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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780332/myoclonic-jerks-and-schizophreniform-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777741/effect-of-exposure-to-similar-flavours-in-sensory-specific-satiety-implications-for-eating-behaviour
#2
Ana González, Sergio Andrés Recio, Jesús Sánchez, Marta Gil, Isabel de Brugada
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed...
May 16, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775741/replacement-of-fishmeal-by-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-affects-growth-immune-related-gene-expression-in-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-var-cas-iii-and-its-challenge-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#3
Shenping Cao, Peiyu Zhang, Tao Zou, Shuzhan Fei, Dong Han, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Yunxia Yang, Xiaoming Zhu, Shouqi Xie
The present study examined the effect of dietary spirulina, Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, blood physiological indices, immune-related gene expressions and resistance of juvenile gibel carp against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Four isonitrogenous (360 g kg-1 ) and isolipidic (90 g kg-1 ) diets were formulated with containing different levels of spirulina powder of 0 g (SP0, the control diet), 3.38 g (SP3.38), 6.76 g (SP6.76) and 13.52 g (SP13.52) per 100 g diet to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of fishmeal protein, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#4
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751193/adolescents-perceive-a-low-added-sugar-adequate-fiber-diet-to-be-more-satiating-and-equally-palatable-compared-to-a-high-added-sugar-low-fiber-diet-in-a-randomized-crossover-design-controlled-feeding-pilot-trial
#5
Tanya M Halliday, Sarah V Liu, Lori B Moore, Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy
BACKGROUND: High added sugar (AS) intake is associated with obesity and poor diet quality. Guidelines recommended limiting AS to 5-10% of total energy intake, but palatability and feasibility of this AS intake level is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare adolescents' perceptions of hunger, fullness, and palatability in response to a low AS adequate fiber (LASAF; 5% total energy from AS and 13.5 g fiber/1000 kcal) and a high AS low fiber (HASLF; 25% total energy form AS and 8...
May 5, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723574/influences-of-hunger-satiety-and-oral-glucose-on-functional-brain-connectivity-a-multimethod-resting-state-fmri-study
#6
Arkan Al-Zubaidi, Marcus Heldmann, Alfred Mertins, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Thomas F Münte
A major regulatory task of the organism is to keep brain functions relatively constant in spite of metabolic changes (e.g., hunger vs. satiety) or availability of energy (e.g., glucose administration). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can reveal resulting changes in brain function but previous studies have focused mostly on the hypothalamus. Therefore, we took a whole brain approach and examined 24 healthy normal-weight men once after 36 hours of fasting and once in a satiated state (six meals over the course of 36 hours)...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714034/cannabidiol-reverses-attentional-bias-to-cigarette-cues-in-a-human-experimental-model-of-tobacco-withdrawal
#7
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, J B Stroud, H Crudgington, A C Davies, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabinoid, may be a promising novel smoking cessation treatment due to its anxiolytic properties, minimal side-effects and research showing it may modify drug cue salience. We used an experimental medicine approach with dependent cigarette smokers to investigate if (1) overnight nicotine abstinence, compared with satiety, will produce greater attentional bias (AB), higher pleasantness ratings of cigarette-related stimuli and increased craving and withdrawal; (2) CBD in comparison to placebo, would attenuate AB, pleasantness of cigarette-related stimuli, craving and withdrawal and not produce any side-effects...
May 1, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712668/tcptp-regulates-insulin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-to-coordinate-glucose-metabolism-with-feeding
#8
Garron T Dodd, Robert S Lee-Young, Jens C Brüning, Tony Tiganis
Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by eliciting effects on peripheral tissues as well as the brain. Insulin receptor (IR) signalling inhibits AgRP-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus to contribute to the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin, whereas AgRP neuronal activation attenuates brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose uptake. The tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP suppresses IR signalling in AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic TCPTP is induced by fasting and degraded after feeding. Here we assessed the influence of TCPTP in AgRP neurons in the control of glucose metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704915/optimizing-nutrition-in-older-people
#9
REVIEW
Miriam E Clegg, Elizabeth A Williams
Older adults are at increased risk of malnutrition, for a variety of physiological and psychological reasons. This has implications for health, quality of life, independence and economic circumstances. Improvements in nutrition are known to bring tangible benefits to older people and many age-related diseases and conditions can be prevented, modulated or ameliorated by good nutrition. However, practical and realistic approaches are required to optimize diet and food intake in older adults. One area where improvements can be made relates to appetite...
June 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704610/thirst-dependent-activity-of-the-insular-cortex-reflects-its-emotion-related-subdivision-a-cerebral-blood-flow-study
#10
Lea Meier, Andrea Federspiel, Kay Jann, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Thomas Dierks
Recent studies investigating neural correlates of human thirst have identified various subcortical and telencephalic brain areas. The experience of thirst represents a homeostatic emotion and a state that slowly evolves over time. Therefore, the present study aims at systematically examining cerebral perfusion during the parametric progression of thirst. We measured subjective thirst ratings, serum parameters and cerebral blood flow in 20 healthy subjects across four different thirst stages: intense thirst, moderate thirst, subjective satiation and physiological satiation...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703788/primary-tactile-thalamus-spiking-reflects-cognitive-signals
#11
Christian Waiblinger, Clarissa J Whitmire, Audrey Sederberg, Garrett B Stanley, Cornelius Schwarz
Little is known about whether information transfer at primary sensory thalamic nuclei is modified by behavioral context. Here we studied the influence of previous decisions/rewards on current choices and preceding spike responses of ventro-posterior medial thalamus (VPm, the primary sensory thalamus in the rat whisker-related tactile system). We trained head-fixed rats to detect a ramp-like deflection of one whisker interspersed within ongoing white noise stimulation. Using generative modeling of behavior, we identify two task-related variables that are predictive of actual decisions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660044/multimodal-neuroimaging-differences-in-nicotine-abstinent-vs-satiated-smokers
#12
Bader Chaarani, Philip A Spechler, Alexandra Ivanciu, Mitchell Snowe, Joshua P Nickerson, Stephen T Higgins, Hugh Garavan
Introduction: Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Methods: Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design...
April 6, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623230/hepatic-rupture-induced-by-spontaneous-intrahepatic-hematoma
#13
Jin-Bao Zhou, Wei-Bo Chen, Feng Zhu
The etiology of hepatic rupture is usually secondary to trauma, and hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma is clinically rare. We describe here a 61-year-old female patient who was transferred to our hospital with hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. The patient had no history of trauma and had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus for five years, taking a daily dose of 5 mg prednisone for treatment. The patients experienced durative blunt acute right upper abdominal pain one day after satiation, which aggravated in two hours, accompanied by dizziness and sweating...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620400/collective-satiation-how-coexperience-accelerates-a-decline-in-hedonic-judgments
#14
Rajesh P Bhargave, Nicole Votolato Montgomery, Joseph P Redden
Individuals often mutually experience a stimulus with a relationship partner or social group (e.g., snacking with friends). Yet, little is currently understood about how a sense of coexperiencing affects hedonic judgments of experiences that unfold over time. Research on the shared attention state has suggested that hedonic judgments are intensified when individuals coexperience a stimulus (vs. experiencing it alone), and other related work has found that the social environment influences hedonic judgments in shared (vs...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601488/a-comparison-of-the-satiety-effects-of-a-fruit-smoothie-its-fresh-fruit-equivalent-and-other-drinks
#15
Peter J Rogers, Roya Shahrokni
Energy-containing liquids are claimed to have relatively low satiating power, although energy in liquids is not without effect on appetite. Using the preload test-meal method, effects on fullness and energy intake compensation were compared across four drinks (water, blackcurrant squash, milk and fruit smoothie) and the fresh fruit equivalent of the smoothie. Preload volumes were similar, and the energy value of each preload was 569 kJ, except for water (0 kJ). Healthy, adult participants rated the preloads for liking, enjoyment, satisfaction, familiarity and how 'food-like' they seemed...
March 30, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596854/brain-and-behavioral-correlates-of-insulin-resistance-in-youth-with-depression-and-obesity
#16
Manpreet K Singh, Sara M Leslie, Mary Melissa Packer, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Owen R Phillips, Elizabeth F Weisman, Danielle M Wall, Booil Jo, Natalie Rasgon
Depression, together with insulin resistance, is increasingly prevalent among youth. These conditions have traditionally been compartmentalized, but recent evidence suggests that a shared brain motivational network underlies their co-occurrence. We posit that, in the context of depressive symptoms, insulin resistance is associated with aberrant structure and functional connectivity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and hippocampus. This motivational neural circuit underlies dysfunctional behavioral responses and increased sensitivity to rewarding aspects of ingesting high calorie food that lead to disinhibition of eating even when satiated...
April 5, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584917/the-effects-of-nicotine-and-tobacco-use-on-brain-reward-function-interaction-with-nicotine-dependence-severity
#17
Merideth A Addicott, Maggie Sweitzer, F Joseph McClernon
Introduction: This study investigated the effects of nicotine/tobacco on neural activation during performance of a monetary incentivized delay task. Methods: Prior to each scan, nonsmokers received nicotine or placebo nasal spray and smokers were smoking satiated or 24-hours withdrawn. During the scan, participants made timed responses to reward-related cues and received feedback. Parameter estimates from cue- and feedback-related activation in medial prefrontal regions and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were extracted and underwent within- and between-group analyses...
March 23, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577941/how-and-why-do-gastrointestinal-peptides-influence-food-intake
#18
Stephen C Woods, Aaron A May-Zhang, Denovan P Begg
Despite the ability of some gastrointestinal hormones to reliably reduce meal size when administered prior to a meal, it is not understood why the repeated administration or genetic knockout of these hormones appear largely ineffective in reducing food intake and body weight. Here, we review evidence that the ability of GI peptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK) to elicit satiation is a consequence of prior learning. Evidence includes first, that the ability of some of these signals to modify food intake depends upon past experience and is malleable with new experience...
March 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571543/dysphagia-in-children
#19
Kimberly L Duffy
Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) play an integral role in evaluating and treating pediatric patients with dysphagia related to aerodigestive disorders. Non-supportive anatomy, cardio-respiratory and medical status, state control, neurologic functioning, postural stability and control, gastrointestinal functioning, hunger and satiation, developmental abilities, oral-motor skills, oral/pharyngeal reflexes, airway protection and secretion management can create barriers to successful oral feeding. Swallowing is broken down into four phases and difficulties can occur during any phase or in combination with another phase of swallowing...
March 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568685/food-related-salience-processing-in-healthy-subjects-during-word-recognition-fronto-parietal-network-activation-as-revealed-by-independent-component-analysis
#20
Annette Safi, Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Matthias Weisbrod, Anuradha Sharma
Background: The study aimed to isolate and localize mutually independent cognitive processes evoked during a word recognition task involving food-related and food-neutral words using independent component analysis (ICA) for continuously recorded EEG data. Recognition memory (old/new effect) involves cognitive subcomponents-familiarity and recollection-which may be temporally and spatially dissociated in the brain. Food words may evoke additional attentional salience which may interact with the old/new effect...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
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