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D Labbe, A Rytz, N Godinot, A Ferrage, N Martin
Increasing portion sizes over the last 30 years are considered to be one of the factors underlying overconsumption. Past research on the drivers of portion selection for foods showed that larger portions are selected for foods delivering low expected satiation. However, the respective contribution of expected satiation vs. two other potential drivers of portion size selection, i.e. perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness, has never been explored. In this study, we conjointly explored the role of expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness when selecting portions within a range of six commercial pizzas varying in their toppings and brands...
October 13, 2016: Appetite
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Simone Lemieux, Éric Doucet, Sonia Pomerleau, Véronique Provencher
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three ("healthy" versus "diet" (i.e., satiating) versus "hedonic") by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18-65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Fumio Tanaka, Kazunari Tominaga, Yoshiko Fujikawa, Yasuaki Nagami, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Toshio Watanabe, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
BACKGROUND: In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), mild duodenal inflammation correlates with increased mucosal permeability. Enteric glial cells can produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to repair disrupted epithelial barrier function. AIMS: We examined the role of duodenal GDNF in FD pathophysiology and its association with dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies taken from FD patients and control subjects were used for analysis...
October 7, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Yuanfei Zhou, Jian Peng
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control...
October 2, 2016: Nutrients
Claudia G Liberini, Tito Borner, Christina N Boyle, Thomas A Lutz
OBJECTIVE: Adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone and subventricular zone is generally accepted, but its existence in other brain areas is still controversial. Circumventricular organs, such as the area postrema (AP) have recently been described as potential neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The AP is the major site of action of the satiating hormone amylin. Amylin has been shown to promote the formation of neuronal projections originating from the AP in neonatal rodents but the role of amylin in adult neurogenesis remains unknown...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Silvia Nogales-Mérida, Ana Tomás-Vidal, Andrés Moñino-López, Miguel Jover-Cerdá, Silvia Martínez-Llorens
Four diets for sharpsnout sea bream juveniles (14 g body weight) with four levels of air-processed pea protein concentrate (PPC) (0, 160, 320 and 487 g/kg diet) were tested in triplicate. The experimental diets were isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) and isolipidic (19% ether extract) and the fish were fed to satiation twice a day. After 125 d, fish growth was diminished by the inclusion of PPC. Feed conversion did not show significant differences in any treatment. Neither the body analyses nor the protein and individual essential amino acid retention efficiencies were affected by the inclusion of PPC in the diet...
December 2016: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Seckin Ulusoy, Mehmet Emre Dinc, Abdullah Dalgic, Murat Topak, Denizhan Dizdar, Abdulhalim İs
INTRODUCTION: The olfactory system is affected by the nutritional balance and chemical state of the body, serving as an internal sensor. All bodily functions are affected by energy loss, including olfaction; hunger can alter odour perception. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on olfactory perception in humans, and also assessed perceptual changes during satiation. METHODS: The "Sniffin' Sticks" olfactory test was applied after 16h of fasting, and again at least 1h after Ramadan supper during periods of satiation...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Nicholas D McDonald, Sean A Rands, Francesca Hill, Charlotte Elder, Christos C Ioannou
Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific...
September 2016: Science Advances
Helen Tibboel, Jan De Houwer, Nicolas Dirix, Adriaan Spruyt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Influential dual-system models of addiction suggest that an automatic system that is associative and habitual promotes drug use, whereas a controlled system that is propositional and rational inhibits drug use. It is assumed that effects on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflect the automatic processes that guide drug seeking. However, results have been inconsistent, challenging: (1) the validity of addiction IATs; and (2) the assumption that the automatic system contains only simple associative information...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
N Shloim, C M J L Vereijken, P Blundell, M M Hetherington
It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding...
September 17, 2016: Appetite
Helena Fernandes, Helena Peres, António Paulo Carvalho
A standard diet for zebrafish, based on their specific nutritional requirements, is of primary importance to improve experimental outcomes with this model organism and optimize its large-scale production. However, the main basic nutritional requirements of zebrafish are yet to be determined. This study aimed at contributing to fill this gap by evaluating the dietary protein requirement of zebrafish juvenile. Ten isoenergetic fishmeal-based diets with increasing protein levels (15%-60%) were formulated, and each diet was assigned to duplicated groups of zebrafish (53...
September 19, 2016: Zebrafish
Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Koen Van Laere, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND: Rapid gastric balloon distension to discomfort threshold activates the "pain neuromatrix" and deactivates exteroceptive sensory and "default mode network" regions. However, little is known about brain mechanisms underlying tolerance of meal-induced gastric distension. We aimed to directly compare brain responses to gradual balloon distension and intragastric nutrient infusion and to explore the role of differential gut peptide release in these responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain responses to balloon- and nutrient-induced distension (to individually titrated pain or maximal satiation threshold) were measured in 15 healthy volunteers using H2(15)O-PET on 2 separate days in counterbalanced order...
September 14, 2016: NeuroImage
María A Zafra, Antonio D R Agüera, María J Simón, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
Sensory information from the gastrointestinal system can be transmitted to the brain through the vagus nerve, the intermediate-caudal region of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), and various subnuclei of the parabrachial complex, notably the external lateral subnucleus (LPBe). The objective of the present study was to examine the relevance of this subnucleus in satiation and food reintake after gastrointestinal food removal. LPBe-lesioned animals were subjected to a re-intake task following the partial withdrawal of gastric food contents shortly after satiation...
September 11, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
September 9, 2016: Appetite
Ashley A Martin, Danielle Ferriday, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
Previous research has shown that non-human animals exhibit an inverted-U pattern of sweet preference, with consumption increasing across moderate levels of sweetness and then declining for high levels of sweetness. In rodents, this pattern reflects an avoidance of the postingestive effects of consuming energy-dense sugar solutions (conditioned satiation). Here, we examined whether humans also adjust their preferences to compensate for the anticipated energy content/satiating outcomes of consuming sweetened foods...
September 7, 2016: Appetite
Cody J Dey, Evan Richardson, David McGeachy, Samuel A Iverson, H Grant Gilchrist, Christina Semeniuk
Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice break-up, which forces polar bears into near-shore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and seaduck reproductive success...
September 10, 2016: Global Change Biology
Matthew M Hurley, Brian Maunze, Megan E Block, Mogen M Frenkel, Michael J Reilly, Eugene Kim, Yao Chen, Yan Li, David A Baker, Qing-Song Liu, SuJean Choi
While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Julie Watson, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates, levels of parent satisfaction, and time to hospital discharge...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Honglin Dong, Laura J Sargent, Yianna Chatzidiakou, Caroline Saunders, Laura Harkness, Nicolas Bordenave, Ian Rowland, Jeremy P E Spencer, Julie A Lovegrove
Dietary fibre has been shown to increase subjective satiating ratings. However data from human trials has produced mixed results, possibly due to different types of fibre which have diverse physicochemical properties and gastrointestinal transit behaviour. The aim of the study 1 was to investigate whether orange juice (OJ) with 5.5 g of added orange pomace fibre (OPF) was as satiating as whole orange (WO, chopped AND blended to a liquid form) compared with OJ. Study 2 was to evaluate the dose-dependent satiating effect of OPF delivered in an orange-flavoured beverage...
August 27, 2016: Appetite
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