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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427072/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injections-the-new-standard-of-care-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Xintong Li, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
For decades, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) formulations for intravitreal injection has provided a fresh perspective on PDR treatment, especially in eyes with concurrent diabetic macular edema (DME). The anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab has demonstrated a potentially protective effect on eyes with DME in terms of progression to PDR in the RIDE/RISE trials, as has aflibercept in the VIVID/VISTA trials...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#2
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
RATIONALE: Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplant in 30% of adults, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in non-transplanted children. However, post-transplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric liver transplant recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. RESULTS: In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n=318), 31% of those with any post-transplant biopsy (n=271) had ≥1 biopsy with steatosis...
April 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426898/improving-myoblast-differentiation-on-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds
#3
Phammela N Abarzúa-Illanes, Cristina Padilla, Andrea Ramos, Mauricio Isaacs, Jorge Ramos-Grez, Hugo C Olguín, Loreto M Valenzuela
Polymer scaffolds are used as an alternative to support tissue regeneration when it does not occur on its own. Cell response on polymer scaffolds is determined by factors such as polymer composition, topology, and the presence of other molecules. We evaluated the cellular response of murine skeletal muscle myoblasts on aligned or unaligned fibers obtained by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and blends with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or decorin, a proteoglycan known to regulate myogenesis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426760/regulation-of-proteinaceous-effector-expression-in-phytopathogenic-fungi
#4
REVIEW
Kar-Chun Tan, Richard P Oliver
Effectors are molecules used by microbial pathogens to facilitate infection via effector-triggered susceptibility or tissue necrosis in their host. Much research has been focussed on the identification and elucidating the function of fungal effectors during plant pathogenesis. By comparison, knowledge of how phytopathogenic fungi regulate the expression of effector genes has been lagging. Several recent studies have illustrated the role of various transcription factors, chromosome-based control, effector epistasis, and mobilisation of endosomes within the fungal hyphae in regulating effector expression and virulence on the host plant...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426710/change-in-iron-metabolism-in-rats-after-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Guang-Liang Xie, Lin Zhu, Yan-Min Zhang, Qian-Nan Zhang, Qing Yu
Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1) and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426688/vancomycin-associated-acute-kidney-injury-a-cross-sectional-study-from-a-single-center-in-china
#6
Kunming Pan, Lingyun Ma, Qian Xiang, Xueying Li, Haixia Li, Ying Zhou, Li Yang, Yimin Cui
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of vancomycin (VAN)-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) in China and identify the risk factors for VA-AKI, as well as to comprehensively examine the risk related to concurrent drug use. Further, we assessed the outcomes of patients who developed VA-AKI and the risk factors for these outcomes. Finally, we aimed to provide suggestions for improving the prevention and treatment of VA-AKI in China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of inpatients who had been treated with VAN between January 2013 and December 2013 at Peking University First Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426687/does-ethnicity-matter-in-risk-and-protective-factors-for-suicide-attempts-and-suicide-lethality
#7
Carol C Choo, Keith M Harris, Peter K H Chew, Roger C Ho
This study explored ethnic differences in risk and protective factors for suicide attempts, for the major ethnic groups in Singapore, and ethnic differences in prediction of lethality. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters (N = 666) who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore were subjected to analysis. Of the sample, 69.2% were female, 30.8% male; 63.8% Chinese, 15.8% Indian, and 15.0% Malay. Indians were over-represented in this sample, as compared with the ethnic distribution in the general population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426620/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#8
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426615/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#9
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426531/high-fat-feeding-protects-mice-from-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-via-neutrophil-independent-mechanisms
#10
Michael R Wilson, Joanne E Petrie, Michael W Shaw, Cong Hu, Charlotte M Oakley, Samantha J Woods, Brijesh V Patel, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has a complex impact on acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, being associated with increased likelihood of developing the syndrome but reduced likelihood of dying. We propose that such observations are potentially explained by a model in which obesity influences the iatrogenic injury that occurs subsequent to intensive care admission. This study therefore investigated whether fat feeding protected mice from ventilator-induced lung injury. DESIGN: In vivo study...
April 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426363/social-risk-and-protective-factors-in-adolescents-reduction-and-cessation-of-alcohol-use
#11
Tyrone C Cheng, Celia C Lo
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' alcohol use is related to many health problems, injuries, and violent acts, some with fatal consequences. A gap exists in the literature discussing risk/protective factors in change from non-heavy drinking to non-drinking, and also for change from heavy drinking to non-heavy drinking or non-drinking. OBJECTIVE: This secondary study examined some risk and protective factors involved when adolescent non-heavy drinkers and adolescent heavy drinkers curb or terminate their drinking...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425977/prospective-analysis-of-the-influence-of-sport-and-educational-factors-on-the-prevalence-and-initiation-of-smoking-in-older-adolescents-from-croatia
#12
Natasa Zenic, Djivo Ban, Sanja Jurisic, Mladen Cubela, Jelena Rodek, Ljerka Ostojic, Mario Jelicic, Antonino Bianco, Damir Sekulic
The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational) achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females). Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014) when participants were 16 years old...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425943/beneficial-effect-of-voluntary-exercise-on-experimental-colitis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-the-role-of-irisin-adiponectin-and-proinflammatory-biomarkers
#13
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Jan Bilski, Dagmara Wojcik, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Surmiak, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Anna Chmura, Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Mach, Tomasz Brzozowski
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425883/transition-from-secondary-school-to-medical-school-the-role-of-self-study-and-self-regulated-learning-skills-in-freshman-burnout
#14
Joselina Barbosa, Álvaro Silva, Maria Amélia Ferreira, Milton Severo
INTRODUCTION: The transition from secondary to higher education is a challenging and demanding period for medical students. The ability to manage study time effectively and to be a self-regulated learner is essential to cope with the exponential growth of knowledge in medical education. Thus, the purpose of our study was to measure self-regulated learning skills and self-study across secondary higher education transition and to explore its effect on academic burnout in the first year of medical school...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425625/a-missense-mutation-in-damage-specific-dna-binding-protein-2-is-a-genetic-risk-factor-for-limbal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-horses
#15
Rebecca R Bellone, Jiayin Liu, Jessica L Petersen, Maura Mack, Moriel Singer-Berk, Cord Drögemüller, Julia Malvick, Barbara Wallner, Gottfried Brem, M Cecilia Penedo, Mary Lassaline
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of the equine eye, frequently originating at the limbus, with the potential to invade the cornea, cause visual impairment, and result in loss of the eye. Several breeds of horses have a high occurrence of limbal SCC implicating a genetic basis for limbal SCC predisposition. Pedigree analysis in the Haflinger breed supports a simple recessive mode of inheritance and a genome wide association study (N=23) identified a 1.5 Mb locus on ECA12 significantly associated with limbal SCC (Pcorrected = 0...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425592/mesoporous-titanium-oxide-with-high-specific-surface-area-as-a-coating-for-in-tube-solid-phase-microextraction-combined-with-hplc-for-the-analysis-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#16
Xiuqin Wang, Juanjuan Feng, Yanan Bu, Yu Tian, Chuannan Luo, Min Sun
Stainless-steel wires coated with mesoporous titanium oxide were placed into a polyether ether ketone tube for in-tube solid-phase microextraction, and the coating sorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was combined with high performance liquid chromatography to build an online system. Using eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the analytes, some conditions including sample flow rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425564/osteoblast-role-in-osteoarthritis-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Nicola Maruotti, Addolorata Corrado, Francesco Paolo Cantatore
Even if osteoarthritis pathogenesis is still poorly understood, numerous evidences suggest that osteoblasts dysregulation plays a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. An abnormal expression of OPG and RANKL has been described in osteoarthritis osteoblasts, which is responsible for abnormal bone remodeling and decreased mineralization. Alterations in genes expression are involved in dysregulation of osteoblast function, bone remodeling and mineralization, leading to osteoarthritis development. Moreover, osteoblasts produce numerous transcription factors, growth factors and other proteic molecules which are involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425490/urinary-and-fecal-metabonomics-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-chaihu-shu-gan-san-on-antibiotic-induced-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-rats
#18
Meng Yu, Hong-Mei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Li-Li Sun, Zhong-Mei Zou
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development. A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), has been effectively used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate whether CSGS modulates the host metabolic phenotype under the condition of gut microbiota dysbiosis. The metabonomics studies of biochemical changes in urine and feces of antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425451/ifn%C3%AE-protects-neurons-from-damage-in-a-murine-model-of-hiv-1-associated-brain-injury
#19
Victoria E Thaney, Alan M O'Neill, Melanie M Hoefer, Ricky Maung, Ana B Sanchez, Marcus Kaul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) causes brain injury. Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are critical mediators of any anti-viral immune response and IFNβ has been implicated in the temporary control of lentiviral infection in the brain. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 in their central nervous system (HIVgp120tg) mount a transient IFNβ response and provide evidence that IFNβ confers neuronal protection against HIVgp120 toxicity. In cerebrocortical cell cultures, neuroprotection by IFNβ against gp120 toxicity is dependent on IFNα receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and the β-chemokine CCL4, as IFNAR1 deficiency and neutralizing antibodies against CCL4, respectively, abolish the neuroprotective effects...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425257/role-of-hygienic-factors-in-the-etiology-of-allergic-disorders-in-children
#20
Şule Yeşil, Ahmet Kan, Olkar Abdulmajed, Arzu Bakirtaş, Nedim Sultan, Sadık M Demirsoy
BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the role of body flora and chronic inflammatory infections in the etiology of allergic disorders in Turkish children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty pediatric asthma patients with positive skin prick tests and 40 age-matched healthy subjects with negative skin prick tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum H. pylori IgG, viral hepatitis serology, IL-10, and TGF-beta levels were measured. Stool and throat cultures were taken and tested for occurrence of microorganisms...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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