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metabolically healthy obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927258/a-proteomics-based-approach-reveals-differential-regulation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-proteins-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-patients
#2
Assim A Alfadda, Afshan Masood, Mohammed Y Al-Naami, Pierre Chaurand, Hicham Benabdelkamel
Obesity and the metabolic disorders that constitute metabolic syndrome are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nonetheless, the changes in the proteins and the underlying molecular pathways involved in the relevant pathogenesis are poorly understood.In this study a proteomic analysis of the visceral adipose tissue isolated from metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese patients was used to identify presence of altered pathway(s) leading to metabolic dysfunction. Samples were obtained from 18 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and were subdivided into two groups based on the presence or absence of comorbidities as defined by the International Diabetes Federation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926404/metabolic-health-across-the-body-mass-index-spectrum-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-men
#3
Jordan E Lake, Xiuhong Li, Frank J Palella, Kristine M Erlandson, Dorothy Wiley, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa P Jacobson, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: In the general population, metabolic health (MH) often declines as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, some obese individuals maintain MH. HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that HIV-infected (HIV+) men on suppressive ART experience less MH than HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men across all BMI categories. DESIGN/METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 1018 HIV+ and 1092 HIV- men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Poisson regression with robust variance determined associations between HIV serostatus and MH prevalence (defined as meeting 2 of 5 NCEP/ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria), adjusting for age, race, BMI category, smoking and hepatitis C virus infection status...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922565/-metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-hyperuricemia-increase-risk-for-hypertension-and-diabetes-5-year-japanese-cohort-study
#5
Masanari Kuwabara, Remi Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Koichiro Niwa, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Petter Bjornstad, Ana Andres-Hernando, Yuka Sato, Thomas Jensen, Gabriela Garcia, Minoru Ohno, James O Hill, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Whether obesity without metabolic syndrome (i.e., "metabolically healthy" obesity) confers similar or less metabolic risk remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective 5-year cohort study of 9,721 Japanese subjects (48.5 ± 10.5 years, 4,160 men) was conducted in 2004 and reevaluated 5 years later. Subjects were excluded if they were hypertensive or diabetic or were receiving medications for dyslipidemia and/or gout or hyperuricemia in 2004. Study subjects were categorized according to baseline BMI  ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obesity) and < 25 kg/m(2) (lean/normal weight) and also whether they had metabolic syndrome...
September 18, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#6
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919065/metabolically-healthy-obesity-the-low-hanging-fruit-in-obesity-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Matthias B Schulze
Obesity increases the risk of several other chronic diseases and, because of its epidemic proportions, has become a major public health problem worldwide. Alarmingly, a lower proportion of adults have tried to lose weight during the past decade than during the mid-1980s to 1990s. The first-line treatment option for obesity is lifestyle intervention. Although this approach can decrease fat mass in the short term, these beneficial effects typically do not persist. If a large amount of weight loss is not an easily achievable goal, other goals that might motivate people with obesity to adopt a healthy lifestyle should be considered...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919062/progress-and-challenges-in-anti-obesity-pharmacotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Daniel H Bessesen, Luc F Van Gaal
Obesity is a serious and growing worldwide health challenge. Healthy lifestyle choices are the foundation of obesity treatment. However, weight loss can lead to physiological adaptations that promote weight regain. As a result, lifestyle treatment alone typically produces only modest weight loss that is difficult to sustain. In other metabolic diseases, pharmacotherapy is an accepted adjunct to lifestyle. Several anti-obesity drugs have been approved in the USA, European Union, Australia, and Japan including sympathomimetics, pancreatic lipase inhibitors, GABAA receptor activators, a serotonin 2C receptor agonist, opioid antagonist, dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918195/impact-of-body-mass-index-and-metabolic-phenotypes-on-coronary-artery-disease-according-to-glucose-tolerance-status
#9
K Fujihara, Y Matsubayashi, M Yamamoto, T Osawa, M Ishizawa, M Kaneko, S Matsunaga, K Kato, H Seida, N Yamanaka, S Kodama, H Sone
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI), and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) according to glucose tolerance status. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 123,746 Japanese men aged 18-72years (normal glucose tolerance: 72,047; prediabetes: 39,633; diabetes: 12,066). Obesity was defined as a BMI≥25kg/m(2). Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as those with one or more of the following conditions: hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL cholesterol...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915322/hormonal-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#10
Mi-Jeong Lee
Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912148/thermal-imaging-is-a-non-invasive-alternative-to-pet-ct-for-measurement-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-humans
#11
James Matthew Law, David Edward Morris, Chioma Izzi Engbeaya, Victoria Salem, Christopher Coello, Lindsay Robinson, Maduka Jayasinghe, Rebecca Scott, Roger Gunn, Eugenii Rabiner, Tricia Tan, Waljit Dhillo, Stephen Bloom, Helen Budge, Michael Symonds
Background: Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) utilises glucose and free fatty acids to produce heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Effective evaluation of human BAT stimulators is constrained by current standard BAT assessment methods as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) requires exposure to high doses of ionising radiation. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a potential non-invasive, safe alternative, although direct corroboration with PET-CT has not previously been established...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911506/metabolically-healthy-obese-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events-among-3-5%C3%A2-million-men-and-women
#12
Rishi Caleyachetty, G Neil Thomas, Konstantinos A Toulis, Nuredin Mohammed, Krishna M Gokhale, Kumarendran Balachandran, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have been unclear about the cardiovascular risks for metabolically healthy obese individuals. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations among metabolically healthy obese individuals and 4 different presentations of incident cardiovascular disease in a contemporary population. METHODS: We used linked electronic health records (1995 to 2015) in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) to assemble a cohort of 3...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906407/gelatinases-and-physical-exercise-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-human-studies
#13
Rosalia Lo Presti, Eugenia Hopps, Gregorio Caimi
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), are involved in the development of skeletal muscle tissue, in the repair process after muscle injury and in the adaptive modifications induced by physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This paper aims at reviewing results from human studies that investigated the role of gelatinases and their inhibitors in skeletal muscle response to acute physical exercise or training...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901333/a-paleolithic-type-diet-results-in-iodine-deficiency-a-2-year-randomized-trial-in-postmenopausal-obese-women
#14
S Manousou, M Stål, C Larsson, C Mellberg, B Lindahl, R Eggertsen, L Hulthén, T Olsson, M Ryberg, S Sandberg, H F Nyström
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900377/serum-soluble-receptor-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-egyptian-obese-women
#15
Moushira Zaki, Sanaa Kamal, Shams Kholousi, Hala T El-Bassyouni, Walaa Yousef, Hanaa Reyad, Ramy Mohamed, Walaa A Basha
Obesity is one of the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and high vascular risk as well. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play an important role in abnormal metabolic components in obese women. This study aimed to explore the serum levels of sRAGE in Egyptian obese women and compare with healthy non-obese controls and investigate the relationship between serum sRAGE, metabolic parameters, and obesity complications. The soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), anthropometry, metabolic and biochemical biomarkers were measured in 100 obese women and 100 age-matched healthy control non-obese women...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899715/the-relationship-between-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentration-and-liver-enzymes-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-cross-sectional-and-interventional-outcomes
#16
Negar Naderpoor, Aya Mousa, Maximilian de Courten, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-naïve individuals with no history of liver disease...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886253/female-offspring-born-to-obese-and-insulin-resistant-dams-are-not-at-increased-risk-for-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-during-early-development
#17
Hanin Aburasayn, Rami Al Batran, Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Amina Eshreif, Farah Eaton, John Ussher
The percentage of women who are obese at the time of conception/pregnancy is increasing, with animal and human studies demonstrating that offspring born to obese dams/mothers are at increased risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to confirm in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in the dam, whether the offspring would be at increased risk of obesity. Conversely, we observed that male offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome had no alterations in their body weight profiles, whereas female offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome were heavier at weaning, but exhibited no perturbations in energy metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885093/heart-rate-recovery-time-in-metabolically-healthy-and-metabolically-unhealthy-obese-children
#18
Ljiljana Bjelakovic, Vladimir Vukovic, Marko Jovic, Sanja Bankovic, Tomislav Kostic, Dragan Radovanovic, Sasa Pantelic, Mladen Zivkovic, Sanja Stojanovic, Bojko Bjelakovic
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction is an emerging non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor that correlates with obesity, components of metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. As a simple and validated index of autonomic balance, heart rate recovery (HRR) has been reported as a useful biomarker for predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare HRR in metabolically healthy vs. metabolically unhealthy obese children...
September 8, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883987/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#19
REVIEW
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for chronic kidney disease. A high BMI is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883679/the-relationship-between-nephrolithiasis-risk-with-body-fat-measured-by-body-composition-analyzer-in-obese-people
#20
Zohreh Bartani, Behzad Heydarpour, Ahmad Alijani, Masoud Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and healthcare spending that visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may associate with kidney stone formation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nephrolithiasis with visceral fat scale in obese people in Western Iran for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017, 103 participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) were selected for the present study. The participants were divided into two groups, 52 as case group (having the kidney stone) and 58 as healthy control group (no kidney stone or history of the kidney stone or any other disease)...
June 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
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