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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904820/the-neurobiology-of-the-prader-willi-phenotype-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Zukhrofi Muzar, Reymundo Lozano, Alexander Kolevzon, Randi J Hagerman
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, caused by a CGG expansion to greater than 200 repeats in the promoter region of FMR1 on the bottom of the X chromosome. A subgroup of individuals with FXS experience hyperphagia, lack of satiation after meals and severe obesity, this subgroup is referred to have the Prader-Willi phenotype of FXS. Prader-Willi syndrome is one of the most common genetic severe obesity disorders known and it is caused by the lack of the paternal 15q11-13 region...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#2
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883158/fast-or-slow-foods-describing-natural-variations-in-oral-processing-characteristics-across-a-wide-range-of-asian-foods
#3
C G Forde, C Leong, E Chia-Ming, K McCrickerd
The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880921/determination-of-the-gut-retention-of-plastic-microbeads-and-microfibers-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#4
Stefan Grigorakis, Sherri A Mason, Ken G Drouillard
Microplastics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic habitats and commonly found in the gut contents of fish yet relatively little is known about the retention of these particles by fish. In this study, goldfish were fed a commercial fish food pellet amended with 50 particles of one of two microplastics types, microbeads and microfibers. Microbeads were obtained from a commercial facial cleanser while microfibers were obtained from washed synthetic textile. Following consumption of the amended pellet, fish were allowed to feed to satiation on non-amended food followed by fasting for periods ranging from 1...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880804/dietary-intake-and-eating-behaviours-of-obese-new-zealand-children-and-adolescents-enrolled-in-a-community-based-intervention-programme
#5
Yvonne C Anderson, Lisa E Wynter, Michelle S Butler, Cameron C Grant, Joanna M Stewart, Tami L Cave, Cervantée E K Wild, José G B Derraik, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese children and adolescents, and also to determine how these differ in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children at enrolment in an obesity programme. METHODS: Baseline dietary intake and eating behaviour records were assessed from those enrolled in a clinical unblinded randomised controlled trial of a multi-disciplinary intervention. The setting was a community-based obesity programme in Taranaki, New Zealand...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875537/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-leucine-on-gut-hormone-secretion-appetite-feelings-and-gastric-emptying-rates-in-lean-and-non-diabetic-obese-participants-a-randomized-double-blind-parallel-group-trial
#6
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Simon Häfliger, Julian Meili, Alison Doody, Jens F Rehfeld, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859124/is-the-relationship-between-mast-seeding-and-weather-in-oaks-related-to-their-life-history-or-phylogeny
#7
Walter D Koenig, Reyes Alejano, Maria Dolores Carbonero, Pilar Fernández-Rebollo, Johannes M H Knops, Teodoro Marañón, Carmen M Padilla-Díaz, Ian S Pearse, Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos, Javier Vázquez-Piqué, Mario B Pesendorfer
Although the functional basis of variable and synchronous seed production (masting behavior) has been extensively investigated, only recently has attention been focused on the proximate mechanisms driving this phenomenon. We analyzed the relationship between weather and acorn production in 15 species of oaks (genus Quercus) from three geographic regions on two continents, with the goals of determining the extent to which similar sets of weather factors affect masting behavior across species and to explore the ecological basis for the similarities detected...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836636/influence-of-bmi-and-dietary-restraint-on-self-selected-portions-of-prepared-meals-in-us-women
#8
David Labbe, Andréas Rytz, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Ciarán G Forde, Nathalie Martin
The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking...
November 8, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829152/a-small-potassium-current-in-agrp-npy-neurons-regulates-feeding-behavior-and-energy-metabolism
#9
Yanlin He, Gang Shu, Yongjie Yang, Pingwen Xu, Yan Xia, Chunmei Wang, Kenji Saito, Antentor Hinton, Xiaofeng Yan, Chen Liu, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, Yong Xu
Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822248/proteomic-analysis-of-muscle-tissue-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-dietary-%C3%AE-glucan
#10
Gh Ghaedi, S Keyvanshokooh, H Mohammadi Azarm, M Akhlaghi
The aim of this study was to examine the changes in muscle proteome of the rainbow trout fed dietary β-glucan. The experimental diets contained 0 (control), 0.1% and 0.2% β-1,3/1,6 yeast glucan. First, feeding larvae were fed to apparent satiation nine times per day with their respective diets over two months. The percentage of body weight gain and feed efficiency of fish fed 0.2% diet was significantly higher than those of fish fed the control and 0.1% diets. Fish fed the control and 0.2% diets were subjected to proteomic analysis...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815199/dietary-protein-enhances-non-specific-immunity-anti-oxidative-capability-and-resistance-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-in-labeo-rohita-fingerlings-pre-exposed-to-short-feed-deprivation-stress
#11
Sona Yengkokpam, Dipesh Debnath, N P Sahu, A K Pal, K K Jain, Kartik Baruah
Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary protein levels on growth, immunity and anti-oxidative status of Labeo rohita fingerlings during feed deprivation followed by refeeding. Fish (5.44 ± 0.10 g) were deprived of feed for 3 weeks and then re-fed to satiation for 5 weeks with one of the diets containing 25 (25P), 30 (30P), 35 (35P) or 40 (40P) percent crude protein (CP) level. In addition to these groups, a control group (C) was also maintained by feeding to satiation level twice daily with a diet containing 30% CP throughout the experimental period...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811629/the-role-of-duodenal-inflammation-in-functional-dyspepsia
#12
Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common and significantly impairs quality of life. Symptoms of FD are considered to originate from the gastroduodenal region, classified by the Rome criteria as disorders of brain-gut interaction without structural alteration. However, it is now apparent that FD is a number of syndromes, the epigastric pain syndrome (bothersome epigastric pain or epigastric burning) and the postprandial distress syndrome (with bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation) and there are wide-ranging symptoms and severity...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809945/effect-of-whey-protein-and-a-free-amino-acid-mixture-simulating-whey-protein-on-measures-of-satiety-in-normal-weight-women
#13
Sylvia M S Chungchunlam, Sharon J Henare, Siva Ganesh, Paul J Moughan
Dietary protein is considered more satiating than carbohydrate, and whey protein is more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to direct effects of the unique mixture of proteins in whey, due to the effects of peptides released upon digestion and/or its amino acid composition. The objective of the present study was to compare the satiating effects of intact whey protein isolate (WPI) or a free amino acid mixture (AAM) simulating the amino acid composition of the WPI...
November 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803652/goal-directed-behavior-and-instrumental-devaluation-a-neural-system-level-computational-model
#14
Francesco Mannella, Marco Mirolli, Gianluca Baldassarre
Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviors guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers) activate the representation of rewards (or "action-outcomes", e...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794452/resurgence-as-choice
#15
REVIEW
Timothy A Shahan, Andrew R Craig
Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior are reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice...
October 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792918/nutritive-sucking-induces-age-specific-eeg-changes-in-0-24-week-old-infants
#16
Johannes Lehtonen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Stefanos Georgiadis, Mika P Tarvainen, Hanne Lappi, Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Ari Pääkkönen, Pasi A Karjalainen
Little is known how the brain of the newborn infant responds to the postnatal nutrition and care. No systematic studies exist in which the effects of nutritional and non-nutritional sucking on the brain activity of the infant were compared. We recorded the EEG activity of 40 infants at the ages of 0,6,12 and 24 weeks in four successive behavioral stages: while the infants were hungry and waiting for sucking, during non-nutritional and nutritional sucking, and during satiation after completed feeding. Quantitative EEG analysis was performed using occipital, parietal and central EEG channels...
October 25, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791015/overdrinking-swallowing-inhibition-and-regional-brain-responses-prior-to-swallowing
#17
Pascal Saker, Michael J Farrell, Gary F Egan, Michael J McKinley, Derek A Denton
In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788024/an-experimental-approach-to-study-individual-differences-in-infants-intake-and-satiation-behaviors-during-bottle-feeding
#18
Alison K Ventura, Julie A Mennella
BACKGROUND: As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs...
October 27, 2016: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780785/the-audience-eats-more-if-a-movie-character-keeps-eating-an-unconscious-mechanism-for-media-influence-on-eating-behaviors
#19
Shuo Zhou, Michael A Shapiro, Brian Wansink
Media's presentation of eating is an important source of influence on viewers' eating goals and behaviors. Drawing on recent research indicating that whether a story character continues to pursue a goal or completes a goal can unconsciously influence an audience member's goals, a scene from a popular movie comedy was manipulated to end with a character continuing to eat (goal ongoing) or completed eating (goal completed). Participants (N = 147) were randomly assigned to a goal status condition. As a reward, after viewing the movie clip viewers were offered two types of snacks: ChexMix and M&M's, in various size portions...
October 22, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777601/energy-state-affects-exploratory-behavior-of-tree-sparrows-in-a-group-context-under-differential-food-patch-distributions
#20
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Wen-Chen Chu
BACKGROUND: When facing a novel situation, animals can retreat or leave to avoid risks, but will miss potential resources and opportunities. Alternatively they may reduce environmental uncertainty by exploration, while risking no energy rewards and exposure to hazards, and use the information retrieved for subsequent decision making. When exploring, however, animals may adopt different tactics according to individual states. RESULTS: We tested that energy states will affect exploratory behavior by experimenting with wild-caught untrained Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) in fasted or fed states exploring in a novel space with hidden food supply in different patch distribution patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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