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Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Laura H Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Sami Pietilä, Asta Laiho, Arno Hänninen, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Eriika Savontaus, Ullamari Pesonen, Markku Koulu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal metformin exposure has been shown to improve the metabolic outcome in the offspring of high fat diet fed dams. However, if this is evident also in a genetic model of obesity and whether gut microbiota has a role, is not known. METHODS: The metabolic effects of prenatal metformin exposure were investigated in a genetic model of obesity, mice overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the sympathetic nervous system and in brain noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYDβH)...
2016: PloS One
Nicholas J Ollberding, Eszter Völgyi, Maurizio Macaluso, Ranjit Kumar, Casey Morrow, Frances A Tylavsky, Chandrika J Piyathilake
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation) and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation) balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis...
2016: PloS One
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Our prior work showed that a novel microbiome resides in the seminal vesicles of wild-type and oestrogen receptor α (Esr1) knock-out mice and is impacted by the presence of functional Esr1 genes. The seminal fluid microbiome (SFM) may influence the health and reproductive status of the male, along with that of his partner and offspring. A high-fat diet (HFD) alters metabolites and other factors within seminal fluid and might affect the SFM. Adult (~15 weeks old) male mice were placed for 4 weeks on a control or high-fat diet and seminal fluid and fecal samples were collected, bacterial DNA isolated and subjected to 16s rRNA sequencing...
August 29, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Sushrut Jangi, Roopali Gandhi, Laura M Cox, Ning Li, Felipe von Glehn, Raymond Yan, Bonny Patel, Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Shirong Liu, Bonnie L Glanz, Sandra Cook, Stephanie Tankou, Fiona Stuart, Kirsy Melo, Parham Nejad, Kathleen Smith, Begüm D Topçuolu, James Holden, Pia Kivisäkk, Tanuja Chitnis, Philip L De Jager, Francisco J Quintana, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, Howard L Weiner
The gut microbiome plays an important role in immune function and has been implicated in several autoimmune disorders. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS, n=60) and healthy controls (n=43). Microbiome alterations in MS include increases in Methanobrevibacter and Akkermansia and decreases in Butyricimonas, and correlate with variations in the expression of genes involved in dendritic cell maturation, interferon signalling and NF-kB signalling pathways in circulating T cells and monocytes...
2016: Nature Communications
Emmanuel Montassier, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Tonya Ward, Stephane Corvec, Thomas Gastinne, Gilles Potel, Phillipe Moreau, Marie France de la Cochetiere, Eric Batard, Dan Knights
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia, or bloodstream infection (BSI), is a leading cause of death among patients with certain types of cancer. A previous study reported that intestinal domination, defined as occupation of at least 30 % of the microbiota by a single bacterial taxon, is associated with BSI in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. However, the impact of the intestinal microbiome before treatment initiation on the risk of subsequent BSI remains unclear. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome collected before treatment to identify microbes that predict the risk of BSI...
2016: Genome Medicine
Mi Young Lim, Hyun Ju You, Hyo Shin Yoon, Bomi Kwon, Jae Yoon Lee, Sunghee Lee, Yun-Mi Song, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung, GwangPyo Ko
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) arises from complex interactions between host genetic and environmental factors. Although it is now widely accepted that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host metabolism, current knowledge on the effect of host genetics on specific gut microbes related to MetS status remains limited. Here, we investigated the links among host genetic factors, gut microbiota and MetS in humans. DESIGN: We characterised the gut microbial community composition of 655 monozygotic (n=306) and dizygotic (n=74) twins and their families (n=275), of which approximately 18% (121 individuals) had MetS...
April 6, 2016: Gut
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and two functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (PDX; 1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (GOS; 3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (Lf; 0...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Federica Del Chierico, Valerio Nobili, Pamela Vernocchi, Alessandra Russo, Cristiano De Stefanis, Daniela Gnani, Cesare Furlanello, Alessandro Zandonà, Paola Paci, Giorgio Capuani, Bruno Dallapiccola, Alfredo Miccheli, Anna Alisi, Lorenza Putignani
: There is evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affected by gut microbiota. Therefore, we investigated its modifications in paediatric NAFLD patients using targeted-metagenomics (MG) and metabolomics (MB). Stools were collected from 61 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFL, NASH, or obesity and 54 healthy subjects (CTRLs), matched in a case-control fashion. Operational taxonomic units were pyrosequenced targeting 16S ribosomal RNA and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined by solid-phase micro-extraction GC-MS...
March 29, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Chien-Chang Chen, Kun-Jei Chen, Man-Shan Kong, Hung-Ju Chang, Jing-Long Huang
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that food sensitization (FS) in children could be linked to specific gut microbiota. The aim of our study is to quantify and evaluate differences in gut microbiota composition between children with FS and healthy controls. METHODS: A case-control study of 23 children with FS and 22 healthy children was performed. Individual microbial diversity and composition were analyzed via parallel barcoded 454 pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene hypervariable V3-V5 regions...
May 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Hidenori Shimizu, Yoshimi Benno
A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132(T) and B. longum JCM1217(T) ) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication...
November 2015: Microbiology and Immunology
Patrick G Miller, Michael B Bonn, Craig L Franklin, Aaron C Ericsson, Susan C McKarns
TNF-α antagonists provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. However, TNF antagonism unexplainably exacerbates CNS autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that TNFR2 deficiency results in female-biased spontaneous autoimmune CNS demyelination in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific 2D2 TCR transgenic mice. Disease in TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice was associated with CNS infiltration of T and B cells as well as increased production of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific IL-17, IFN-γ, and IgG2b...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Joshua S Son, Ling J Zheng, Leahana M Rowehl, Xinyu Tian, Yuanhao Zhang, Wei Zhu, Leighann Litcher-Kelly, Kenneth D Gadow, Grace Gathungu, Charles E Robertson, Diana Ir, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to functional GI disorders and diet were collected from ASD probands and NT siblings of ASD probands (age 7-14). Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) were assessed using the parent-completed ROME III questionnaire for pediatric FGIDs, and problem behaviors were assessed using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)...
2015: PloS One
Sophie Candon, Alicia Perez-Arroyo, Cindy Marquet, Fabrice Valette, Anne-Perrine Foray, Benjamin Pelletier, Christian Milani, Cristian Milani, Marco Ventura, Jean-François Bach, Lucienne Chatenoud
Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes is a prototypic autoimmune disease whose incidence steadily increased over the past decades in industrialized countries. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota to explain this trend. Here, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes were treated with different antibiotics to explore the influence of a targeted intestinal dysbiosis in the progression of the disease. A mixture of wide spectrum antibiotics (i.e...
2015: PloS One
Xochitl C Morgan, Boyko Kabakchiev, Levi Waldron, Andrea D Tyler, Timothy L Tickle, Raquel Milgrom, Joanne M Stempak, Dirk Gevers, Ramnik J Xavier, Mark S Silverberg, Curtis Huttenhower
BACKGROUND: Pouchitis is common after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery for ulcerative colitis (UC). Similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both host genetics and the microbiota are implicated in its pathogenesis. We use the IPAA model of IBD to associate mucosal host gene expression with mucosal microbiomes and clinical outcomes. We analyze host transcriptomic data and 16S rRNA gene sequencing data from paired biopsies from IPAA patients with UC and familial adenomatous polyposis...
2015: Genome Biology
Fang Wang, Ting Yu, Guohong Huang, Da Cai, Xiaolin Liang, Haiyan Su, Zhenjun Zhu, Danlei Li, Yang Yang, Peihong Shen, Ruifeng Mao, Lian Yu, Mouming Zhao, Quanyang Li
Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota underpin the development of health and longevity. However, our understanding of what influences the composition of this community of the longevous has not been adequately described. Therefore, illumina sequencing analysis was performed on the gut microbiota of centenarians (aged 100-108 years; RC) and younger elderlies (aged 85-99 years; RE) living in Bama County, Guangxi, China and the elderlies (aged 80-92 years; CE) living in Nanning City, Guangxi, China. In addition, their diet was monitored using a semiquantitative dietary questionary (FFQ 23)...
August 2015: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Elena Biagi, Marco Candela, Manuela Centanni, Clarissa Consolandi, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Alessandro Ghezzo, Maria Scurti, Stefano Salvioli, Claudio Franceschi, Patrizia Brigidi
BACKGROUND: Premature aging seriously compromises the health status of Down Syndrome (DS) persons. Since human aging has been associated with a deterioration of the gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism, here we investigated the composition of GM in DS. METHODS: The observational study presented involved 17 adult DS persons. We characterized the GM structure by 454 pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. DS microbiome was compared with that of age-matched healthy non-trisomic adults enrolled in the same geographic area...
2014: PloS One
Lv Wang, Claus T Christophersen, Michael J Sorich, Jacobus P Gerber, Manya T Angley, Michael A Conlon
BACKGROUND: A recent report indicated that numbers of Sutterella spp. are elevated in gastrointestinal biopsies taken from children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have recently reported changes in the numbers of some bacteria within the stool of ASD children, and now examine whether numbers of Sutterella spp. and some other mucosa-associated bacteria linked with gastrointestinal disease (Ruminococcus gnavus and Ruminococcus torques) are also altered in the stool of these children...
November 4, 2013: Molecular Autism
Andrea D Tyler, Natalie Knox, Boyko Kabakchiev, Raquel Milgrom, Richard Kirsch, Zane Cohen, Robin S McLeod, David S Guttman, Denis O Krause, Mark S Silverberg
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) are common and thought to arise through mechanisms similar to de novo onset inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific organisms in the tissue-associated microbiota are associated with inflammatory pouch complications. METHODS: Patients having previously undergone IPAA were recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital...
2013: PloS One
Tore Midtvedt
BACKGROUND: During the recent years, a substantial amount of new data has underlined the importance of the gut as a triggering place for autism. Temporary improvements in clinical status following dietary alterations and the same that may occur after an antibiotic therapy are reported. Additionally, increasing numbers of bacteria belonging to certain groups, such as clostridia, desulfovibrios, and sutterella, have been reported. So far, however, presence of any bacterial group has never been causatively linked to autism, and every time a new candidate organism is introduced the same questions have to be asked: What is the cause? What is the consequence? What is the confounder? The possibilities of answering these questions are hampered by difficulties in obtaining adequate samples...
2012: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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