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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045750/aging-and-hiv-related-caregiving-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-social-ecological-approach
#1
Jeon Small, Carolyn Aldwin, Paul Kowal, Somnath Chatterji, Rachel Pruchno
Background and Objectives: We reviewed the literature on older adults (OAs) who are caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with the goal of adapting models of caregiver stress and coping to include culturally relevant and contextually appropriate factors specific to SSA, drawing on both life course and cultural capital theories. Research Design and Methods: A systematic literature search found 81 articles published between 1975 and 2016 which were reviewed using a narrative approach...
October 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044572/understanding-lay-perspectives-on-socioeconomic-health-inequalities-in-britain-a-meta-ethnography
#2
Katherine E Smith, Rosemary Anderson
The links between socioeconomic circumstances and health have been extensively studied in Britain but surprisingly few studies consider lay perspectives. This is problematic given popular efforts to reduce health inequalities appear to be based on assumption that public understanding is limited (this is evident in efforts to raise awareness of both 'upstream' causes of health inequalities and health-damaging behaviours). The results of this meta-ethnography, involving 17 qualitative studies, fundamentally challenge this assumption...
October 17, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043152/tattoos-as-a-window-to-the-psyche-how-talking-about-skin-art-can-inform-psychiatric-practice
#3
REVIEW
Hannah Roggenkamp, Andrew Nicholls, Joseph M Pierre
Tattooing the skin as a means of personal expression is a ritualized practice that has been around for centuries across many different cultures. Accordingly, the symbolic meaning of tattoos has evolved over time and is highly individualized, from both the internal perspective of the wearer and the external perspective of an observer. Within modern Western societies through the 1970s, tattoos represented a cultural taboo, typically associated with those outside of the mainstream such as soldiers, incarcerated criminals, gang members, and others belonging to marginalized and counter-cultural groups...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042389/what-s-up-doc-a-national-cross-sectional-study-of-psychological-wellbeing-of-hospital-doctors-in-ireland
#4
Blánaid Hayes, Lucia Prihodova, Gillian Walsh, Frank Doyle, Sally Doherty
OBJECTIVES: To measure levels of psychological distress, psychological wellbeing and self-stigma in hospital doctors in Ireland. DESIGN: National cross-sectional study of randomised sample of hospital doctors. Participants provided sociodemographic data (age, sex, marital status), work grade (consultant, higher/basic specialist trainee), specialty and work hours and completed well-being questionnaires (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, WHO Well-being Index, General Health Questionnaire) and single-item scales on self-rated health and self-stigma...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042379/stigma-among-singaporean-youth-a-cross-sectional-study-on-adolescent-attitudes-towards-serious-mental-illness-and-social-tolerance-in-a-multiethnic-population
#5
Shirlene Pang, Jianlin Liu, Mithila Mahesh, Boon Yiang Chua, Shazana Shahwan, Siau Pheng Lee, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Edimansyah Abdin, Daniel Shuen Sheng Fung, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
OBJECTIVES: Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. DESIGN: An online survey collected data with sociodemographic questions, the Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale, Social Tolerance Scale and an open-text question on words or phrases participants associated with the term 'mental illness'...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041950/convenience-without-disclosure-a-formative-research-study-of-a-proposed-integrated-methadone-and-antiretroviral-therapy-service-delivery-model-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#6
Alexis Cooke, Haneefa Saleem, Dorothy Mushi, Jessie Mbwambo, Saria Hassan, Barrot H Lambdin
BACKGROUND: Though timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a vital component of effective HIV prevention, care and treatment, people who inject drugs are less likely to receive ART than their non-drug using counterparts. In an effort to increase access to ART for people who inject drugs, we examined perceived benefits, challenges, and recommendations for implementing an integrated methadone and ART service delivery model at an opioid treatment program (OTP) clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041933/silence-sexual-and-reproductive-health-discussions-and-we-fuel-the-rise-of-hiv-aids-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
EDITORIAL
Janet M Wojcicki
In the mid 1990s, the HIV epidemic was initially impacting South Africa. Fear, stigma and denial surrounding sexual practices undermined treatment access and prevention initiatives. Significant strides have been made in reducing the HIV epidemic in South Africa and other areas in sub-Saharan Africa through effective programming and funding of prevention programs. Reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy threatens to negatively impact gains made in the HIV/AIDS community. Recognition that communication is essential to effective reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programming needs to be recognized by politicians enacting the Mexico City Policy and the possibility of viewing a rise in HIV/AIDS incidence in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 17, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041821/gender-matters-in-the-transition-to-employment-for-young-adults-with-physical-disabilities
#8
Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro, Mikhaela Albarico, Neda Mortaji, Dilakshan Srikanthan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of gender in the transition to employment for young adults with physical disabilities. METHODS: This study drew on in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 33 participants (23 youth and 10 clinicians). The youth in our sample included 13 females (mean age 22.9) and 10 males (mean age 21.3) who had various types of physical disabilities. The person-environment-occupation (PEO) model informed our analysis...
October 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040948/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-community-functioning-among-psychiatric-outpatients
#9
Alan H L Chan, Samuel Y S Wong, Wai-Tong Chien
The present study analyzed the community functioning among Chinese people with common mental disorders and their relationships with different factors under the framework of Model of Human Occupation. The research team followed up a stratified random sample of 238 patients in three public psychiatric specialist outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in one year. The patients completed assessments at baseline and 12-month follow-up in four areas of community functioning (i.e., self-care, independent living skills, social skills, and work skills), self-esteem, self-efficacy, physical functioning, behavioral regulation, mental states, family expressed emotion, and perceived social stigma...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#10
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040516/integrated-mental-health-services-in-china-challenges-and-planning-for-the-future
#11
Di Liang, Vickie M Mays, Wei-Chin Hwang
Eager to build an integrated community-based mental health system, in 2004 China started the '686 Programme', whose purpose was to integrate hospital and community services for patients with serious mental illness. In 2015, the National Mental Health Working Plan (2015-2020) proposed an ambitious strategy for implementing this project. The goal of this review is to assess potential opportunities for and barriers to successful implementation of a community-based mental health system that integrates hospital and community mental health services into the general healthcare system...
October 13, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039689/anti-stigma-hiv-related-social-advertising-no-evidence-for-side-effects-on-condom-use
#12
Florian Arendt, Patricia Hauck, Johanna Mayr, Flavia Negwer
Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not...
October 17, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036428/exocyst-exosomes-and-autophagy-in-the-regulation-of-brassicaceae-pollen-stigma-interactions
#13
Daphne R Goring
Brassicaceae pollen-stigma interactions have been extensively studied in Brassica and Arabidopsis species to identify cellular events triggered in the stigmatic papillae by pollen contact. Compatible pollinations are linked to the activation of basal cellular responses in the stigmatic papillae, which include calcium gradients, actin networks, and polarized secretion. The occurrence of these cellular events in stigmatic papillae coincides with the stages of pollen hydration and pollen tube entry into the stigmatic papillar cell wall...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035852/abundance-and-species-composition-of-culicoides-spp-biting-midges-near-cattle-and-horse-in-south-eastern-poland
#14
Magdalena Larska, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski, Jan Franciszek Żmudziński
The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035158/humanizing-folk-devils-using-ethnography
#15
Peter L Myers
The sociological concepts of the "moral panic" and the deviant "folk devil" apply to the drug panics in the United States over methamphetamine, heroin, and crack cocaine. Mothers or pregnant women who smoke crack cocaine, and their babies, are assigned exaggerated "demonic" attributes that result in stigma and societal rejection. Otherwise, ethnographic studies of drug users demonstrate realities that are other than what might be considered were one to merely look at their use and the consequences. These considerations are examined with respect to the image of folk devils, methadone program attendees, smokers of "blunts," opium den habitués, and others grouped together as negative influences as a result of their drug habits...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035103/racial-disparities-in-the-association-between-alcohol-use-disorders-and-health-in-black-and-white-women
#16
Yusuf Ransome, Denise C Carty, Courtney D Cogburn, David R Williams
Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034811/mental-illness-stigma-among-medical-students-and-teachers
#17
Miroslava Janoušková, Aneta Weissová, Tomáš Formánek, Jiří Pasz, Lucie Bankovská Motlová
BACKGROUND: Medical school curriculum contributes to future doctors' attitude formation towards people with mental illness. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare stigmatizing attitudes between medical students and faculty, analyse stigmatizing attitudes among students from different years of study and identify factors predicting stigma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the use of scales measuring attitudes and social distance was designed...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034464/stigma-expressed-emotion-and-quality-of-life-in-caregivers-of-individuals-with-dementia
#18
Amy Weisman de Mamani, Marc J Weintraub, Jessica Maura, Ana Martinez de Andino, Caitlin A Brown
Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of a caregiver's critical and emotionally overinvolved (EOI; e.g., intrusive, self-sacrificing) attitudes and behaviors toward a person with a mental illness. Mounting evidence indicates that high levels of these critical and EOI attitudes and behaviors (collectively termed high EE) in family members are associated with a poorer course of illness for people with a range of disorders, including dementia (Nomura et al., 2005). However, less is known about factors that might trigger high EE and how high EE might impact dementia caregivers' own mental health...
October 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033695/sexual-health-knowledge-and-stigma-in-a-community-sample-of-hiv-positive-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-puerto-rico
#19
Edgardo J Ortiz-Sánchez, Carlos E Rodríguez-Díaz, Gerardo G Jovet-Toledo, Edda I Santiago-Rodríguez, Ricardo L Vargas-Molina, Scott D Rhodes
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection and disease progression. Also, HIV-positive GBMSM are among those less likely to be retained in care. In this study we analyzed sexual health knowledge (SHK) and various manifestations of stigma in a community sample of HIV-positive GBMSM in Puerto Rico. The sample reports overall low SHK scores, and lower score were associated with low educational attainment, unemployment, low income, and with self-identifying heterosexual participants...
2017: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033118/physical-activity-stigma-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#20
Gloria Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus, Guilherme Sabbag Sterca, Renato Buarque Pereira
Indication of physical activity (PA) for people with epilepsy (PWE) is debatable. This study investigated whether the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) score is related to the clinical aspects of epilepsy, QOLIE-31, and the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy (SSE) score of 67 PWE at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). About one-third (32.8%) of the PWE were sedentary/irregularly active. Lower QOLIE-31 scores and higher SSE scores were found in PWE who did not practice PA for fear of seizures and in sedentary/irregularly active PWE...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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