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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931235/monoclonal-antibody-protects-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-by-enhancing-bacterial-clearance-and-evading-sepsis
#1
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931165/adolescents-and-young-adults-perceptions-of-electronic-cigarettes-as-a-gateway-to-smoking-a-qualitative-study-in-switzerland
#2
Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Suris
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants identified a significant risk of EC acting as a gateway to TC use, several factors contributing to this phenomenon such as a facilitated transition to smoking or its perception as a harmless toy...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931148/previous-exposure-in-a-high-risk-area-for-travellers-diarrhoea-within-the-past-year-is-associated-with-a-significant-protective-effect-for-travellers-diarrhoea-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-in-travellers-to-south-asia
#3
Esther Kuenzli, David Juergensen, Kerstin Kling, Veronika K Jaeger, Susan DeCrom, Robert Steffen, Andreas F Widmer, Manuel Battegay, Christoph Hatz, Andreas Neumayr
Background: Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Methods: An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931081/female-reproductive-success-and-calf-survival-in-a-north-sea-coastal-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-population
#4
Kevin P Robinson, Texa M C Sim, Ross M Culloch, Thomas S Bean, Isabel Cordoba Aguilar, Sonja M Eisfeld, Miranda Filan, Gary N Haskins, Genevieve Williams, Graham J Pierce
Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930915/microvesicle-subsets-in-sepsis-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-faecal-peritonitis
#5
Hazem M S Lashin, Suchita Nadkarni, Silvia Oggero, Hefin R Jones, Julian C Knight, Charles J Hinds, Mauro Perretti
RATIONALE: Microvesicles (MV) act as a non-soluble means of inter-cellular communication, with effector roles in disease pathogenesis and potentially as biomarkers. Previously, we reported that neutrophil MV expressing alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2MG) are protective in experimental sepsis and associate with survival in a small cohort of patients with sepsis due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). OBJECTIVES: To characterise MV profiles in sepsis due to CAP or faecal peritonitis (FP) and determine their relation to outcome...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930914/the-protective-effect-of-a-short-peptide-derived-from-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Joseph McGinn, Fangming Zhang, Monowar Aziz, Weng-Lang Yang, Jeffrey Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co-receptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pre-treatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930874/the-effectiveness-of-fish-oil-supplementation-in-attenuating-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females-during-mid-follicular-and-mid-luteal-menstrual-phases
#7
Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Thomas L Andre, Josh J Gann, Paul S Hwang, Darryn S Willoughby
The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in estrogen levels during the female menstrual cycle and fish oil supplementation would attenuate eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). In a double-blind fashion, 22 physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 165.2 ± 7.5 cm) were randomly assigned to ingest either 6 grams of fish oil (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) daily for 21 days. Participants underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors on two occasions during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the 28-day menstrual cycle...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930761/factors-associated-with-medical-school-graduates-intention-to-work-with-underserved-populations-policy-implications-for-advancing-workforce-diversity
#8
Andrea N Garcia, Tony Kuo, Lisa Arangua, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
PURPOSE: Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). METHOD: Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#9
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930270/protective-effects-of-six-selected-dietary-compounds-against-leptin-induced-proliferation-of-oestrogen-receptor-positive-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, E Dilip de Silva
BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered as one of the risk factors for breast cancer. Leptin has been found to be involved in breast cancer progression. Therefore, novel approaches to antagonize biological effects of leptin are much needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of six dietary compounds (quercetin, curcumin, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ascorbic acid and catechin) and assess the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in leptin-stimulated MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro...
July 26, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930225/vochysia-rufa-stem-bark-extract-protects-endothelial-cells-against-high-glucose-damage
#11
Neire Moura de Gouveia, Sonia Ramos, María Ángeles Martín, Foued Salmen Espindola, Luis Goya, Olga M Palomino
Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr) has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA) endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum...
February 21, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929904/sexual-behaviours-in-the-context-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-evd-in-ghana
#12
Eric Y Tenkorang
Evidence suggests that Ebola virus disease can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, in particular through contact with the semen of an infected person. Yet few studies examine sexual behaviours in the context of Ebola. Using data collected from 460 women and 340 men within 40 selected communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, this study employed hierarchical linear modelling to examine individual and community-level factors that influence willingness to engage in behaviours that protect against the sexual transmission of Ebola...
September 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929839/capturing-ecology-in-modeling-approaches-applied-to-environmental-risk-assessment-of-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-fish
#13
Kate S Mintram, A Ross Brown, Samuel K Maynard, Pernille Thorbek, Charles R Tyler
Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species...
September 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929838/the-influence-of-nutritional-factors-on-prostate-cancer-incidence-and-aggressiveness
#14
Manrique Pascual-Geler, Noelia Urquiza-Salvat, Jose Manuel Cozar, Inmaculada Robles-Fernandez, Ana Rivas, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez, Francisco Manuel Ocaña-Peinado, Jose Antonio Lorente, Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero
There is an increasing evidence for a link between nutrition, lifestyle and prostate cancer (PCa) development and/or progression of disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary factors and PCa incidence and aggressiveness in a case-control study. After the analysis of the anatomic pathology, subjects were classified in patients with PCa (n = 157) and controls (n = 158). Clinical data including Gleason score, PSA values and biopsy results, were compiled. Frequencies of food consumption and sociodemographic data were also obtained...
September 20, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929728/-undocumented-immigrants-what-do-we-know-about-their-health
#15
Giovanni Baglio, Raffaele Di Palma, Erica Eugeni, Antonio Fortino
In Italy, immigrants represent a "fuzzy" set, to which it is difficult to apply dichotomous categories as a classification (i.e., regular/irregular, economic/forced, etcetera). These categories lose its meaning when used to study health phenomena. Rather, the epidemiological profile of such a heterogeneous population depends on the varying influence of health determinants in the life-course of migration. This article builds on those assumptions, and analyses the health of irregularly- staying immigrants by adopting a global approach to the migration phenomenon...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929677/-potential-distribution-of-rhodiola-crenulata-in-tibetan-plateau-based-on-maxent-model
#16
Jian Wen, Xiu-Mei Lv, Dao-Xin Hong, Cai-Xiang Xie, Jing Zhang, Yi Zhang
Wildlife tending and artificial cultivation is an important way to protect the wild resources of Rhodiola crenulata. It is a study hotspot at present. The distribution information of R. crenulata was collected by query data and field survey, the ecological suitability regionalization was conducted based on maximum entropy model combine with ecological factors, including climate, soil and altitude. To provide the reference for production layout, suitable planting area and the selection of artificial planting base by studying the ecological suitability regionalization of R...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929672/-progress-of-effects-of-light-on-plant-flavonoids
#17
REVIEW
Jun-Qian Pan, Xi-Ran Tong, Bao-Lin Guo
As an important secondary metabolites of medicinal plant, flavonoids plays a very important role on itself including light protection and antioxidant. Light is one of the important environmental factors which impacts the secondary metabolites of plant and has a significant impact on biological synthesis of flavonoids. This paper reviews the recent progress of the effects of light on flavonoids on the plants focusing from light intensity and light quality, and summarizes briefly functions of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in plant secondary metabolism and the upstream key enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929638/interactions-of-wrky15-and-wrky33-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-the-resistance-of-oilseed-rape-to-sclerotinia-infection
#18
Fei Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Meirong Wang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Chaozhi Ma, Tingdong Fu, Jinxing Tu
WRKY transcription factors are known to participate in the defense responses of higher plants. However, little is known about the roles of such proteins, especially regarding their functions in the resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes stem rot. In the present study, we identified BnWRKY33 as a S. sclerotiorum-responsive gene that positively regulates resistance to this pathogen by enhancing the expression of genes involved in camalexin synthesis and genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929637/the-public-awareness-of-stillbirth-an-irish-population-study
#19
D Nuzum, S Meaney, K O'Donoghue
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the general population's awareness of stillbirth. DESIGN: A cross sectional telephone population survey. SETTING: A nationally representative sample of the Irish adult population. SAMPLE: 999 members of the Irish population selected by random digit dialling. METHODS: Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the odds of identifying risk factors for stillbirth...
September 19, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929625/association-of-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-incident-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-women
#20
Andrea L Roberts, Susan Malspeis, Laura D Kubzansky, Candace H Feldman, Shun-Chiao Chang, Karestan C Koenen, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first longitudinal study examining whether trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with increased risk of incident SLE in a civilian cohort. METHODS: We examined the association of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms with SLE incidence over 24 years of follow-up in a U.S. longitudinal cohort of women (N=54,763). Incident SLE with ≥4 American College of Rheumatology criteria was ascertained by self-report and confirmed by medical record review...
September 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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