Read by QxMD icon Read


Calyn B Maske, Gregory C Loney, Nicole Lilly, Sarah J Terrill, Diana L Williams
The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sara J White, Emma L Carran, Andrew N Reynolds, Jillian J Haszard, Bernard J Venn
Background: The consumption of large amounts of fructose from added sugars results in the hepatic production and export of uric acid into the circulation. Objective: Our aim was to test whether fructose present in fruit is of sufficient quantity or in a form that will increase uric acid concentration. Design: Seventy-three participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to ingest small (205 g) and large (410 g) servings of apple segments, small (170 mL) and large (340 mL) servings of apple juice, or a glucose and a fructose control beverage...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Reciprocal cooperation has been observed in a wide range of taxa, but the proximate mechanisms underlying the exchange of help are yet unclear. Norway rats reciprocate help received from partners in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. For donors, this involves accepting own costs to the benefit of a partner, without obtaining immediate benefits in return. We studied whether such altruistic acts are conditional on the communication of the recipient's need. Our results show that in a 2-player mutual food-provisioning task, prospective recipients show a behavioral cascade reflecting increasing intensity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
M O Rosales-Velázquez, A F Muttray, R H Devlin
The effect of feed cycling (consisting of periods of starvation followed by periods of refeeding to satiation) on compensatory growth was evaluated in growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic wild-type coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. The specific growth rate (GSR ) of feed-restricted non-transgenic O. kisutch was not significantly different from the GSR of fully-fed non-transgenic O. kisutch during two refeeding periods, whereas the GSR of feed-restricted transgenic O. kisutch was significantly higher in relation to the GSR of fully-fed transgenic O...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
J L Schenk
Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the reproductive capacity of bulls is vital in maximizing reproductive efficiencies. Bull semen collection guidelines established by researchers and industry personnel to maximize the sperm harvest from bulls have been evolving for more than 60 years. Today, a mature artificial insemination industry employs those strategies to meet demands. These efficient management schemes exploit the reproductive potential of each sire while minimizing the associated risk of injury to bulls and reduce associated production costs...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Efrat Esther Greenwald, Lior Baltiansky, Ofer Feinerman
Nutritional regulation by ants emerges from a distributed process: food is collected by a small fraction of workers, stored within the crops of individuals, and spreads via local ant-to-ant interactions. The precise individual-level underpinnings of this collective regulation have remained unclear mainly due to difficulties in measuring food within ants' crops. Here we image fluorescent liquid food in individually tagged Camponotus sanctus ants, and track the real-time food flow from foragers to their gradually satiating colonies...
March 6, 2018: ELife
Jeffrey W Brown, Derek Caetano-Anollés, Marianne Catanho, Ekaterina Gribkova, Nathaniel Ryckman, Kun Tian, Mikhail Voloshin, Rhanor Gillette
Economic decisions arise from evaluation of alternative actions in contexts of motivation and memory. In the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea the economic decisions of foraging are found to occur by the workings of a simple, affectively controlled homeostat with learning abilities. Here, the neuronal circuit relations for approach-avoidance choice of Pleurobranchaea are expressed and tested in the foraging simulation Cyberslug. Choice is organized around appetitive state as a moment-to-moment integration of sensation, motivation (satiation/hunger), and memory...
January 2018: ENeuro
Xiao Li, Ming-Jing Qu, Yi Zhang, Jian-Wen Li, Tong-Xian Liu
Neuropeptide F (NPF) signaling systems are widespread and highly evolutionarily conserved from vertebrates to invertebrates. In fact, NPF has been identified in many insect species and plays regulatory roles in diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, learning, reproduction and stress responses. NPF operates by interacting with the NPF receptor (NPFR). Here, we characterized and determined the presumed role of NPF signaling in the wingless parthenogenetic pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the expression levels of both NPF and NPFR transcripts varied across developmental stages, which implies that the NPF signaling system might participate in the developmental regulation of aphid physiological processes or behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Karolina Kozak, Maryam Sharif-Razi, Marya Morozova, Erin V Gaudette, Mera S Barr, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: High rates of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation failure in schizophrenia may be related to prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Novel treatment options for tobacco use disorder are needed given the limited efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. Preliminary evidence suggests high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may suppress tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to determine effects of rTMS for tobacco craving and cognition using a short-term (3-day) human laboratory paradigm...
February 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Frantisek Baluška, Peter V Bozhkov, Pernilla H Elander, Alisdair R Fernie, Gad Galili, Ammar Hassan, Daniel Hofius, Erika Isono, Romain Le Bars, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Elena A Minina, Hadas Peled-Zehavi, Núria S Coll, Luisa M Sandalio, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre, Agnieszka Sirko, Pilar S Testillano, Henri Batoko
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway essential for growth and development. In plants, it is activated in response to environmental cues or developmental stimuli. However, in contrast to other eukaryotic systems, we know relatively little regarding the molecular players involved in autophagy and the regulation of this complex pathway. In the framework of the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) action TRANSAUTOPHAGY (2016-2020), we decided to review our current knowledge of autophagy responses in higher plants, with emphasis on knowledge gaps...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
James A Shillito, James Lea, Stephanie Tierney, Jacqueline Cleator, Sara Tai, John P H Wilding
Night Eating Syndrome (NES), as a diagnosis, presents as a combination of disordered eating, sleep and mood. Patients identified as having both NES and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes in terms of weight loss compared to those with NES only. However, research focusing on psychological factors associated with NES remains relatively underdeveloped. This study aimed to explore the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients accessing a weight management service. Ten adults who met diagnostic criteria for moderate or full NES took part in a semi-structured interview...
February 14, 2018: Appetite
Thea Toft Hansen, Anders Sjödin, Christian Ritz, Simon Bonnet, Sanne Kellebjerg Korndal
Manipulation of food's macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 kJ) and low-protein/high-fat (LP/HF, 771 kJ) cheeses...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Christine H Emilien, Yong Zhu, Walter H Hsu, Patricia Williamson, James H Hollis
OBJECTIVES: This crossover study investigated the effect of consuming a beverage that contains soluble fiber dextrin (SFD) on appetite and food intake in adults to test the hypothesis that beverages that contain 10 or 20 g of fiber from SFD would be more satiating than the control beverage. METHODS: Forty-one participants consumed lunch with a beverage that contained 0 g, 10 g, or 20 g of fiber from SFD. Appetite questionnaires were completed and blood samples collected immediately before lunch and at regular intervals over the following 150 min...
March 2018: Nutrition
Carmen Livier García-Flores, Alma Gabriela Martínez Moreno, Claudia Patricia Beltrán Miranda, Ana Patricia Zepeda-Salvador, Laura Vanesa Solano Santos
The study of the factors that regulate high energy food intake is especially relevant nowadays due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Food intake regulation can be divided in two basic processes, namely satiation and satiety. Satiation is the process that determines the moment in which feeding stops and regulates the amount of ingested food during a single meal. Satiety is the interval between meals and regulates the time elapsed between two meals. The longer the interval, the lower energy intake...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Motoaki Sano
Even in the presence of excess glucose, the proximal renal tubules continue to resorb more glucose. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are drugs that control this "greed" (H. Ito, Keio University, Japan). Negative feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis for various physiological functions. However, there is no negative feedback mechanism for resorption of glucose by the proximal renal tubules. When food was scarce during human evolution, not limiting nutrient reabsorption was advantageous for survival, but the opposite is true in the era of satiation...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Emma M Krop, Marion M Hetherington, Chandani Nekitsing, Sophie Miquel, Luminita Postelnicu, Anwesha Sarkar
Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appetite" and "food intake"...
February 2, 2018: Appetite
Graeme R Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M Thomas, Tim C Kirkham
Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
Kyoungjune Pak, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using 15O-H2 PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Siew Ling Tey, Nurhazwani Salleh, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Ciaran G Forde
Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
Michał Bogdziewicz, Josep M Espelta, Alberto Muñoz, Jose M Aparicio, Raul Bonal
Variation in seed availability shapes plant communities, and is strongly affected by seed predation. In some plant species, temporal variation in seed production is especially high and synchronized over large areas, which is called 'mast seeding'. One selective advantage of this phenomenon is predator satiation which posits that masting helps plants escape seed predation through starvation of predators in lean years, and satiation in mast years. However, even though seed predation can be predicted to have a strong spatial component and depend on plant densities, whether the effectiveness of predator satiation in masting plants changes according to the Janzen-Connell effect has been barely investigated...
January 30, 2018: Oecologia
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"