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Japan and nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522901/transition-of-early-phase-treatment-for-acute-pancreatitis-an-analysis-of-nationwide-epidemiological-survey
#1
EDITORIAL
Shin Hamada, Atsushi Masamune, Tooru Shimosegawa
Treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the critical challenges to the field of gastroenterology because of its high mortality rate and high medical costs associated with the treatment of severe cases. Early-phase treatments for AP have been optimized in Japan, and clinical guidelines have been provided. However, changes in early-phase treatments and the relationship between treatment strategy and clinical outcome remain unclear. Retrospective analysis of nationwide epidemiological data shows that time for AP diagnosis has shortened, and the amount of initial fluid resuscitation has increased over time, indicating the compliance with guidelines...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516130/nutritional-status-and-body-composition-of-independently-living-older-adults-in-a-snowy-region-of-japan
#2
Tomoko Shimoda, Teppei Suzuki, Noriko Takahashi, Kaori Tsutsumi, Mina Samukawa, Shoko Yoshimachi, Teruaki Goto, Hisashi Enomoto, Nobuyuki Kise, Katsuhiko Ogasawara, Sadako Yoshimura
Lifestyle diseases, which are associated with nutrition, account for 30% of elderly requiring long-term care. To increase health expectancy among Japan's rapidly aging population, we investigated the nutritional status and body composition of elderly adults living in a region subject to heavy snowfall, to identify pertinent health indicators. The dietary habits of 288 local residents aged ≥50 years were analyzed using body composition and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Body mass index of all residents was normal...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490567/validity-and-reliability-of-the-patient-centred-assessment-method-for-patient-complexity-and-relationship-with-hospital-length-of-stay-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Shuhei Yoshida, Masato Matsushima, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Rieko Mutai, Shinichi Murayama, Tetsuro Hayashi, Hiroko Ichikawa, Yuko Nakano, Takamasa Watanabe, Yasuki Fujinuma
OBJECTIVES: Several instruments for evaluating patient complexity have been developed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Although relationships between the results obtained by these instruments and the length of stay in hospital have been examined, many instruments are complicated and not easy to use. The Patient Centred Assessment Method (PCAM) is a candidate for practical use. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the PCAM and examine the correlations between length of hospital stay and PCAM scores in a regional secondary care hospital in Japan...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488767/an-assessment-of-postcranial-indices-ratios-and-body-mass-versus-eco-geographical-variables-of-prehistoric-jomon-yayoi-agriculturalists-and-kumejima-islanders-of-japan
#4
Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
OBJECTIVES: We explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000-2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500-1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600-1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483361/secular-trends-in-growth
#5
Julie Fudvoye, Anne-Simone Parent
Human adult height has been increasing world-wide for a century and a half. The rate of increase depends on time and place of measurement. Final height appears to have reached a plateau in Northern European countries but it is still increasing in southern European countries as well as Japan. While mean birth length has not changed recently in industrialized countries, the secular trend finally observed in adult height mostly originates during the first 2 years of life. Secular trend in growth is a marker of public health and provides insights into the interaction between growth and environment...
May 5, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465668/functional-components-in-sweetpotato-and-their-genetic-improvement
#6
REVIEW
Masaru Tanaka, Koji Ishiguro, Tomoyuki Oki, Shigenori Okuno
In addition to the nutritionally important components such as starches, vitamins and minerals, storage roots and leaves of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) contains several components with health-promoting functions. Of these, the functionalities of carotenoids, anthocyanins and caffeoylquinic acids have been well established by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Several sweetpotato cultivars containing high levels of these components have been developed in Japan; e.g., 'Ayamurasaki', which has high amounts of anthocyanin in its storage roots...
January 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458289/application-of-natural-ingredients-to-preventive-medicine
#7
Junko Yokota
 The super-aging society in Japan is currently experiencing growing demand for treatments that improve health and longevity. To develop new high-functional foods and search for pharmaceutical candidates among foods and natural products, it is necessary to promote organic collaboration among researchers in pharmacy, medicine, nutrition, and other fields to encourage joint utilization of their technologies. Recently, attempts have been made to use numerous foods and natural products to prevent or treat diseases based on scientific evidence...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442643/paradigm-shifts-in-nutrition-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#8
Satoru Yamada
Currently, the low-energy diet is the only recognized nutrition therapy for type 2 diabetes in Japan. However, in recent decades, many foreign scientific organizations have accepted various nutritional approaches to manage diabetes, such as the low-carbohydrate diet, the Mediterranean diet, diet approaches to stop hypertension (DASH), and the vegetarian diet. Moreover, growing evidence has called into question classical nutritional approaches such as the low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the low-protein diet for the prevention of diabetic kidney disease...
April 25, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441423/reproductive-parameters-and-cub-survival-of-brown-bears-in-the-rusha-area-of-the-shiretoko-peninsula-hokkaido-japan
#9
Michito Shimozuru, Masami Yamanaka, Masanao Nakanishi, Jun Moriwaki, Fumihiko Mori, Masakatsu Tsujino, Yuri Shirane, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Shinsuke Kasai, Takane Nose, Yasushi Masuda, Toshio Tsubota
Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432090/international-variations-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-palliative-sedation-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ebun Abarshi, Judith Rietjens, Lenzo Robijn, Augusto Caraceni, Sheila Payne, Luc Deliens, Lieve Van den Block
OBJECTIVES: Palliative sedation is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its proper use in end-of-life care. Worldwide, guidelines are used to standardise care and regulate this practice. In this review, we identify and compare national/regional clinical practice guidelines on palliative sedation against the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) palliative sedation Framework and assess the developmental quality of these guidelines using the Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#11
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429921/relationship-between-dietary-patterns-and-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity-among-middle-aged-adults-in-japan
#12
Shota Moyama, Kazuhiro Minami, Mihiro Yano, Masumi Okumura, Susumu Hayashi, Hiroshi Takayama, Akira Yorimoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is considered to be affected by dietary intake. However, few studies have examined the relationship between major dietary patterns and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) among Japanese middle-aged subjects. We studied whether major dietary patterns were associated with baPWV in this population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Between 2009 and 2012, 70 Japanese middle-aged subjects (39 men and 31 women) with no history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer were studied...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429170/comparison-of-energy-balance-between-two-different-sized-groups-of-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata-yakui
#13
Yosuke Kurihara, Goro Hanya
Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition...
April 20, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427831/prevalence-of-abdominal-obesity-among-chinese-adults-in-2011
#14
Pei Du, Hui-Jun Wang, Bing Zhang, Su-Fen Qi, Ying-Jun Mi, Dian-Wu Liu, Qing-Bao Tian
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing dramatically worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the current prevalence of abdominal obesity from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and compare the data with other countries. METHODS: Waist circumference (WC) of 12,326 Chinese adults (aged 20 years or older) from the 2011 CHNS were analyzed by age group and region. Abdominal obesity was defined as a WC ≥90 cm for men and WC ≥80 cm for women based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for Asians...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421317/effect-of-oral-carbohydrate-with-amino-acid-solution-on-serum-oxidative-anti-oxidative-status-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Yasuo M Tsutsumi, Takuro Oyama, Nami Kakuta, Yousuke T Horikawa, Katsuyoshi Kume, Yoko Sakai, Rie Tsutsumi, Katsuya Tanaka
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of oral carbohydrate with amino acid [oral nutritional supplement (ONS)] solution on oxidative stress in healthy persons. Fourteen healthy volunteers were segregated into control and ONS groups. Volunteers in the ONS group ingested 250 ml of Arginaid Water (Nestle Japan, Tokyo, Japan) in the evening before the experiment and at 7:00 am on the day of the experiment. Volunteers in the control group fasted after dinner and drank only water until 7:00 am on the day of the experiment...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412165/effects-of-a-community-based-program-for-oral-health-and-nutrition-on-cost-effectiveness-by-preventing-disability-in-japanese-frail-elderly-a-quasi-experimental-study-using-propensity-score-matching
#16
Yasutake Tomata, Takashi Watanabe, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Shu Zhang, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji
OBJECTIVE: In the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, a community-based program for oral health and nutrition (OHN program) has been implemented with the aim of reducing incident disability and care costs. However, the effectiveness of this program has not been confirmed epidemiologically. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OHN program does reduce incident disability and care costs. DESIGN: A prospective study with a 28-month follow-up period was conducted using data from administrative databases at Tagajo City, Japan...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393489/grouped-factors-of-the-ssade-signs-and-symptoms-accompanying-dementia-while-eating-and-nutritional-status-an-analysis-of-older-people-receiving-nutritional-care-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-japan
#17
Kento Takada, Kazumi Tanaka, Mihoko Hasegawa, Michiko Sugiyama, Nobuo Yoshiike
BACKGROUND: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are very common among older people, and previous studies showed that BPSD affects eating behaviour negatively, possibly resulting in undernutrition. In a previous study, we constructed a set of 11 items based on direct observations of older people with dementia during mealtime and named them 'SSADE: signs and symptoms accompanying dementia while eating'. AIMS: This study aimed to conduct a factor analysis to clarify the structure of the set of 11 SSADE items and to analyse the relationship of the SSADE with nutritional status...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388661/types-of-social-participation-and-psychological-distress-in-japanese-older-adults-a-five-year-cohort-study
#18
Shiho Amagasa, Noritoshi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Koichiro Oka, Tomoko Takamiya, Yuko Odagiri, Shigeru Inoue
INTRODUCTION: The most effective type of social participation against psychological distress in older adults is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine whether different types of social participation are associated with changes in psychological distress level in older men and women in Japan. METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% women) were randomly selected from the resident registry of three cities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375181/dietary-metabolites-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Sho Hasegawa, Tzu-Ming Jao, Reiko Inagi
Dietary contents and their metabolites are closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Advanced glycated end products (AGEs) are a type of uremic toxin produced by glycation. AGE accumulation is not only the result of elevated glucose levels or reduced renal clearance capacity, but it also promotes CKD progression. Indoxyl sulfate, another uremic toxin derived from amino acid metabolism, accumulates as CKD progresses and induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis. Specific types of amino acids (d-serine) or fatty acids (palmitate) are reported to be closely associated with CKD progression...
April 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367929/the-necessary-items-for-inclusion-in-a-questionnaire-for-assessing-the-nutrition-knowledge-of-young-japanese-children
#20
Mai Matsumoto, Shinji Ikemoto
It is well known nutrition education for 3- to 5-y-old children is important, and it is necessary to assess their nutrition knowledge before and after nutrition education to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program. This study aimed to determine the necessary questions for inclusion in a questionnaire designed to assess the nutrition knowledge of young Japanese children in order to assess the effectiveness of the Shokuiku nutrition education program. Eighty and 124 children from 9 nursery schools in Japan participated in the intervention and control groups, respectively...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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