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metabolic surgery and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#1
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218660/how-bariatric-surgery-affects-liver-volume-and-fat-density-in-nafld-patients
#2
Ran B Luo, Toshiaki Suzuki, Jonathan C Hooker, Yesenia Covarrubias, Alexandra Schlein, Shanglei Liu, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Scott B Reeder, Luke M Funk, Jacob A Greenberg, Guilherme M Campos, Bryan J Sandler, Santiago Horgan, Claude B Sirlin, Garth R Jacobsen
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an epidemic in the obese population. Bariatric surgery is known to reverse multiple metabolic complications of obesity such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and NAFLD, but the timing of liver changes has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an IRB-approved, two-institutional prospective study. Bariatric patients received MRIs at baseline and after a pre-operative liquid diet. Liver biopsies were performed during surgery and if NAFLD positive, the patients received MRIs at 1, 3, and 6 months...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212336/-new-directions-in-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgery
#3
Martin Fried
Czech Republic may be counted among the leading European Countries in regards of the level of delivered high quality multidisciplinary care in treatment of obesity and obesity related metabolic diseases. The 1st Faculty of Medicine (Charles University) and the Faculty General Hospital in Prague played the most important role in the development of bariatric and metabolic surgery in the Czech Republic. pCzech bariatric surgery achieves great successes both on national and international levels. Just to mention some of them: M...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209749/-quality-indicators-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-in-germany-evidence-based-development-of-an-indicator-panel-for-the-quality-of-results-indications-and-structure
#4
REVIEW
F Seyfried, H-J Buhr, C Klinger, T P Huettel, B Herbig, S Weiner, C Jurowich, A Dietrich
An expert committee was appointed by the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery to develop a panel of appropriate quality indicators to collate the quality of results, indications and structure in metabolic and bariatric surgery. This entailed assimilating the available evidence (systematic literature search), results from the national registry of the society (StuDoQ|MBE) and specific socioeconomic aspects (e. g. severely limited access to metabolic and bariatric surgery in Germany). These quality parameters were to be incorporated into the national guidelines and the rules of procedure for certification in the future...
December 5, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206339/reversibility-of-myocardial-metabolism-and-remodeling-in-morbidly-obese-patients-six-months-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
Jarna C Hannukainen, Riikka Lautamäki, Jussi Pärkkä, Marjatta Strandberg, Virva Saunavaara, Saija Hurme, Minna Soinio, Prince Dadson, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tove Grönroos, Sarita Forsback, Paulina Salminen, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study myocardial substrate uptake, structure and function before and after bariatric surgery to clarify the interaction between myocardial metabolism and cardiac remodeling in morbid obesity. METHODS: We studied 46 subjects (age 44±10 yrs, BMI 42±4 kg/m2), including 18 with type 2 diabetes before and six months after bariatric surgery and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Myocardial fasting free fatty acid uptake (MFAU) and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) were measured using PET...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203510/mechanisms-to-elevate-endogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-beyond-injectable-glp-1-analogues-and-metabolic-surgery
#6
Daniel A Briere, Ana B Bueno, Ellen J Gunn, M Dodson Michael, Kyle W Sloop
Therapeutic engineering of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has enabled development of new medicines to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. These injectable analogues achieve robust glycemic control by increasing concentrations of 'GLP-1 equivalents' (∼50 pM). Similar levels of endogenous GLP-1 occur following gastric bypass surgery, and mechanistic studies indicate glucose lowering by these procedures is driven by GLP-1. Therefore, due to the remarkable signaling and secretory capacity of the GLP-1 system, we sought to discover mechanisms that raise GLP-1 pharmacologically...
December 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194424/functional-foods-and-lifestyle-approaches-for-diabetes-prevention-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Ahmad Alkhatib, Catherine Tsang, Ali Tiss, Theeshan Bahorun, Hossein Arefanian, Roula Barake, Abdelkrim Khadir, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD)-such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts-serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids...
December 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185012/systems-biology-of-the-imidia-biobank-from-organ-donors-and-pancreatectomised-patients-defines-a-novel-transcriptomic-signature-of-islets-from-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Michele Solimena, Anke M Schulte, Lorella Marselli, Florian Ehehalt, Daniela Richter, Manuela Kleeberg, Hassan Mziaut, Klaus-Peter Knoch, Julia Parnis, Marco Bugliani, Afshan Siddiq, Anne Jörns, Frédéric Burdet, Robin Liechti, Mara Suleiman, Daniel Margerie, Farooq Syed, Marius Distler, Robert Grützmann, Enrico Petretto, Aida Moreno-Moral, Carolin Wegbrod, Anke Sönmez, Katja Pfriem, Anne Friedrich, Jörn Meinel, Claes B Wollheim, Gustavo B Baretton, Raphael Scharfmann, Everson Nogoceke, Ezio Bonifacio, Dorothée Sturm, Birgit Meyer-Puttlitz, Ugo Boggi, Hans-Detlev Saeger, Franco Filipponi, Mathias Lesche, Paolo Meda, Andreas Dahl, Leonore Wigger, Ioannis Xenarios, Mario Falchi, Bernard Thorens, Jürgen Weitz, Krister Bokvist, Sigurd Lenzen, Guy A Rutter, Philippe Froguel, Manon von Bülow, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic islet beta cell failure causes type 2 diabetes in humans. To identify transcriptomic changes in type 2 diabetic islets, the Innovative Medicines Initiative for Diabetes: Improving beta-cell function and identification of diagnostic biomarkers for treatment monitoring in Diabetes (IMIDIA) consortium ( www.imidia.org ) established a comprehensive, unique multicentre biobank of human islets and pancreas tissues from organ donors and metabolically phenotyped pancreatectomised patients (PPP)...
November 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177077/acute-pseudogout-of-the-foot-following-parathyroidectomy-a-case-report
#9
Sari Priesand, Jennifer Wyckoff, James Wrobel, Brian Schmidt
Background: The current case report is the first in the literature to report the association between parathyroidectomy and an episode of probable pseudogout in the foot in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Case presentation: The authors present a case of pseudogout of the left foot following a subtotal parathyroidectomy in an 80-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism. Pseudogout, also known as calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease, is an unusual metabolic sequela following parathyroidectomy...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170860/%C3%AE-glutamyltransferase-fractions-in-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-relation-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#10
Maria Franzini, Veronica Musetti, Daniela Guarino, Laura Caponi, Aldo Paolicchi, Michele Emdin, Ele Ferrannini, Monica Nannipieri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) levels are an independent risk marker for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We investigated the relationship between the newly identified serum GGT fractions and glucose metabolism in obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-nine T2DM subjects, wait-listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 21) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG; n = 8), received a 5-h mixed meal test before (T0), 15 days (T15), and 1 year after surgery (T365)...
November 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168157/perioperative-implications-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-a-case-series-of-euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-three-patients-after-cardiac-surgery
#11
Aaron Lau, Simon Bruce, Erica Wang, Ron Ree, Kevin Rondi, Anthony Chau
PURPOSE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) comprise the newest class of oral hypoglycemic agents approved for treating type II diabetes mellitus (DM-II). Their use, however, has been associated with the rare development of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA). We present three cases of euDKA that occurred following elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The role of the anesthesiologist in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of this complication is also discussed...
November 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168114/parathyroid-hormone-in-surgery-induced-weight-loss-no-glucometabolic-effects-but-potential-adaptive-response-to-skeletal-loading
#12
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Paolo Gentileschi, Mauro Lombardo, Monica D'Adamo, Davide Lauro, Paolo Sbraccia
PURPOSE: Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) is commonly associated with obesity, and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related glucometabolic abnormalities is uncertain. We aimed to explore the relationships of PTH with glucose/insulin homeostasis parameters before and after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss, and whether they depend or not on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status. METHODS: We included 42 subjects (27 women, aged 40 ± 5 years, BMI 48...
November 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168078/the-effect-of-hypergastrinemia-following-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-pantoprazole-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-beta-cell-mass-in-goto-kakizaki-rats
#13
E Grong, C Nord, I B Arbo, M Eriksson, B E Kulseng, U Ahlgren, R Mårvik
PURPOSE: Metabolic surgery alters the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones that influence glycemic control. Elevated gastrin has been suggested to benefit patients with type 2 diabetes and has been reported following sleeve gastrectomy in rats. The present study compares the effect of hypergastrinemia following sleeve gastrectomy with proton-pump inhibitor therapy on glycemic control and beta-cell mass in lean, diabetic animals. METHODS: Thirty-three diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomized into pantoprazole + sham operation (GK-PPI), sleeve gastrectomy (GK-SG) and vehicle + sham operation (GK-V)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162562/metabolic-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Piriyah Sinclair, Neil Docherty, Carel W le Roux
BACKGROUND: Obesity can be defined as a chronic subcortical brain disease, as there is an important neurophysiological component to its etiology based on changes in the functioning of those areas of the brain controlling food intake and reward. Extensive metabolic changes accompany bariatric surgery-based treatment of obesity. Consequently, the term "metabolic" surgery is being increasingly adopted in relation to the beneficial effects these procedures have on chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158250/increased-liver-fatty-acid-uptake-is-partly-reversed-and-liver-fat-content-normalized-after-bariatric-surgery
#15
Heidi Immonen, Jarna C Hannukainen, Nobuyuki Kudomi, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Virva Saunavaara, Jukka Laine, Paulina Salminen, Terho Lehtimäki, Tam Pham, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
OBJECTIVE: Changes in liver fatty acid metabolism are important in understanding the mechanisms of diabetes remission and metabolic changes after bariatric surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Liver fatty acid uptake (LFU), blood flow, and fat content (LFC) were measured in 25 obese subjects before bariatric surgery and 6 months after using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and MRS; 14 lean individuals served as the control subjects. RESULTS: The increased LFU in obese subjects was associated with body adiposity...
November 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153006/effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-retrospective-2-year-study-a-local-pilot
#16
Anthony Tl Chao, Sum Chee Fang, Benjamin Cc Lam, Anton Ks Cheng, Serena Km Low, Lim Su Chi
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of bariatric surgery on albuminuria in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of clinical records of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had either micro- or macroalbuminuria and had undergone various bariatric surgery were retrieved from a local hospital database. Their clinical data from follow-up appointments including albuminuria were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 15 subjects had diabetic nephropathy and had pre- and post-bariatric surgery urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio data available for analysis; 13 out of the 15 subjects (86...
November 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#18
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135487/update-on-endocrine-aspects-of-childhood-obesity
#19
Charumathi Baskaran, Nurgun Kandemir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although childhood obesity has leveled off in the last decade, 'severe obesity' continues to be on the rise. Various genetic, environmental and hormonal factors contribute to obesity. This article reviews the most current understanding of obesity's multifactorial origin and recent recommendations for its management in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics plays a key role in transmitting obesity risk to offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at genetic loci for adipokines and their receptors are associated with obesity...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133606/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-patients-with-hypertension-the-gateway-randomized-trial-gastric-bypass-to-treat-obese-patients-with-steady-hypertension
#20
Carlos Aurelio Schiavon, Angela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Eliana Vieira Santucci, Juliana Dantas Oliveira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Priscila Torres Bueno, Julia Caldas Frayha, Renato Nakagawa Santos, Lucas Petri Damian, Patricia Malvina Noujaim, Helio Halpern, Frederico L J Monteiro, Ricardo Vitor Cohen, Carlos H Uchoa, Marcio Gonçalves de Souza, Celso Amodeo, Luiz Bortolotto, Dimas Ikeoka, Luciano F Drager, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Otavio Berwanger
BACKGROUND : Recent research efforts on bariatric surgery have focused on metabolic and diabetes mellitus resolution. Randomized trials designed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery in patients with obesity and hypertension are needed. METHODS : In this randomized, single-center, nonblinded trial, we included patients with hypertension (using ≥2 medications at maximum doses or >2 at moderate doses) and a body mass index between 30.0 and 39.9 kg/m(2) Patients were randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
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