96 ± 8.6 kg/m2 ) and thirty-two normal-weight, age- and gender-matched healthy controls (BMI: 24...
March 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Eanna P Connaughton, Serika Naicker, Shirley A Hanley, Stephanie M Slevin, John K Eykelenboom, Noel F Lowndes, Timothy O'Brien, Rhodri Ceredig, Matthew D Griffin, Michael C Dennedy
Human blood monocytes are sub-classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical. In this study, it was shown that conventionally-defined human intermediate monocytes (IM) can be divided into two distinct subpopulations with mid- and high-level surface expression of HLA-DR (referred to as DRmid and DRhi IM). These IM subpopulations were phenotypically and functionally characterized in healthy adult blood by flow cytometry, migration assays and lipoprotein uptake assays. Their absolute numbers and proportions were then compared in blood samples from obese and non-obese adults...
March 5, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Eun Jung Rhee
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. One-thirds of world population is suffering from the deleterious effects of excessive fat and adipose tissue in their body. At the same time, the average life expectancy is becoming higher and higher every decade. Therefore, living healthy and longer is the dream for everyone. Simply being obese is not the primary cause for the consequence of obesity; rather, the depot where the fat is accumulated, is the primary key for the deleterious effects of obesity...
February 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die averagely 15years earlier than people in the Western background population, cardiovascular disease being the most frequent cause of death with unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity as major contributing risk factors. Understanding possible associations and predictors of the specific cardiovascular risk may permit more targeted and effective prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between clinical and psychosocial factors and several separate cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of 428 persons with schizophrenia and abdominal obesity enrolled in the CHANGE trial...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Alex R Chang, Aditya Surapaneni, H Lester Kirchner, Amanda Young, Holly J Kramer, David J Carey, Lawrence J Appel, Morgan E Grams
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between BMI categories, stratified by metabolic health status, and the risk of kidney function decline (KFD). METHODS: In this study, 42,128 adult patients with a stable BMI were classified over a 3-year baseline window by BMI and metabolic health status (assessed by Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria). KFD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ≥ 30%, eGFR < 15 mL/min/1...
March 2, 2018: Obesity
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