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Baroreflexes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543399/baroreceptor-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-preexisting-subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#1
Kay F Weipert, Jens Andrick, Ritvan Chasan, Christopher Gemein, Astrid Most, Christian W Hamm, Damir Erkapic, Joern Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Many patients with severe heart failure (HF) have an indication for baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) and an ICD. Concerns about device-device interactions were addressed in a study with small sample size that concluded combined BAT and ICD therapy is safe. There are no published data, however, concerning device-device interactions between BAT and a subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD). Since BAT frequently interferes with surface ECG recordings there are doubts about compatibility of BAT and S-ICD devices...
May 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539889/baroreflex-coupling-assessed-by-cross-compression-entropy
#2
Andy Schumann, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Susann Scharbrodt, Mathias Baumert, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Estimating interactions between physiological systems is an important challenge in modern biomedical research. Here, we explore a new concept for quantifying information common in two time series by cross-compressibility. Cross-compression entropy (CCE) exploits the ZIP data compression algorithm extended to bivariate data analysis. First, time series are transformed into symbol vectors. Symbols of the target time series are coded by the symbols of the source series. Uncoupled and linearly coupled surrogates were derived from cardiovascular recordings of 36 healthy controls obtained during rest to demonstrate suitability of this method for assessing physiological coupling...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538315/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-compression-garments-on-autonomic-nervous-system-recovery-after-exercise
#3
Alessandro Piras, Giorgio Gatta
Piras, A and Gatta, G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of compression garments on autonomic nervous system recovery after exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1636-1643, 2017-The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the recovery pattern of a whole-body compression garment on hemodynamic parameters and on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity after a swimming performance. Ten young male athletes were recruited and tested in 2 different days, with and without wearing the garment during the recovery phase...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529487/cardiac-baroreflex-variability-and-resetting-during-sustained-mild-effort
#4
Mair Zamir, Mark B Badrov, T Dylan Olver, J Kevin Shoemaker
This exploratory study assessed the pattern of closed-loop baroreflex resetting using multi-logistic-curve analysis. Operating point gain and ranges of RR-interval (RRI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are derived to examine how these relate to sympathetic activation. Sustained low-intensity isometric handgrip exercise, with a period of post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), provided a model to study baroreflex resetting because the progression toward fatigue at constant tension induces a continuous increase in volitional contribution to neuro-cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#5
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516307/appropriate-control-time-constant-in-relation-to-characteristics-of-the-baroreflex-vascular-system-in-1-r-control-of-the-total-artificial-heart
#6
Sora Mizuta, Itsuro Saito, Takashi Isoyama, Shintaro Hara, Terumi Yurimoto, Xinyang Li, Haruka Murakami, Toshiya Ono, Kunihiko Mabuchi, Yusuke Abe
1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507603/fingolimod-initiation-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-is-associated-with-potential-beneficial-cardiovascular-autonomic-effects
#7
Max J Hilz, Ruihao Wang, Carmen de Rojas Leal, Mao Liu, Francesca Canavese, Sankanika Roy, Katharina M Hösl, Klemens Winder, De-Hyung Lee, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod slows heart rate (HR) due to vagomimetic effects and might cause additional cardiovascular autonomic changes. While the time course of HR changes is well described, the extent and course of cardiovascular autonomic changes upon fingolimod initiation has not yet been evaluated. This study, therefore, intended to assess cardiovascular autonomic changes during the first 6 h after fingolimod initiation. METHODS: In 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), we recorded respiration (RESP), electrocardiographic RR interval (RRI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPsys, BPdia) at rest, before and 0...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507235/assessing-the-strength-of-cardiac-and-sympathetic-baroreflex-controls-via-transfer-entropy-during-orthostatic-challenge
#8
Alberto Porta, Andrea Marchi, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Murray Esler, Elisabeth Lambert, Mathias Baumert
The study assesses the strength of the causal relation along baroreflex (BR) in humans during an incremental postural challenge soliciting the BR. Both cardiac BR (cBR) and sympathetic BR (sBR) were characterized via BR sequence approaches from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). A model-based transfer entropy method was applied to quantify the strength of the coupling from SAP to HP and from DAP to MSNA...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506502/autonomic-dysreflexia-after-spinal-cord-injury-systemic-pathophysiology-and-methods-of-management
#9
REVIEW
Khalid C Eldahan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has widespread physiological effects beyond the disruption of sensory and motor function, notably the loss of normal autonomic and cardiovascular control. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment segregates critical spinal sympathetic neurons from supraspinal modulation which can result in a syndrome known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is defined as episodic hypertension and concomitant baroreflex-mediated bradycardia initiated by unmodulated sympathetic reflexes in the decentralized cord...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503726/baroreflex-dysfunction-and-augmented-sympathetic-nerve-responses-during-mental-stress-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#10
Jeanie Park, Paul J Marvar, Peizhou Liao, Melanie L Kankam, Seth D Norrholm, Ryan M Downey, S Ashley McCullough, Ngoc-Anh Le, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients have augmented sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hemodynamic reactivity during mental stress, and impaired arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 14 otherwise healthy Veterans with combat-related PTSD were compared to 14 matched Controls without PTSD.  Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), continuous blood pressure (BP), and electrocardiography were measured at baseline, and during two types of mental stress:  combat-related mental stress using virtual reality combat exposure (VRCE); and noncombat related stress using mental arithmetic (MA)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497338/decreased-spontaneous-baroreflex-sensitivity-as-an-early-marker-for-progression-of-haemorrhage
#11
Kavita Yadav, Akanksha Singh, Smriti Badhwar, Ashok Kumar Jaryal, Poonam Coshic, Kabita Chatterjee, K K Deepak
INTRODUCTION: Blood donation provides an ideal setup for assessment of cardiovascular responses to mild hypovolemia for understanding the underlying mechanisms. AIM: To evaluate cardiovascular responses in time and magnitude by estimating the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) during and after donation of 450 ml of blood. METHODS: Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure and lead II ECG was recorded before, during and after blood donation in 54 healthy volunteers (age 34...
May 11, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495840/nonlinearities-of-heart-rate-variability-in-animal-models-of-impaired-cardiac-control-contribution-of-different-time-scales
#12
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Renata Maria Lataro, Jaci Airton Castania, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan, Alberto Porta
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been extensively explored by traditional linear approaches (e.g. spectral analysis). However, several studies have pointed to the presence of nonlinear features in HRV, suggesting that linear tools might fail to account for the complexity of the HRV dynamics. Even though the prevalent notion is that HRV is nonlinear, the actual presence of nonlinear features is rarely verified. In this study, the presence of nonlinear dynamics was checked as a function of time scales in three experimental models of rats with different impairment of the cardiac control, namely rats with heart failure (HF), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488048/protective-angiotensin-type-2-receptors-in-the-brain-and-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Annette D de Kloet, Ulrike M Steckelings, Colin Sumners
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to assess the evidence that activation of angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R) in the brain can lower blood pressure and possibly constitute an endogenous anti-hypertensive mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies that detail the location of AT2R in the brain, particularly within or near cardiovascular control centers, mesh well with findings from pharmacological and gene transfer studies which demonstrate that activation of central AT2R can influence cardiovascular regulation...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476923/acute-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#14
Karambir Notay, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
Acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces resting blood pressure in healthy normotensives. This response is attributed to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and peripheral vasodilation, though nitric oxide also tonically inhibits central sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation using beetroot (BR) juice would reduce blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during exercise. Fourteen participants (7 men, 25±10 years) underwent blood pressure and MSNA measurements before and after (165-180 minutes) ingestion of 70ml high-nitrate (~6...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470470/role-of-paced-breathing-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Relu Cernes, Reuven Zimlichman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension remains to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Despite a plethora of pharmacological options available, an abundance of patients have uncontrolled blood pressure thus creating the need for additional strategies, including non-pharmacologic approaches. In this review, we discuss the antihypertensive effect of slow and deep respiration by increasing baroreflex sensitivity. RECENT FINDINGS: Asking patients to carry out paced breathing sessions unaccompanied by a personal coach or unaided by a device may be unfeasible...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461605/selective-nrf2-gene-deletion-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-evokes-hypertension-and-sympathoexcitation-in-mice
#16
Lie Gao, Matthew C Zimmerman, Shyam Biswal, Irving H Zucker
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator of redox homeostasis that impacts antioxidant gene expression. Central oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant enzyme expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributed to sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure. In the current study, we hypothesized that deletion of Nrf2 in the RVLM would increase sympathetic drive and blood pressure. Experiments were performed in Nrf2-floxed mice treated with microinjection of lentiviral-Cre-GFP or lentiviral-GFP into the RVLM...
June 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456134/improvement-in-baroreflex-control-of-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-obese-sprague-dawley-rats-following-immunosuppression
#17
Safia Akhtar Khan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Hassaan Anwer Rathore, Ashfaq Ahmad, Mohammed Hadi Abdulla, Edward James Johns
AIM: This investigation explored the hypothesis that in obesity an inflammatory response in the kidney contributed to a renal nerve-dependent blunting of the baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: Rats received a normal (12%Kcal) or high-fat (45%Kcal) diet for 8 weeks plus daily injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl i.p) or tacrolimus (0.25mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p) from weeks 3-8. Following anaesthesia, left renal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded, baroreflex gain curves were generated, by infusing phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors challenged by infusing a saline load...
April 29, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443680/periodic-breathing-during-incremental-exercise
#18
Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ugo Corrà, Michele Emdin
Periodic breathing during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a regularly recurring waxing and waning of tidal volume due to oscillations in central respiratory drive. Periodic breathing is a sign of respiratory control system instability, which may occur at rest or during exercise. The possible mechanisms responsible of exertional periodic breathing might be related to any instability of the ventilatory regulation caused by: 1) increased circulatory delay (i.e., circulation time from the lung to the brain and chemoreceptors, due to reduced cardiac index leading to delay in information transfer), 2) increase in controller gain (i...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443506/catestain-a-master-regulator-of-cardiovascular-functions
#19
Sushil K Mahata, Malapaka Kiranmayi, Nitish R Mahapatra
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death globally, accounts for ~30% of all deaths worldwide. Hypertension is a common contributor to morbidity and mortality from CVD. The plasma concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) is elevated in patients with CVD as well as patients with established human essential hypertension and heart failure (HF). In contrast, the plasma level of the CgA-derived peptide catestatin (CST) is diminished in human essential hypertension. Low conversion of CgA-to-CST has been associated with increased mortality in patients hospitalized with acute HF...
April 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424627/blood-pressure-increase-during-oxygen-supplementation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-is-mediated-by-vasoconstriction-independent-of-baroreflex-function
#20
René van der Bel, Müşerref Çalişkan, Robert A van Hulst, Johannes J van Lieshout, Erik S G Stroes, C T Paul Krediet
Renal hypoxia is thought to be an important pathophysiological factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the associated hypertension. In a previous study among CKD patients, supplementation with 100% oxygen reduced sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and lowered blood pressure (BP). We aimed to assess the underlying haemodynamic modulation and hypothesized a decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). To that end, 19 CKD patients were studied during 15-min intervals of increasing partial oxygen pressure (ppO2) from room air (0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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