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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107528/nasopharyngeal-microbiome-diversity-changes-over-time-in-children-with-asthma
#1
Marcos Pérez-Losada, Lamia Alamri, Keith A Crandall, Robert J Freishtat
BACKGROUND: The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation) of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years) and determine their stability over time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103814/the-respiratory-microbiome-in-bronchial-mucosa-and-secretions-from-severe-ige-mediated-asthma-patients
#2
Laura Millares, Guadalupe Bermudo, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Christian Domingo, Marian Garcia-Nuñez, Xavier Pomares, Andrés Moya, Eduard Monsó
BACKGROUND: The bronchial microbiome in chronic lung diseases presents an abnormal pattern, but its microbial composition and regional differences in severe asthma have not been sufficiently addressed. The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial community in bronchial mucosa and secretions of patients with severe chronic asthma chronically treated with corticosteroids in addition to usual care according to Global Initiative for Asthma. Bacterial community composition was obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing, and functional capabilities through PICRUSt...
January 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093069/assessing-the-progression-of-chronic-periodontitis-using-subgingival-pathogen-levels-a-24-month-prospective-multicenter-cohort-study
#3
E Kakuta, Y Nomura, T Morozumi, T Nakagawa, T Nakamura, K Noguchi, A Yoshimura, Y Hara, O Fujise, F Nishimura, T Kono, M Umeda, M Fukuda, T Noguchi, N Yoshinari, C Fukaya, S Sekino, Y Numabe, N Sugano, K Ito, H Kobayashi, Y Izumi, H Takai, Y Ogata, S Takano, M Minabe, A Makino-Oi, A Saito, Y Abe, S Sato, F Suzuki, K Takahashi, T Sugaya, M Kawanami, N Hanada, S Takashiba, H Yoshie
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of the progression of periodontitis presently depends on the use of clinical symptoms (such as attachment loss) and radiographic imaging. The aim of the multicenter study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic use of the bacterial content of subgingival plaque recovered from the deepest pockets in assessing disease progression in chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This study consisted of a 24-month investigation of a total of 163 patients with chronic periodontitis who received trimonthly follow-up care...
January 16, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087240/lactobacillus-deficient-cervicovaginal-bacterial-communities-are-associated-with-increased-hiv-acquisition-in-young-south-african-women
#4
Christina Gosmann, Melis N Anahtar, Scott A Handley, Mara Farcasanu, Galeb Abu-Ali, Brittany A Bowman, Nikita Padavattan, Chandni Desai, Lindsay Droit, Amber Moodley, Mary Dong, Yuezhou Chen, Nasreen Ismail, Thumbi Ndung'u, Musie S Ghebremichael, Duane R Wesemann, Caroline Mitchell, Krista L Dong, Curtis Huttenhower, Bruce D Walker, Herbert W Virgin, Douglas S Kwon
Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#5
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077337/stress-hormone-epinephrine-adrenaline-and-norepinephrine-noradrenaline-effects-on-the-anaerobic-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Lyudmila Boyanova
Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes...
January 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072421/on-the-ecosystemic-network-of-saliva-in-healthy-young-adults
#7
Egija Zaura, Bernd W Brandt, Andrei Prodan, Maarten Joost Teixeira de Mattos, Sultan Imangaliyev, Jolanda Kool, Mark J Buijs, Ferry Lpw Jagers, Nienke L Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Dagmar E Slot, Elena A Nicu, Maxim D Lagerweij, Marleen M Janus, Marcela M Fernandez-Gutierrez, Evgeni Levin, Bastiaan P Krom, Henk S Brand, Enno Ci Veerman, Michiel Kleerebezem, Bruno G Loos, G A van der Weijden, Wim Crielaard, Bart Jf Keijser
A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the ecobiological heterogeneity of the salivary ecosystem and relations between the salivary microbiome, salivary metabolome and host-related biochemical salivary parameters in 268 healthy adults after overnight fasting. Gender-specific differences in the microbiome and metabolome were observed and were associated with salivary pH and dietary protein intake...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#8
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070336/noncontiguous-finished-genome-sequence-and-description-of-prevotella-phocaeensis-sp-nov-a-new-anaerobic-species-isolated-from-human-gut-infected-by-clostridium-difficile
#9
P Afouda, S Ndongo, S Khelaifia, N Labas, F Cadoret, F Di Pinto, J Delerce, D Raoult, M Million
Prevotella phocaeensis sp. nov. strain SN19(T) (= DSM 103364) is a new species isolated from the gut microbiota of patient with colitis due to Clostridium difficile. Strain SN19(T) is Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, strictly anaerobic, nonmotile and non-endospore forming. The predominance fatty acid is hexadecanoic acid. Its 16S rRNA showed a 97.70% sequence identity with its phylogenetically closest species, Prevotella oralis. The genome is 2 922 117 bp long and contains 2486 predicted genes including 56 RNA genes...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#10
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064047/inhibitory-effects-of-soybean-oligosaccharides-and-water-soluble-soybean-fibre-on-formation-of-putrefactive-compounds-from-soy-protein-by-gut-microbiota
#11
Toru Nakata, Daisuke Kyoui, Hajime Takahashi, Bon Kimura, Takashi Kuda
Soybeans are part of the traditional food consumed in Asia countries. In this study, we investigated inhibitory effects of soybean oligosaccharides and water-soluble soybean fibre (Soyafibe) on putrefactive compounds from soy protein by gut microbiota in rats. Caecal microbial fermentation products and microbiota in rats fed 20% soy protein (SP-1) and whole soybean flour (SFL: protein content was 20%) diets were determined. The caecal environment in rats fed 20% soy protein without dietary fibre (SP-2) or with 2% Soyafibe (SFB) was also determined...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050853/metagenomic-insights-into-the-rumen-microbial-fibrolytic-enzymes-in-indian-crossbred-cattle-fed-finger-millet-straw
#12
V Lyju Jose, Thulasi Appoothy, Ravi P More, A Sha Arun
The rumen is a unique natural habitat, exhibiting an unparalleled genetic resource of fibrolytic enzymes of microbial origin that degrade plant polysaccharides. The objectives of this study were to identify the principal plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and the taxonomic profile of rumen microbial communities that are associated with it. The cattle rumen microflora and the carbohydrate-active enzymes were functionally classified through a whole metagenomic sequencing approach. Analysis of the assembled sequences by the Carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis Toolkit identified the candidate genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes belonging to different classes of glycoside hydrolases(11,010 contigs), glycosyltransferases (6366 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (4945 contigs), carbohydrate-binding modules (1975 contigs), polysaccharide lyases (480 contigs), and auxiliary activities (115 contigs)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050493/anti-microbial-efficacy-of-soursop-leaf-extract-annona-muricata-on-oral-pathogens-an-in-vitro-study
#13
Bh Mithun Pai, Gururagavendra Rajesh, Ramya Shenoy, Ashwini Rao
INTRODUCTION: Annona muricata also called as Soursop is a, flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America and parts of India. The miracle tree as it is widely known as a natural cancer killer that is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Based on these miraculous claims, the leaves of these plants were used as an extract at varying concentrations as an antibacterial agent against oral pathogens. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Soursop leaf extarct (Annona muricata) on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033066/clinical-immune-and-microbiome-traits-of-gingivitis-and-peri-implant-mucositis
#14
G P Schincaglia, B Y Hong, A Rosania, J Barasz, A Thompson, T Sobue, F Panagakos, J A Burleson, A Dongari-Bagtzoglou, P I Diaz
Tissues surrounding dental implants and teeth develop clinical inflammation in response to microbial stimuli. However, the literature suggests that differences exist in the microbial insult and inflammatory responses leading to gingivitis and peri-implant mucositis. In this pilot study, the authors use for the first time a systems biology approach to comprehensively evaluate clinical parameters, selected inflammatory markers, and the microbiome of subject-matched tooth and implant sites during native inflammation and in response to experimental plaque accumulation...
January 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018336/synergism-of-cattle-and-bison-inoculum-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-select-bacterial-communities-in-an-artificial-rumen-rusitec-fed-a-barley-straw-based-diet
#15
Daniela B Oss, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Marcos I Marcondes, WenZhu Yang, Karen A Beauchemin, Robert J Forster, Tim A McAllister
This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec). The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0) replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n = 8 fermenters). The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018325/sensitive-quantitative-analysis-of-the-meconium-bacterial-microbiota-in-healthy-term-infants-born-vaginally-or-by-cesarean-section
#16
Ravinder Nagpal, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24-48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017660/prevotella-as-a-hub-for-vaginal-microbiota-under-the-influence-of-host-genetics-and-their-association-with-obesity
#17
Jiyeon Si, Hyun Ju You, Junsun Yu, Joohon Sung, GwangPyo Ko
While the vaginal ecosystem is maintained through mutualistic relationships between the host and the vaginal bacteria, the effect of host genetics on the vaginal microbiota has not been well characterized. We examined the heritability of vaginal microbiota and its association with obesity in 542 Korean females, including 222 monozygotic and 56 dizygotic twins. The vaginal microbiota significantly varied depending on host menopausal status and bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus and Prevotella, whose relative abundances are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis, were the most heritable bacteria among the beneficial and potentially pathogenic vaginal microbiota, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008411/purulent-proctitis-caused-by-prevotella-bivia-in-a-homosexual-male
#18
Maen Masadeh, Sarah Hossain, Jeffrey Dunkelberg, Henning Gerke
A 32-year-old homosexual male presented with suprapubic pain. Computed tomography showed rectal wall thickening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed small pockets of pus that were opened with mucosal biopsies, and additional pus was diffusely expressed from the rectal wall by applying blunt pressure with the biopsy forceps. Cultures from the pus grew Prevotella bivia. Symptoms resolved after treatment with doxycycline and metronidazole. Proctitis due to P. bivia was not previously reported.
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999002/metformin-is-associated-with-higher-relative-abundance-of-mucin-degrading-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-several-short-chain-fatty-acid-producing-microbiota-in-the-gut
#19
Jacobo de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Noel T Mueller, Vanessa Corrales-Agudelo, Eliana P Velásquez-Mejía, Jenny A Carmona, José M Abad, Juan S Escobar
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism may be microbially mediated. We examined the association of type 2 diabetes, metformin, and gut microbiota in community-dwelling Colombian adults. On the basis of previous research, we hypothesized that metformin is associated with higher levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing and mucin-degrading microbiota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were selected from a larger cohort of 459 participants...
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992409/in-vivo-high-throughput-profiling-of-crispr-cpf1-activity
#20
Hui K Kim, Myungjae Song, Jinu Lee, A Vipin Menon, Soobin Jung, Young-Mook Kang, Jae W Choi, Euijeon Woo, Hyun C Koh, Jin-Wu Nam, Hyongbum Kim
CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) is an effector endonuclease of the class 2 CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) gene editing system. We developed a method for evaluating Cpf1 activity, based on target sequence composition in mammalian cells, in a high-throughput manner. A library of >11,000 target sequence and guide RNA pairs was delivered into human cells using lentiviral vectors. Subsequent delivery of Cpf1 into this cell library induced insertions and deletions (indels) at the integrated synthetic target sequences, which allowed en masse evaluation of Cpf1 activity by using deep sequencing...
December 19, 2016: Nature Methods
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