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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087985/prophylactic-tributyrin-treatment-mitigates-chronic-binge-alcohol-induced-intestinal-barrier-and-liver-injury
#1
Gail A Cresci, Bryan Glueck, Megan R McMullen, Wei Xin, Danielle Allende, Laura E Nagy
BACKGROUND/AIM: Impaired gut-liver axis is a potential factor contributing to alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol depletes intestinal integrity and causes gut dysbiosis. Butyrate, a fermentation byproduct of gut microbiota, is altered negatively following chronic ethanol exposure. This study aimed to determine whether prophylactic tributyrin could protect the intestinal barrier and liver in mice during combined chronic-binge ethanol exposure. METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice exposed to 5% v/v ethanol-containing diet for 10 days received a single ethanol gavage (5 g/kg) 9 hrs prior to euthanasia...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087949/the-vaginal-microbiota-and-urinary-tract-infection
#2
Ann E Stapleton
The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087897/fgfr1-analyses-in-four-patients-with-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-with-split-hand-foot-malformation-implications-for-the-promoter-region
#3
Kohnosuke Ohtaka, Yasuko Fujisawa, Fumio Takada, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Tatsuya Miyoshi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hiraku Kameda, Misuzu Kurokawa Seo, Maki Fukami, Tsutomu Ogata
Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of FGFR1 cause various disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with split-hand/foot malformation (HH-SHFM). We examined FGFR1 in four Japanese patients with HH-SHFM (cases 1-4) and the mother of case 4 with HH only. Cases 1 and 2 had heterozygous loss-of-function mutations with no dominant negative effect [c.289G>A, p.(G97S); and c.2231G>C, p.(R744T)], and case 3 had a splice donor site mutation [c.1663+1G>T]. Notably, case 4 had a maternally inherited 8,312 bp microdeletion that involved non-coding exon 1U and impaired FGFR1 expression...
January 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#4
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087890/overview-of-the-benefits-and-potential-issues-of-the-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine
#5
REVIEW
Luciano Mariani, Mario Preti, Paolo Cristoforoni, Carlo M Stigliano, Antonio Perino
HPV-related diseases affect anogenital and oropharyngeal regions, heavily affecting the psychosexual dimension of both male and female individuals. HPV vaccination programs based on a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine have opened broad perspectives for primary prevention. A nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), covering nine genotypes (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58), might provide further improvement in terms of direct protection. In the present report, efficacy and safety data from 9vHPV vaccine development programs are examined...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#6
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087795/who-says-i-do-the-changing-context-of-marriage-and-health-and-quality-of-life-for-lgbt-older-adults
#7
Jayn Goldsen, Amanda E B Bryan, Hyun-Jun Kim, Anna Muraco, Sarah Jen, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Until recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults were excluded from full participation in civil marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine how legal marriage and relationship status are associated with health-promoting and at-risk factors, health, and quality of life of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) participants who resided in states with legalized same-sex marriage in 2014 (N = 1,821)...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087342/myeloid-leukemia-factor-1-is-a-novel-modulator-of-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocyte-proliferation
#8
Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez, Jost Pott, Annika Kluge, Robert Frauen, Katharina Stiebeling, Phillip Hoppe, Samuel Sossalla, Norbert Frey, Derk Frank
The present study focuses on the identification of the gene expression profile of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs) after dynamic mechanical stretch through microarrays of RNA isolated from cells stretched for 2, 6 or 24h. In this analysis, myeloid leukemia factor-1 (MLF1) was found to be significantly downregulated during the course of stretch. We found that MLF1 is highly expressed in the heart, however, its cardiac function is unknown yet. In line with microarray data, MLF1 was profoundly downregulated in in vivo mouse models of cardiomyopathy, and also significantly reduced in the hearts of human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087314/a-protective-role-of-cumulus-cells-after-short-term-exposure-of-rat-cumulus-cell-oocyte-complexes-to-lifestyle-or-environmental-contaminants
#9
Kelly A Campen, Kenneth P McNatty, Janet L Pitman
Ovarian follicular fluid provides a potential reservoir for exogenous compounds that may adversely affect oocyte quality. This study examined the effects of common lifestyle and environmental contaminants, namely bisphenol-A (BPA), caffeine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), nicotine and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on gap junction genes (Gja1, Gja4) and proteins (GJA1), glucose metabolism genes (Gfpt1, Pfkp) and oocyte growth factor genes (Bmp15, Gdf9), as well as gap junction transfer rate, in rat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)...
January 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087202/family-adaptation-to-cerebral-palsy-in-adolescents-a-european-multicenter-study
#10
Audrey Guyard, Susan I Michelsen, Catherine Arnaud, Jerome Fauconnier
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Factors promoting family adaptation to child's disability are poorly studied together. The aim of the study was to describe the family adaptation to disability and to identify determinants associated with using a global theoretical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 286 families of teenagers [13-17 years] with cerebral palsy (CP) from 4 European disability registers were included and visited at home. Face to face interviews were performed in order to measure parental distress, perceived impact in various dimensions of family life, family resources and stressors...
January 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087173/at-the-heart-of-the-problem-a-person-centred-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-alcohol-consumption-and-cardio-vascular-events
#11
Valéria Lima Passos, Sven Klijn, Kevin van Zandvoort, Latifa Abidi, Paul Lemmens
INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE). OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087150/apelin-protects-against-nmda-induced-retinal-neuronal-death-via-an-apj-receptor-by-activating-akt-and-erk1-2-and-suppressing-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-in-mice
#12
Yuki Ishimaru, Akihide Sumino, Daiki Kajioka, Fumiya Shibagaki, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda
Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is an important cause of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. To elucidate whether apelin protects against retinal neuronal cell death, we examined protective effects of exogenous and endogenous apelin on neuronal cell death induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA in the retinas of mice. An intravitreal injection of NMDA induced neuronal cell death in both the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer, and reduced the amplitudes of scotopic threshold response (STR) in electroretinography studies...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086800/relevance-of-fxr-p62-sqstm1-pathway-for-survival-and-protection-of-mouse-hepatocytes-and-liver-especially-with-steatosis
#13
Sanae Haga, Yimin, Michitaka Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Liver injury and regeneration involve complicated processes and are affected by various physio-pathological conditions. Surgically, severe liver injury after surgical resection often leads to fatal liver failure, especially with some underlying pathological conditions such as steatosis. Therefore, protection from the injury of hepatocytes and liver is a serious concern in various clinical settings. METHODS: We studied the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on cell survival and steatosis in mouse hepatocytes (AML12 mouse liver cells) and investigated their molecular mechanisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081515/distinguishing-subpopulations-of-marijuana-users-with-latent-profile-analysis
#14
Matthew R Pearson, Adrian J Bravo, Bradley T Conner
BACKGROUND: Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, little is known about the effects of typical marijuana use patterns and whether there are distinct subgroups of marijuana users. METHODS: The present study used latent profile analysis to determine the number of distinct subgroups of marijuana users in a large sample of college students (n=2129 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). We also examined how these distinct groups differ on several putative risk/protective factors (e...
November 23, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081461/bdnf-gene-delivery-mediated-by-neuron-targeted-nanoparticles-is-neuroprotective-in-peripheral-nerve-injury
#15
Cátia D F Lopes, Nádia P Gonçalves, Carla P Gomes, Maria J Saraiva, Ana P Pêgo
Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model...
December 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081460/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-silica-nps-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-rho-kinase-jnk-signaling-pathways
#16
Xin Liu, Baiyan Sui, Jiao Sun
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) has been extensively exploited in biomedical fields and mostly designed to enter the circulatory system, however, few studies focused on the potential adverse effects of SiO2-NPs exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that serves as a critical barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation. This study attempts to provide an understanding of whether and how SiO2-NPs disrupts the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Through a human BBB model, we found that SiO2-NPs could induce tight junction loss and cytoskeleton arrangement, and increase inflammatory response and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), which further activates astrocytes to amplify the generation of VEGF and increase the aquaporin-4 expression, and thus causing BBB disruption through a complex immunoregulatory loop between BMECs and astrocytes under SiO2-NPs exposure...
January 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081435/heavy-episodic-drinking-and-alcohol-related-injuries-an-open-cohort-study-among-college-students
#17
Francisco Caamaño-Isorna, Lucía Moure-Rodríguez, Sonia Doallo, Montserrat Corral, Socorro Rodriguez Holguín, Fernando Cadaveira
AIM: The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. METHODS: We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27...
January 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081372/role-of-hyperplasia-of-gingival-lymphatics-in-periodontal-inflammation
#18
P Papadakou, A Bletsa, M A Yassin, T V Karlsen, H Wiig, E Berggreen
Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081287/current-insights-into-the-aetiology-pathobiology-and-management-of-local-disease-recurrence-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-vulva-a-review-paper
#19
REVIEW
Jason Yap, Danielle O'Neill, Sangeetha Nagenthiran, Christopher Dawson, David Luesley
Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is predominantly a disease of the elderly, where the mainstay of treatment is radical surgery. Local vulval recurrence (LVR) is a significant problem for these patients, and the rates of recurrence have not improved over the last three decades. Disappointingly, we still lack an understanding of how LVRs develop and the best approach to prevent and manage the condition. This review discusses recent insights into the key prognostic factors that influence the risk of recurrence, focusing on the role of tumour-adjacent non-neoplastic epithelial disorders, which are thought to play a causative role...
January 12, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081189/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-cross-protected-phenotype-of-pectobacterium-atrosepticum
#20
Vladimir Gorshkov, Stanford Kwenda, Olga Petrova, Elena Osipova, Yuri Gogolev, Lucy N Moleleki
The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection)...
2017: PloS One
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