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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901466/differentiation-alters-stem-cell-nuclear-architecture-mechanics-and-mechano-sensitivity
#1
Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical loading induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900823/high-frequency-mechanostimulation-of-cell-adhesion
#2
Laith F Kadem, K Grace Suana, Michelle Holz, Wei Wang, Hannes Westerhaus, Rainer Herges, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900292/hypoxia-inhibits-primary-cilia-formation-and-reduces-cell-mediated-contraction-in-stress-deprived-rat-tail-tendon-fascicles
#3
Michael Lavagnino, Anna N Oslapas, Keri L Gardner, Steven P Arnoczky
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia, which is associated with chronic tendinopathy, has recently been shown to decrease the mechanosensitivity of some cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on the formation of elongated primary cilia (a mechanosensing organelle of tendon cells) in vitro and to determine the effect of hypoxia on cell-mediated contraction of stress-deprived rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs). METHODS: Tendon cells isolated from RTTfs were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 24 hours...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899696/selective-antagonism-of-trpa1-produces-limited-efficacy-in-models-of-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#4
Sonya G Lehto, Andy D Weyer, Beth D Youngblood, Maosheng Zhang, Ruoyuan Yin, Weiya Wang, Yohannes Teffera, Melanie Cooke, Cheryl L Stucky, Laurie Schenkel, Stephanie Geuns-Meyer, Bryan D Moyer, Kenneth D Wild, Narender R Gavva
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel has been implicated in pathophysiological processes that include asthma, cough, and inflammatory pain. Agonists of TRPA1 such as mustard oil and its key component allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) cause pain and neurogenic inflammation in humans and rodents, and TRPA1 antagonists have been reported to be effective in rodent models of pain. In our pursuit of TRPA1 antagonists as potential therapeutics, we generated AMG0902, a potent (IC90 of 300 nM against rat TRPA1), selective, brain penetrant (brain to plasma ratio of 0...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891534/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-stimulate-ruffling-and-shedding-of-mammalian-cell-plasma-membranes
#5
Chao Sun, Devin L Wakefield, Yimo Han, David A Muller, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird, William R Dichtel
Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intense interest for use in living systems and environmental applications. GO's compatibility with mammalian cells is sometimes inferred from its low cytotoxicity, but such conclusions ignore non-lethal effects that will influence GO's utility. Here we demonstrate, with rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, profound plasma membrane (PM) ruffling and shedding induced by GO using confocal and live cell fluorescence microscopy, as well as scanning electron microscopy. These membrane structures contain immunoglobulin E receptors, are resistant to detergents, and lack detectable fluorescence labeling of F-actin and fibronectin...
August 11, 2016: Chem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885188/-mechanisms-of-vascular-dynamic-homeostasis
#6
Kimiko Yamamoto, Joji Ando
Vascular endothelial cells(ECs)play a critical role in controlling a variety of vascular functions including maintenance of the vascular tone, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and selective permeability of proteins. It has recently become apparent that ECs respond to hemodynamic forces, namely, shear stress and stretch, by altering their morphology, functions and gene expression profile. These responses also play important roles in maintaining normal circulatory system functions and homeostasis, and their impairment leads to various vascular diseases, including hypertension, aneurysm and atherosclerosis...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885185/-therapeutic-strategy-targeting-membrane-molecular-meshanosensing
#7
Tetsushi Furukawa
Our bodies possess systems to detect various mechanical stimuli, called mechanosensing. Mechanosensing taking place in the membrane can be classified into to ion channel-dependent one and ion channel-independent one. Ion channel-dependent mechanosensing is a relatively rapid response, involving various mechanosen sensitive channels, including recently identified pannexin. In contrast, ion-channel-independent mechanosensing is a slow response, such as tissue remodeling, and the mechanism via integrin-actin interaction at the focal adhesion is well known...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885176/-short-history-on-the-birth-of-mechanobiology
#8
Masahiro Sokabe
In the last decade a new scientific discipline called "Mechanobiology" has emerged. It aims at elucidation of roles and mechanisms of mechanical forces in organisms as well as applications of the obtained fruits to human beings. Mechanobiology deals with a wide variety of objectives, including molecules, cells, tissues, organs and individuals, in which "Cell Mechanosesing" forms the core concept. Starting with a definition of cell mechanosensing, this short review gives an outline of the history of mechanobiology and perspectives on the mechanobiology in the near future...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884786/osteopontin-and-the-dento-osseous-pathobiology-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#9
Tchilalo Boukpessi, Betty Hoac, Benjamin R Coyac, Thibaut Leger, Camille Garcia, Philippe Wicart, Michael P Whyte, Francis H Glorieux, Agnès Linglart, Catherine Chaussain, Marc D McKee
Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization...
November 21, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874267/human-digital-meissner-corpuscles-display-immunoreactivity-for-the-multifunctional-ion-channels-trpc6-and-trpv4
#10
P Alonso-González, R Cabo, I San José, A Gago, I C Suazo, O García-Suárez, J Cobo, J A Vega
Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigated the occurrence, distribution and possible co-localization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents)...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871065/mechanical-remodeling-of-normally-sized-mammalian-cells-under-a-gravity-vector
#11
Chen Zhang, Lüwen Zhou, Fan Zhang, Dongyuan Lü, Ning Li, Lu Zheng, Yanhong Xu, Zhan Li, Shujin Sun, Mian Long
Translocation of the dense nucleus along a gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a cell, but the underlying mechanisms of cytoskeletal network and focal adhesion complex (FAC) reorganization in a mammalian cell remain unclear. We quantified the remodeling of an MC3T3-E1 cell placed in upward-, downward-, or edge-on-orientated substrate. Nucleus longitudinal translocation presents a high value in downward orientation at 24 h or in edge-on orientation at 72 h, which is consistent with orientation-dependent distribution of perinuclear actin stress fibers and vimentin cords...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864905/polyacrylamide-gel-as-a-culture-substrate-improves-in-vitro-oocyte-growth-from-porcine-early-antral-follicles
#12
Yasuhisa Munakata, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
A major difference between in vivo and in vitro follicle culture is the stiffness of the substrate in which the follicles grow. In this study, we examined the effect of polyacrylamide gel (PAG), as a culture substrate, on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were collected from the early antral follicles of gilts, and incubated individually for 14 days in a 96-well culture plate with or without PAG. We then evaluated the number of granulosa cells present in OGCs as well as the abundance of ATP, lipid, and acetylated lysine in oocytes...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843126/biallelic-loss-of-proprioception-related-piezo2-causes-muscular-atrophy-with-perinatal-respiratory-distress-arthrogryposis-and-scoliosis
#13
Andrea Delle Vedove, Markus Storbeck, Raoul Heller, Irmgard Hölker, Malavika Hebbar, Anju Shukla, Olafur Magnusson, Sebahattin Cirak, Katta M Girisha, Mary O'Driscoll, Bart Loeys, Brunhilde Wirth
We report ten individuals of four independent consanguineous families from Turkey, India, Libya, and Pakistan with a variable clinical phenotype that comprises arthrogryposis, spontaneously resolving respiratory insufficiency at birth, muscular atrophy predominantly of the distal lower limbs, scoliosis, and mild distal sensory involvement. Using whole-exome sequencing, SNPchip-based linkage analysis, DNA microarray, and Sanger sequencing, we identified three independent homozygous frameshift mutations and a homozygous deletion of two exons in PIEZO2 that segregated in all affected individuals of the respective family...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834731/model-for-the-architecture-of-caveolae-based-on-a-flexible-net-like-assembly-of-cavin1-and-caveolin-discs
#14
Miriam Stoeber, Pascale Schellenberger, C Alistair Siebert, Cedric Leyrat, Ari Helenius, Kay Grünewald
Caveolae are invaginated plasma membrane domains involved in mechanosensing, signaling, endocytosis, and membrane homeostasis. Oligomers of membrane-embedded caveolins and peripherally attached cavins form the caveolar coat whose structure has remained elusive. Here, purified Cavin1 60S complexes were analyzed structurally in solution and after liposome reconstitution by electron cryotomography. Cavin1 adopted a flexible, net-like protein mesh able to form polyhedral lattices on phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles...
November 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832492/adhesion-gpcrs-as-novel-actors-in-neural-and-glial-cell-functions-from-synaptogenesis-to-myelination
#15
Séverine M Sigoillot, Kelly R Monk, Xianhua Piao, Fekrije Selimi, Breanne L Harty
Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are emerging as key regulators of nervous system development and health. aGPCRs can regulate many aspects of neural development, including cell signaling, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and, potentially, mechanosensation. Here, we specifically focus on the roles of several aGPCRs in synapse biology, dendritogenesis, and myelinating glial cell development. The lessons learned from these examples may be extrapolated to other contexts in the nervous system and beyond...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832490/adhesion-gpcrs-as-a-putative-class-of-metabotropic-mechanosensors
#16
Nicole Scholz, Kelly R Monk, Robert J Kittel, Tobias Langenhan
Adhesion GPCRs as mechanosensors. Different aGPCR homologs and their cognate ligands have been described in settings, which suggest that they function in a mechanosensory capacity. For details, see text G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the most versatile superfamily of biosensors. This group of receptors is formed by hundreds of GPCRs, each of which is tuned to the perception of a specific set of stimuli a cell may encounter emanating from the outside world or from internal sources. Most GPCRs are receptive for chemical compounds such as peptides, proteins, lipids, nucleotides, sugars, and other organic compounds, and this capacity is utilized in several sensory organs to initiate visual, olfactory, gustatory, or endocrine signals...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807168/a-defensive-kicking-behavior-in-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-mediated-by-drosophila-wing-margin-bristles
#17
Jiefu Li, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Sophia Wu, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan
: Mechanosensation, one of the fastest sensory modalities, mediates diverse behaviors including those pertinent for survival. It is important to understand how mechanical stimuli trigger defensive behaviors. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster adult flies exhibit a kicking response against invading parasitic mites over their wing margin with ultrafast speed and high spatial precision. Mechanical stimuli that mimic the mites' movement evoke a similar kicking behavior. Further, we identified a TRPV channel, Nanchung, and a specific Nanchung-expressing neuron under each recurved bristle that forms an array along the wing margin as being essential sensory components for this behavior...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806306/in%C3%A2-vivo-interrogation-of-spinal-mechanosensory-circuits
#18
Amelia J Christensen, Shrivats M Iyer, Amaury François, Saurabh Vyas, Charu Ramakrishnan, Sam Vesuna, Karl Deisseroth, Grégory Scherrer, Scott L Delp
Spinal dorsal horn circuits receive, process, and transmit somatosensory information. To understand how specific components of these circuits contribute to behavior, it is critical to be able to directly modulate their activity in unanesthetized in vivo conditions. Here, we develop experimental tools that enable optogenetic control of spinal circuitry in freely moving mice using commonly available materials. We use these tools to examine mechanosensory processing in the spinal cord and observe that optogenetic activation of somatostatin-positive interneurons facilitates both mechanosensory and itch-related behavior, while reversible chemogenetic inhibition of these neurons suppresses mechanosensation...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806285/an-integrated-stochastic-model-of-matrix-stiffness-dependent-filopodial-dynamics
#19
Bo Cheng, Min Lin, Yuhui Li, Guoyou Huang, Hui Yang, Guy M Genin, Vikram S Deshpande, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
The ways that living cells regulate their behavior in response to their local mechanical environment underlie growth, development, and healing and are important to critical pathologies such as metastasis and fibrosis. Although extensive experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that this regulation is governed by the dependence of filopodial dynamics upon extracellular matrix stiffness, the pathways for this dependence are unclear. We therefore developed a model to relate filopodial focal adhesion dynamics to integrin-mediated Rho signaling kinetics...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798174/are-tmcs-the-mechanotransduction-channels-of-vertebrate-hair-cells
#20
David P Corey, Jeffrey R Holt
Sensory transduction in vertebrate hair cells and the molecules that mediate it have long been of great interest. Some components of the mechanotransduction apparatus have been identified, most as deafness gene products. Although prior candidates for the mechanotransduction channel have been proposed, each has faded with new evidence. Now, two strong candidates, TMC1 and TMC2 (transmembrane channel-like), have emerged from discovery of deafness genes in humans and mice. They are expressed at the right time during development: exactly at the onset of mechanosensitivity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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