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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322414/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-mortality-and-ventilator-free-days-in-patients-requiring-mechanical-ventilation-with-sepsis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Yu Kawazoe, Kyohei Miyamoto, Takeshi Morimoto, Tomonori Yamamoto, Akihiro Fuke, Atsunori Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Koami, Satoru Beppu, Yoichi Katayama, Makoto Itoh, Yoshinori Ohta, Hitoshi Yamamura
Importance: Dexmedetomidine provides sedation for patients undergoing ventilation; however, its effects on mortality and ventilator-free days have not been well studied among patients with sepsis. Objectives: To examine whether a sedation strategy with dexmedetomidine can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis undergoing ventilation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 8 intensive care units in Japan from February 2013 until January 2016 among 201 consecutive adult patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours...
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295389/proximate-amino-acid-and-lipid-compositions-in-sinonovacula-constricta-lamarck-reared-at-different-salinities
#2
Zhaoshou Ran, Shuang Li, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Kai Liao, Xuejun Yu, Yingying Zhong, Mengwei Ye, Shanshan Yu, Yun Ran, Wei Huang, Xiaojun Yan
BACKGROUND: Sinonovacula constricta is an economically and nutritionally important bivalve native to the estuaries and mudflats of China, Japan, and Korea. Herein, S. constricta, cultured either under experimental conditions or directly collected from natural coastal areas with different seawater salinities, were investigated for changes in proximates, amino acids and lipids. RESULTS: When culture salinity was increased, levels of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein and crude lipid were significantly decreased whereas the level of ash was significantly increased...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258472/prevalence-of-renal-uric-acid-stones-in-the-adult
#3
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted...
March 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244716/how-do-health-behaviours-relate-to-dietary-practice-patterns-among-japanese-adults
#4
Gita D Mishra, Jung Su Lee, Kunihiko Hayashi, Etsuko Watanabe, Katsumi Mori, Kiyoshi Kawakubo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary practice patterns for Japanese adults and investigate the links between health behaviours and these patterns. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A random sample, stratified according to area, sex, and age, of 4570 adults aged 20-80 years completed a survey conducted in 2011 in a city, in Yamagata Prefecture, Northeast Japan. RESULTS: Cluster analysis of 16 dietary practice items revealed four patterns labelled as: low fat, sugar, or salt; emphasis on nutrition; regular breakfast and staples; and meals not snacks...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244696/taking-action-against-malnutrition-in-asian-healthcare-settings-an-initiative-of-a-northeast-asia-study-group
#5
Takashi Higashiguchi, Hidenori Arai, Ling Hui Claytor, Masafumi Kuzuya, Joji Kotani, Shyh-Dye Lee, Jean-Pierre Michel, Tetsushi Nogami, Nanhai Peng
Malnutrition is common in Asia, especially among people who are critically ill and/or older. Study results from China, Japan, and Taiwan show that malnutrition or risk of malnutrition is found in up to 30% of communitydwelling people and as much as 50% of patients admitted to hospitals-with prevalence even higher among those older than 70 years. In Asia, malnutrition takes substantial tolls on health, physical function, and wellbeing of people affected, and it adds huge financial burdens to healthcare systems...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236606/physical-function-differences-between-the-stages-from-normal-cognition-to-moderate-alzheimer-disease
#6
Chisato Fujisawa, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Kazushi Okamoto, Hirotaka Nakashima, Masafumi Kuzuya, Kenji Toba, Takashi Sakurai
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the differences in the physical function test results across stages from normal cognition (NC) to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and how risk factors of physical function decline are correlated with the physical function test results. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of outpatients at the Memory Disorder Outpatient Center of Japan's National Center of Geriatrics and Gerontology. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 882 individuals aged ≥65 diagnosed with NC (n = 210), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 273), mild AD (n = 181) or moderate AD (n = 197)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214185/characteristics-of-patients-with-liver-cancer-in-the-biobank-japan-project
#7
Shigekazu Ukawa, Emiko Okada, Koshi Nakamura, Makoto Hirata, Akiko Nagai, Koichi Matsuda, Zentaro Yamagata, Yoichiro Kamatani, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Kaori Muto, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura, Akiko Tamakoshi
BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The BioBank Japan (BBJ) project included 200,000 patients with 47 diseases and samples; their clinical information can be used for further studies. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with liver cancer (n = 1733; 1316 men, 417 women) were included. Histology, patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and causes of death were collected. Cumulative and relative survival rates for liver cancer were calculated...
March 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194266/serum-albumin-levels-and-their-correlates-among-individuals-with-motor-disorders-at-five-institutions-in-japan
#8
Hiroko Ohwada, Takeo Nakayama, Yuki Kanaya, Yuki Tanaka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of serum albumin is an index of nourishment care and management. However, the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders have not been reported until now. Therefore, we examined the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 249 individuals with motor disabilities (144 men, mean age: 51.4 years; 105 women, mean age: 51...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190657/cross-sectional-analysis-of-biobank-japan-clinical-data-a-large-cohort-of-200-000-patients-with-47-common-diseases
#9
Makoto Hirata, Yoichiro Kamatani, Akiko Nagai, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Akiko Tamakoshi, Zentaro Yamagata, Michiaki Kubo, Kaori Muto, Taisei Mushiroda, Yoshinori Murakami, Koichiro Yuji, Yoichi Furukawa, Hitoshi Zembutsu, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yozo Ohnishi, Yusuke Nakamura, Koichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: To implement personalized medicine, we established a large-scale patient cohort, BioBank Japan, in 2003. BioBank Japan contains DNA, serum, and clinical information derived from approximately 200,000 patients with 47 diseases. Serum and clinical information were collected annually until 2012. METHODS: We analyzed clinical information of participants at enrollment, including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and smoking and drinking status, across 47 diseases, and compared the results with the Japanese database on Patient Survey and National Health and Nutrition Survey...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190656/living-status-and-frequency-of-eating-out-of-home-foods-in-relation-to-nutritional-adequacy-in-4-017-japanese-female-dietetic-students-aged-18-20-years-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#10
Satomi Kobayashi, Keiko Asakura, Hitomi Suga, Satoshi Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Living status (e.g., living with family or alone) may affect dietary habits. We compared nutritional adequacy according to living status and the frequency of eating out-of-home foods in young Japanese women. METHODS: Female dietetic students (aged 18-20 years; n = 4,017) participated in a cross-sectional multicenter study, which was conducted in 85 dietetic schools in 35 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Habitual dietary intake was assessed with a validated diet history questionnaire...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188968/relationship-between-functional-independence-measure-and-geriatric-nutritional-risk-index-in-pneumonia-patients-in-long-term-nursing-care-facilities
#11
Yuji Mitani, Yutaro Oki, Yukari Fujimoto, Takumi Yamaguchi, Kentaro Iwata, Yu Watanabe, Kazuki Takahashi, Kanji Yamada, Akira Ishikawa
AIM: The prevention of pneumonia is an urgent issue among Japanese older adults. However, little has been reported on the relationship between a Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) for the prevention of pneumonia in patients in long-term care facilities in Japan. We aimed to clarify the relevance of FIM and GNRI for inpatients with and without pneumonia. METHODS: We identified 233 patients who were hospitalized in our long-term nursing hospital from April 2012 to September 2013...
February 11, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178180/is-the-proportion-of-carbohydrate-intake-associated-with-the-incidence-of-diabetes-complications-an-analysis-of-the-japan-diabetes-complications-study
#12
Chika Horikawa, Yukio Yoshimura, Chiemi Kamada, Shiro Tanaka, Sachiko Tanaka, Satoshi Matsunaga, Osamu Hanyu, Atsushi Araki, Hideki Ito, Akira Tanaka, Yasuo Ohashi, Yasuo Akanuma, Hirohito Sone
The appropriate proportions of macronutritional intake have been controversial in medical nutritional therapy for diabetes, and evidence of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on diabetes complications in prospective settings is sparse. We investigated the relationships between proportions of carbohydrate intake as the % of total energy and diabetes complications in a nationwide cohort of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years with hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. The analysis was of 1516 responders to a baseline dietary survey assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups...
February 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142052/design-of-the-health-examination-survey-on-early-childhood-physical-growth-in-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-affected-areas
#13
Hiroko Matsubara, Mami Ishikuro, Masahiro Kikuya, Shoichi Chida, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Atsushi Ono, Noriko Kato, Susumu Yokoya, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Zentaro Yamagata, Soichiro Tanaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Shigeo Kure
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. METHODS: The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126636/coexisting-severe-frailty-and-malnutrition-predict-mortality-among-the-oldest-old-in-nursing-homes-a-1-year-prospective-study
#14
Tomohiko Kamo, Keita Takayama, Hideaki Ishii, Keisuke Suzuki, Katsuhiko Eguchi, Yuusuke Nishida
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of coexisting severe frailty and malnutrition with all-cause mortality among the oldest old in nursing homes. This study was conducted among all subjects (n=160) aged 85 years and older who lived in two nursing homes of Japan. Information about the health status of participants was gathered from history, medical documentation, test assessing frailty, according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging-Clinical Frailty Scale (CSHA-CFS) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF)...
May 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112767/nutritional-status-and-habitual-dietary-intake-are-associated-with-frail-skin-conditions-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#15
S Iizaka, S Nagata, H Sanada
OBJECTIVE: Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. PARTICIPANTS: Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112076/energy-density-of-the-diets-of-japanese-adults-in-relation-to-food-and-nutrient-intake-and-general-and-abdominal-obesity-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-2012-national-health-and-nutrition-survey-japan
#16
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki
The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish...
January 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100920/within-country-variation-of-salt-intake-assessed-via-urinary-excretion-in-japan-a-multilevel-analysis-in-all-47-prefectures
#17
Ken Uechi, Keiko Asakura, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki
Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093448/eating-alone-yet-living-with-others-is-associated-with-mortality-in-older-men-the-jages-cohort-survey
#18
Yukako Tani, Naoki Kondo, Hisashi Noma, Yasuhiro Miyaguni, Masashige Saito, Katsunori Kondo
OBJECTIVES: Eating by oneself may be a risk factor for poor nutritional and mental statuses among older adults. However, their longitudinal association with mortality in relation to coresidential status is unknown. METHOD: We conducted a 3-year follow-up of participants in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based cohort of 65 years or older Japanese adults. We analyzed mortality for 33,083 men and 38,698 women from 2010 to 2013 and used. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for mortality...
January 15, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064173/interventions-to-prevent-or-reduce-the-level-of-frailty-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature-and-international-policies
#19
REVIEW
Martine T E Puts, Samar Toubasi, Melissa K Andrew, Maureen C Ashe, Jenny Ploeg, Esther Atkinson, Ana Patricia Ayala, Angelique Roy, Miriam Rodríguez Monforte, Howard Bergman, Kathy McGilton
BACKGROUND: frailty impacts older adults' ability to recover from an acute illness, injuries and other stresses. Currently, a systematic synthesis of available interventions to prevent or reduce frailty does not exist. Therefore, we conducted a scoping review of interventions and international policies designed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: we conducted a scoping review using the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. We systematically searched articles and grey literature to identify interventions and policies that aimed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060460/effects-of-rapid-aging-and-lower-participation-rate-among-younger-adults-on-the-short-term-trend-of-physical-activity-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-survey-japan
#20
Nobuo Nishi, Takeshi Yoshizawa, Nagako Okuda
AIM: The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data...
January 6, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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