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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#1
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283056/cocaine-mediates-the-cellular-mechanism-of-satiation
#2
Deveroux Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275776/oil-in-water-emulsions-stabilised-by-cellulose-ethers-stability-structure-and-in-vitro-digestion
#3
Jennifer Borreani, María Espert, Ana Salvador, Teresa Sanz, Amparo Quiles, Isabel Hernando
The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level...
March 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273481/matching-dietary-amino-acid-balance-to-the-in-silico-translated-exome-optimizes-growth-and-reproduction-without-cost-to-lifespan
#4
Matthew D W Piper, George A Soultoukis, Eric Blanc, Andrea Mesaros, Samantha L Herbert, Paula Juricic, Xiaoli He, Ilian Atanassov, Hanna Salmonowicz, Mingyao Yang, Stephen J Simpson, Carlos Ribeiro, Linda Partridge
Balancing the quantity and quality of dietary protein relative to other nutrients is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness. A theoretical framework for defining a balanced diet would both reduce the enormous workload to optimize diets empirically and represent a breakthrough toward tailoring diets to the needs of consumers. Here, we report a simple and powerful in silico technique that uses the genome information of an organism to define its dietary amino acid requirements. We show for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster that such "exome-matched" diets are more satiating, enhance growth, and increase reproduction relative to non-matched diets...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262740/effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-a-marker-for-neuroinflammation-a-11-c-daa1106-positron-emission-tomography-study
#5
Arthur L Brody, Robert Hubert, Ryutaro Enoki, Lizette Y Garcia, Michael S Mamoun, Kyoji Okita, Edythe D London, Erika L Nurmi, Lauren C Seaman, Mark A Mandelkern
In the brain, microglia continuously scan the surrounding extracellular space, in order to respond to damage or infection by becoming activated and participating in neuroinflammation. When activated, microglia increase the expression of the translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa, thereby making TSPO expression a marker for neuroinflammation. We used the radiotracer [(11)C]DAA1106 (a ligand for TSPO) and positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the effect of smoking on availability of this marker for neuroinflammation...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259807/impact-of-ambient-odors-on-food-intake-saliva-production-and-appetite-ratings
#6
Cristina Proserpio, Cees de Graaf, Monica Laureati, Ella Pagliarini, Sanne Boesveldt
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ambient odor exposure on appetite, salivation and food intake. 32 normal-weight young women (age: 21.4±5.3year; BMI: 21.7±1.9kg/m(2)) attended five test sessions in a non-satiated state. Each participant was exposed to ambient odors (chocolate, beef, melon and cucumber), in a detectable but mild concentration, and to a control condition (no-odor exposure). During each condition, at different time points, participants rated appetite for 15 food products, and saliva was collected...
March 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257045/perceptions%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-knowledge%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-nuts%C3%A2-amongst%C3%A2-health%C3%A2-professionals%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-new%C3%A2-zealand
#7
Rachel C Brown, Lee Ching Yong, Andrew R Gray, Siew Ling Tey, Alexandra Chisholm, Sook Ling Leong
Despite their nutritional value, population-level nut consumption remains low. Studies suggest that individuals would eat more nuts on their doctor's advice, making health professionals potentially important for promoting nut consumption. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the perceptions and knowledge of nuts and the predictors of nut promotion among health professionals in New Zealand. Dietitians, general practitioners (GPs), and practice nurses were identified from the Electoral Roll and invited to complete a questionnaire (n = 318, 292, and 149 respondents respectively)...
March 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247016/satiation-level-affects-anti-predatory-decisions-in-foraging-juvenile-crayfish
#8
Abigail C Schadegg, Jens Herberholz
Moving shadows signify imminent threat to foraging juvenile crayfish, and the animals respond with one of two discrete anti-predatory behaviors: They either freeze in place or rapidly flex their tails, which quickly propels them away from the approaching danger signal. Although a freeze might be the more risky choice, it keeps the animal near the expected food reward, while a tail-flip is effective in avoiding the shadow, but puts critical distance between the animal and its next meal. We manipulated the satiation level of juvenile crayfish to determine whether their behavioral choices are affected by internal energy states...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243787/comparable-effects-of-breakfast-meals-varying-in-protein-source-on-appetite-and-subsequent-energy-intake-in-healthy-males
#9
Anestis Dougkas, Elin Östman
PURPOSE: The satiating effect of animal vs plant proteins remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of breakfasts containing animal proteins [milk (AP)], a blend of plant proteins [oat, pea and potato (VP)] or 50:50 mixture of the two (MP) compared with a carbohydrate-rich meal (CHO) on appetite, energy intake (EI) and metabolic measures. METHODS: A total of 28 males [mean age 27.4 (±SD 4.2) years, BMI 23.4 (±2.1) kg/m(2)] consumed three isoenergetic (1674 kJ) rice puddings matched for energy density and macronutrient content as breakfast (25% E from protein) in a single-blind, randomised, cross over design...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#10
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228093/comparative-profiling-of-hepatopancreas-transcriptomes-in-satiated-and-starving-pomacea-canaliculata
#11
Lei Yang, Tian-Yin Cheng, Fei-Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although Pomacea canaliculata is native to South and Central America, it has become one of the most abundant invasive species worldwide and causes extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. Conventional physical and chemical techniques have been used to eliminate P. canaliculata, but the effects are not ideal. Therefore, it is important to devise a new method based on a greater understanding of the biology of P. canaliculata. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying digestion and absorption in P...
February 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216120/no-impact-of-repeated-extinction-exposures-on-operant-responding-maintained-by-different-reinforcer-rates
#13
John Y H Bai, Christopher A Podlesnik
Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214702/triploid-atlantic-salmon-shows-similar-performance-fatty-acid-composition-and-proteome-response-to-diploids-during-early-freshwater-rearing
#14
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira R Cooke, Gianluca Amoroso, Jennifer M Cobcroft, Peter D Nichols
There is currently renewed interest in farming triploid Atlantic salmon. Improving farming requires identifying triploid specific phenotypic and physiological traits that are uniquely derived from ploidy per se and developed under optimal growing conditions. This study investigated firstly, the impact of ploidy on growth performance and whole body composition of Atlantic salmon at different early freshwater stages [34dph (days post-hatching) alevin, 109dph fry, and 162dph parr] and secondly, whether phenotypic differences at these stages were reflected in protein samples collected from whole fish, white muscle or liver tissue...
February 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201935/partition-and-metabolic-fate-of-dietary-glycerol-in-muscles-and-liver-of-juvenile-tilapia
#15
Diego Vicente da Costa, Jorge Dias, Rita Colen, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Sofia Engrola
This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with (14)C-glycerol [(14)C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192220/the-effect-of-real-time-vibrotactile-feedback-delivered-through-an-augmented-fork-on-eating-rate-satiation-and-food-intake
#16
Roel C J Hermans, Sander Hermsen, Eric Robinson, Suzanne Higgs, Monica Mars, Jeana H Frost
Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. A total of 114 participants were randomly assigned to the Feedback Condition (FC), in which they received vibrotactile feedback from their fork when eating too fast (i.e., taking more than one bite per 10 s), or a Non-Feedback Condition (NFC)...
February 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174138/comparison-of-oro-sensory-exposure-duration-and-intensity-manipulations-on-satiation
#17
M P Lasschuijt, M Mars, M Stieger, S Miquel-Kergoat, C de Graaf, Pam Smeets
Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation. Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m(2)) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions...
February 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166797/impact-of-physical-activity-level-and-dietary-fat-content-on-passive-overconsumption-of-energy-in-non-obese-adults
#18
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
BACKGROUND: Passive overconsumption is the increase in energy intake driven by the high-fat energy-dense food environment. This can be explained in part because dietary fat has a weaker effect on satiation (i.e. process that terminates feeding). Habitually active individuals show improved satiety (i.e. process involved in post-meal suppression of hunger) but any improvement in satiation is unknown. Here we examined whether habitual physical activity mitigates passive overconsumption through enhanced satiation in response to a high-fat meal...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146277/dietary-guidance-for-pulses-the-challenge-and-opportunity-to-be-part-of-both-the-vegetable-and-protein-food-groups
#19
REVIEW
Stefanie Havemeier, Jennifer Erickson, Joanne Slavin
Pulses are a dry, edible variety of beans, peas, and lentils that have been consumed for 10,000 years. Pulses are rich in plant-based protein and fiber, as well as micronutrients such as iron and potassium. The satiating effect of both fiber and protein assists in managing weight and combating obesity. The high fiber content and low glycemic index of pulses aid people with diabetes in maintaining blood glucose and insulin levels. Pulse consumption may improve serum lipid levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139678/cocaine-potency-at-the-dopamine-transporter-tracks-discrete-motivational-states-during-cocaine-self-administration
#20
Cody A Siciliano, Sara R Jones
Although the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action for cocaine, and the dopamine system is known to mediate the reinforcing and rewarding effects of cocaine, the dopaminergic variations underlying individual differences in cocaine self-administration behaviors are not fully understood. Recent advances in the application of economic principles to operant tasks in rodents have allowed for the within-subject, within-session determination of both consummatory and appetitive responding for reinforcers...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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