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Thomas E Rams, Jacqueline D Sautter, Chinhua Y Hsiao, Arie J van Winkelhoff
The accuracy of a phenotypic scheme to recognize periodontal Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens group clinical isolates on primary isolation culture plates was assessed with matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 84 fresh subgingival isolates from 23 chronic periodontitis patients were presumptively recognized on anaerobically-incubated enriched Brucella blood agar primary isolation plates as P. intermedia/nigrescens based on their dark-pigmented colony morphology, brick-red autofluorescence under long-wave ultraviolet light, and a negative fluorescence test for lactose production...
June 15, 2018: Anaerobe
Sisheng Wu, Ting Luo, Siyu Wang, Jicong Zhou, Yingchun Ni, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide that affects lipid biosynthesis in fungi. In this study, we explored the effects of PM on mouse metabolism and gut microbiota-related pathways by exposing C57BL/6J mice to 1, 3, and 10 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 10 weeks. We found that hepatic bile acids (BAs) were considerably increased in the PM-treated group. The transcription of genes related to BA synthesis and transportation were also markedly altered in the liver and the ileum; accordingly, serous BA profiles were changed...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ling Zhao, Yufen Huang, Lin Lu, Wei Yang, Tao Huang, Zesi Lin, Chengyuan Lin, Hiuyee Kwan, Hoi Leong Xavier Wong, Yang Chen, Silong Sun, Xuefeng Xie, Xiaodong Fang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lixin Zhu, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS: An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats...
June 14, 2018: Microbiome
Zhe Xun, Qian Zhang, Tao Xu, Ning Chen, Feng Chen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, relapsing disorders of unclear etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. Aberrant interactions between the human microbiota and immune system in genetically susceptible populations underlie IBD pathogenesis. Despite extensive studies examining the involvement of the gut microbiota in IBD using culture-independent techniques, information is lacking regarding other human microbiome components relevant to IBD. Since accumulated knowledge has underscored the role of the oral microbiota in various systemic diseases, we hypothesized that dissonant oral microbial structure, composition, and function, and different community ecotypes are associated with IBD; and we explored potentially available oral indicators for predicting diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shoko Edogawa, Stephanie A Peters, Gregory D Jenkins, Sakteesh V Gurunathan, Wendy J Sundt, Stephen Johnson, Ryan J Lennon, Roy B Dyer, Michael Camilleri, Purna C Kashyap, Gianrico Farrugia, Jun Chen, Ravinder J Singh, Madhusudan Grover
Intestinal barrier function and microbiota are integrally related and play critical roles in maintenance of host physiology. Sex is a key biologic variable for several disorders. Our aim was to determine sex-based differences in response to perturbation and subsequent recovery of intestinal barrier function and microbiota in healthy humans. Twenty-three volunteers underwent duodenal biopsies, mucosal impedance, and in vivo permeability measurement. Permeability testing was repeated after administration of indomethacin, then 4 to 6 wk after its discontinuation...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Olena Prykhodko, Jonna Sandberg, Stephen Burleigh, Inger Björck, Anne Nilsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Maria-Jose Valenzuela, Mario Caruffo, Yoani Herrera, Daniel A Medina, Maximo Coronado, Carmen G Feijóo, Salomé Muñoz, Daniel Garrido, Miriam Troncoso, Guillermo Figueroa, Magaly Toro, Angelica Reyes-Jara, Fabien Magne, Paola Navarrete
In this study we evaluated if zebrafish larvae can be colonized by human gut microorganisms. We tested two strategies: (1) through transplantation of a human fecal microbiota and (2) by successively transplanting aerotolerant anaerobic microorganisms, similar to the colonization in the human intestine during early life. We used conventionally raised zebrafish larvae harboring their own aerobic microbiota to improve the colonization of anaerobic microorganisms. The results showed with the fecal transplant, that some members of the human gut microbiota were transferred to larvae...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
F Castillo-Álvarez, P Pérez-Matute, J A Oteo, M E Marzo-Sola
INTRODUCTION: The association between gut microbiota and animal models of multiple sclerosis has been well established; however, studies in humans are scarce. METHODS: We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study comparing the relative composition of gut microbiota in 30 patients with multiple sclerosis (15 treated with interferon β-1b, 15 not receiving this treatment) and 14 healthy controls using next generation sequencing. RESULTS: Patients with multiple sclerosis and controls showed differences in the proportion of Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Lentisphaerae phyla and in 17 bacterial species...
June 9, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Wei-Ting Lee, Yu-Tang Tung, Chun-Ching Wu, Pang-Shuo Tu, Gow-Chin Yen
Ulcerative colitis (UC), one type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As camellia oil (CO) is traditionally used to treat GI disorders, this study investigated the role of CO on acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. The composition of the gut microbial community is related to many diseases, thus, this study also investigated the effects of CO on the composition of the gut microbiota. The rats were fed a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight CO, olive oil (OO), or soybean oil (SO) once a day for 20 days, and the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Andrea Hahn, Matthew L Bendall, Keylie M Gibson, Hollis Chaney, Iman Sami, Geovanny F Perez, Anastassios C Koumbourlis, Timothy A McCaffrey, Robert J Freishtat, Keith A Crandall
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with recurrent lung infections that can lead to morbidity and mortality. The impact of antibiotics for treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations on the CF airway microbiome remains unclear with prior studies giving conflicting results and being limited by their use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Our primary objective was to validate the use of true single molecular sequencing (tSMS) and PathoScope in the analysis of the CF airway microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Renee M Petri, Payam Vahmani, Hee Eun Yang, Michael E R Dugan, Tim A McAllister
Extruded flaxseed (25%) and ground hay (75%) were each fed (DM basis) either together in a total mixed ration (TMR) or as flaxseed first followed by hay (non-TMR) to three pens of eight crossbred steers ( n = 24 per diet) for 240 days. Compared to TMR, feeding non-TMR enriched subcutaneous fat with α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and its biohydrogenation intermediates including vaccenic acid [ trans ( t )11-18:1], rumenic acid [ cis ( c )9, t 11-conjugated linoleic acid] and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eun-Young Choi, So-Hui Choe, Jin-Yi Hyeon, Hae Ryoun Park, In Soon Choi, Sung-Jo Kim
AIMS: Josamycin has immunomodulatory properties independent of its antibacterial actions. This study was designed to explore the influences and associated mechanisms of josamycin upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogenic bacterium associated with periodontal disease. MAIN METHODS: LPS was purified by employing phenol-water extraction protocol. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Adele Papetti, Caterina Signoretto, David A Spratt, Jonathan Pratten, Peter Lingström, Egija Zaura, Itzhak Ofek, Michael Wilson, Carla Pruzzo, Gabriella Gazzani
The present study investigated the compounds present in the low molecular mass fraction of Lentinus edodes mushroom (shiitake) extract and their anti-virulence activity against oral pathogens (reference and clinical Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia strains). Oxalic, succinic, and quinic acids, and adenine, inosine, and uridine were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Their anti-biofilm production and preformed biofilm disaggregation activities were studied using commercial standard compounds at different concentrations...
June 8, 2018: Food & Function
Franco Cavalla, Claudia Cristina Biguetti, Jessica Lima Melchiades, Andre Pantenuci Tabanez, Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone, Marcelo Faveri, Magda Feres, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet
Chronic periodontitis is the most prevalent form of inflammatory destructive bone disease and has been affecting humans since antiquity. Evidence suggest that genetic factors can highly influence periodontitis risk, modulating disease elements such as the susceptibility to microbial colonization and the nature of subsequent host-microbe interaction. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the occurrence of periodontitis, but the full range of genetic influence in periodontitis outcomes remains to be determined...
May 23, 2018: Genes
Nurver Ulger Toprak, Veloo Alida C M, Edit Urban, Ingrid Wybo, Justesen Ulrik S, Helene Jean-Pierre, Trefor Morris, Oncu Akgul, Guven Kulekci, Guner Soyletir, Elisabeth Nagy
Prevotella species, members of the human microbiota, can cause opportunistic infections. Rapid and accurate identification of Prevotella isolates plays a critical role in successful treatment, especially since the antibiotic susceptibility profile differs between species. Studies, mostly carried out using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Biotyper system, showed that MALDI-TOF MS is an accurate, rapid and satisfactory method for the identification of clinically important anaerobes...
May 30, 2018: Anaerobe
Daotong Li, Pan Wang, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
Barley leaf (BL) contains abundant plant fibers, which are important substrates for the metabolism and degradation by the gut microbiota. Here we show that mice fed a diet supplemented with BL exhibited altered gut bacterial composition characterized by the enrichment of fiber-degrading bacteria Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella. Gut microbiota-mediated BL degradation promoted butyrate and propionate production. Metabolomic analysis showed increased aromatic metabolites such as ferulic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid in feces of mice fed with BL...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xia Chen, Chenmei Xia, Qianqian Li, Linxiao Jin, Liyun Zheng, Zhongbiao Wu
Objective: To identify and compare the bacterial community profile of mucosal tissues from a gastric antrum ulcer and a duodenal ulcer in Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) positive dyspeptic patients. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the mucosal tissues obtained from 18 patients diagnosed with gastric antrum or duodenal ulcers. A library was constructed using 16S rRNA gene amplification, and Miseq high-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the amplified products. Bioinformatics methods, including operational taxonomic units (OTUs), hierarchical clustering, and a diversity analysis, were performed to investigate and characterize the community composition...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rong Huang, Ting Li, Jiajia Ni, Xiaochun Bai, Yi Gao, Yang Li, Peng Zhang, Yan Gong
Gut microbial dysbiosis is correlated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, analyzing the changing patterns in gut microbiota during HCC development, especially before HCC occurrence, is essential for the diagnosis and prevention of HCC based on gut microbial composition. However, these changing patterns in HCC are poorly understood, especially considering the sex differences in HCC incidence and mortality. Here, with an aim to determine the relationship between gut microbiota and HCC development in both sexes, and to screen potential microbial biomarkers for HCC diagnosis, we studied the changing patterns in the gut microbiota from mice of both sexes with liver-specific knockout of Tsc1 ( LTsc1KO ) that spontaneously developed HCC by 9-10 months of age and compared them to the patterns observed in their wide-type Tsc1fl/fl cohorts using high-throughput sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun-Chieh J Tsay, Benjamin G Wu, Michelle H Badri, Jose C Clemente, Nan Shen, Peter Meyn, Yonghua Li, Ting-An Yie, Tenzin Lhakhang, Evan Olsen, Vivek Murthy, Gaetane Michaud, Imran Sulaiman, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Adriana Heguy, Harvey Pass, Michael D Weiden, William N Rom, Daniel H Sterman, Richard Bonneau, Martin J Blaser, Leopoldo N Segal
BACKGROUND: In lung cancer, upregulation of the PI3K pathway is an early event that contributes to cell proliferation, survival, and tissue invasion. Upregulation of this pathway was recently described as associated with enrichment of the lower airways with bacteria identified as oral commensals. We hypothesize that host-microbe interactions in the lower airways of subjects with lung cancer affect known cancer pathways. METHODS: Airway brushes were collected prospectively from subjects with lung nodules at time of diagnostic bronchoscopy, including 39 subjects with final lung cancer diagnoses and 36 subjects with non-cancer diagnosis...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Huan Li, Jiapeng Qu, Tongtong Li, Stephan Wirth, Yanming Zhang, Xinquan Zhao, Xiangzhen Li
The gut microbiota in mammals plays a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. However, relatively little is known regarding to how the animals adapts to extreme environments through regulating gut microbial diversity and function. Here, we investigated the diet, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and cellulolytic activity from two common pika (Ochotona spp.) species in China, including Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Daurian pika (Ochotona daurica) from the Inner Mongolia Grassland...
June 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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