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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447374/effect-of-feeding-a-high-carbohydrate-or-a-high-fat-diet-on-subsequent-food-intake-and-blood-concentration-of-satiety-related-hormones-in-dogs
#1
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, E Jimenez, M A Latorre, C Castrillo
Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447070/ratios-of-soluble-and-insoluble-dietary-fibers-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#2
Britt Burton-Freeman, Dhanesh Liyanage, Sajida Rahman, Indika Edirisinghe
BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC)...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446630/texture-based-differences-in-eating-rate-reduce-the-impact-of-increased-energy-density-and-large-portions-on-meal-size-in-adults
#3
Keri McCrickerd, Charlotte Mh Lim, Claudia Leong, Edwin M Chia, Ciaran G Forde
Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly.Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size.Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-versus-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#4
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed versus cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learnt instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#5
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436599/metformin-as-targeted-treatment-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Angel Belle C Dy, Flora Tassone, Marwa Eldeeb, María J Salcedo-Arellano, Nicole Tartaglia, Randi Hagerman
Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Metformin is a drug used in individuals with high risk for diabetes type 2, obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. It has had a strong safety profile in children and adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429068/nicotine-deprivation-elevates-neural-representation-of-smoking-related-cues-in-object-sensitive-visual-cortex-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Anne Havermans, Onno C P van Schayck, Eric F P M Vuurman, Wim J Riedel, Job van den Hurk
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419219/dna-remodelling-by-strict-partial-endoreplication-in-orchids-an-original-process-in-the-plant-kingdom
#8
Spencer C Brown, Mickaël Bourge, Nicolas Maunoury, Maurice Wong, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Sandra Lepers-Andrzejewski, Pascale Besse, Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev, Michel Dron, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaître
DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410978/performance-monitoring-in-nicotine-dependence-considering-integration-of-recent-reinforcement-history
#9
Kevin Butler, Jennifer Rusted, Paul Gard, Anne Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Impaired monitoring of errors and conflict (performance monitoring; PM) is well documented in substance dependence (SD) including nicotine dependence and may contribute to continued drug use. Contemporary models of PM and complementary behavioural evidence suggest that PM works by integrating recent reinforcement history rather than evaluating individual behaviours. Despite this, studies of PM in SD have typically used indices derived from reaction to task error or conflict on individual trials...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405322/specific-dyspeptic-symptoms-are-associated-with-poor-response-to-therapy-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#10
A D'Alessandro, F P Zito, M Pesce, P Andreozzi, E Efficie, M Cargiolli, F Maione, G D De Palma, R Cuomo, G Sarnelli
INTRODUCTION: In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD), co-existence of functional dyspepsia (FD) is known to be associated with poor response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but the contribution of specific dyspepsia symptoms has not yet been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the impact of dyspepsia symptoms on response to PPIs in patients with GORD. METHODS: The enrolled subjects were consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GORD...
February 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399825/maternal-weight-status-and-responsiveness-to-preterm-infant-behavioral-cues-during-feeding
#11
Evanthia A Arianas, Kristin M Rankin, Kathleen F Norr, Rosemary C White-Traut
BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is highly predictive of child obesity, and preterm infants are at greater risk of obesity, but little is known about obese and non-obese mothers' responsiveness to preterm infant cues during feeding. The relationship between maternal weight status and response to preterm infant behavioral cues during feeding at 6-weeks corrected age was examined. METHODS: This secondary analysis used data from a randomized clinical trial. Maternal weight was coded during a play session...
April 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396048/effects-of-aroma-and-taste-independently-or-in-combination-on-appetite-sensation-and-subsequent-food-intake
#12
Wenting Yin, Louise Hewson, Robert Linforth, Moira Taylor, Ian D Fisk
Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m(-2)) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were: water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal)...
April 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389248/effects-of-whey-protein-and-its-two-major-protein-components-on-satiety-and-food-intake-in-normal-weight-women
#13
Sylvia M S Chungchunlam, Sharon J Henare, Siva Ganesh, Paul J Moughan
Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS)...
April 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382342/impact-of-whey-proteins-on-the-systemic-and-local-intestinal-level-of-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#14
D Swiątecka, D Złotkowska, L H Markiewicz, A M Szyc, B Wróblewska
Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377046/the-convergence-of-psychology-and-neurobiology-in-flavor-nutrient-learning
#15
Kevin P Myers
Flavor evaluation is influenced by learning from experience with foods. One main influence is flavor-nutrient learning (FNL), a Pavlovian process whereby a flavor acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that becomes associated with the postingestive effects of ingested nutrients (the US). As a result that flavor becomes preferred and intake typically increases. This learning powerfully influences food choice and meal patterning. This paper summarizes how research elucidating the physiological and neural substrates of FNL has progressed in parallel with work characterizing how FNL affects perception, motivation, and behavior...
April 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371807/nicotine-withdrawal-induces-neural-deficits-in-reward-processing
#16
Jason A Oliver, David E Evans, Merideth A Addicott, Geoffrey F Potts, Thomas H Brandon, David J Drobes
Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to non-smoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Methods: Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0...
March 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369822/improving-the-assessment-of-predator-functional-responses-by-considering-alternate-prey-and-predator-interactions
#17
K Chan, S Boutin, T J Hossie, C J Krebs, M O'Donoghue, D L Murray
To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of 2 similarly-sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361244/condition-dependent-virulence-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-in-bombus-terrestris-are-the-impacts-of-honeybee-viruses-in-wild-pollinators-underestimated
#18
Robyn Manley, Mike Boots, Lena Wilfert
Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV)-previously considered an obligate honeybee disease-is now known to be prevalent in bumblebee species. SBPV is highly virulent in honeybees in association with Varroa mites, but has been considered relatively benign otherwise. However, condition-dependent pathogens can appear asymptomatic under good, resource abundant conditions, and negative impacts on host fitness may only become apparent when under stressful or resource-limited conditions. We tested whether SBPV expresses condition-dependent virulence in its bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, by orally inoculating bees with SBPV and recording longevity under satiated and starvation conditions...
March 30, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355957/adolescent-brain-activation-dependence-on-sex-dietary-satiation-and-restraint
#19
Joanna L Varley-Campbell, Jonathan Fulford, Melanie S Moore, Craig A Williams
The study aimed to explore how both sex and dietary restraint impacts brain activation in response to visual food stimuli in young adolescents (12-13 years) under fed and fasted conditions. Food and non-food images were viewed by 15 boys and 14 girls, while functional magnetic resonance images were acquired. The adolescents were either fasted or in a satiated (fed) state following a randomized crossover study design. When satiation state was not considered, girls showed significantly greater brain activity than boys in regions associated with executive function and decision making, working memory, and self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347808/optimizing-clem-protocols-for-plants-cells-gma-embedding-and-cryosections-as-alternatives-for-preservation-of-gfp-fluorescence-in-arabidopsis-roots
#20
Jessica Marion, Romain Le Bars, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre, Claire Boulogne
Recently, a number of diverse correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) protocols have been developed for several model organisms. However, these CLEM methods have largely bypassed plant cell research, with most protocols having little application to plants. Using autophagosome identification as a biological background, we propose and compare two CLEM protocols that can be performed in most plant research laboratories, providing a good compromise that preserves fluorescent signals as well as ultrastructural features...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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