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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645543/mechanosensing-in-the-drosophila-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Katerina Karkali, Enrique Martin-Blanco
Neurons allocated to sense organs respond rapidly to mechanical signals dictating behavioral responses at the organism level. The receptors that transduce these signals, and underlie these senses, are mechanically gated channels. Research on mechanosensation over the past decade, employing in many cases Drosophila as a model, has focused in typifying these receptors and in exploring the different ways, depending on context, in which these mechanosensors are modulated. In this review, we discuss first what we have learned from Drosophila on these mechanisms and we describe the different mechanosensory organs present in the Drosophila larvae and adult...
June 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642633/proteases-revisited-roles-and-therapeutic-implications-in-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Jakub Kryczka, Joanna Boncela
Proteases target many substrates, triggering changes in distinct biological processes correlated with cell migration, EMT/EndMT and fibrosis. Extracellular protease activity, demonstrated by secreted and membrane-bound protease forms, leads to ECM degradation, activation of other proteases (i.e., proteolysis of nonactive zymogens), decomposition of cell-cell junctions, release of sequestered growth factors (TGF-β and VEGF), activation of signal proteins and receptors, degradation of inflammatory inhibitors or inflammation-related proteins, and changes in cell mechanosensing and motility...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633977/vascular-endothelial-cell-mechanosensing-new-insights-gained-from-biomimetic-microfluidic-models
#3
REVIEW
Kelsey M Gray, Kimberly M Stroka
In vivo, cells of the vascular system are subjected to various mechanical stimuli and have demonstrated the ability to adapt their behavior via mechanotransduction. Recent advances in microfluidic and "on-chip" techniques have provided the technology to study these alterations in cell behavior. Contrary to traditional in vitro assays such as transwell plates and parallel plate flow chambers, these microfluidic devices (MFDs) provide the opportunity to integrate multiple mechanical cues (e.g. shear stress, confinement, substrate stiffness, vessel geometry and topography) with in situ quantification capabilities...
June 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#4
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627381/mechanosensing-in-hypothalamic-osmosensory-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky
Osmosensory neurons are specialized cells activated by increases in blood osmolality to trigger thirst, secretion of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and elevated sympathetic tone during dehydration. In addition to multiple extrinsic factors modulating their activity, osmosensory neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive, as they are activated by increased osmolality in the absence of neighboring cells or synaptic contacts. This intrinsic osmosensitivity is a mechanical process associated with osmolality-induced changes in cell volume...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621811/multisensory-neural-integration-of-chemical-and-mechanical-signals
#6
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Sánchez-Alcañiz, Richard Benton
Chemosensation and mechanosensation cover an enormous spectrum of processes by which animals use information from the environment to adapt their behavior. For pragmatic reasons, these sensory modalities are commonly investigated independently. Recent advances, however, have revealed numerous situations in which they function together to control animals' actions. Highlighting examples from diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, we first discuss sensory receptors and neurons that have dual roles in the detection of chemical and mechanical stimuli...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613157/physical-limits-of-flow-sensing-in-the-left-right-organizer
#7
Rita R Ferreira, Andrej Vilfan, Frank Jülicher, Willy Supatto, Julien Vermot
Fluid flows generated by motile cilia are guiding the establishment of the left-right asymmetry of the body in the vertebrate left-right organizer. Competing hypotheses have been proposed: the direction of flow is sensed either through mechanosensation, or via the detection of chemical signals transported in the flow. We investigated the physical limits of flow detection in order to clarify which mechanisms could be reliably used for symmetry breaking. We integrated parameters describing cilia distribution and orientation obtained in vivo in zebrafish into a multiscale physical study of flow generation and detection...
June 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611417/direct-evidence-for-cell-adhesion-mediated-radioresistance-cam-rr-on-the-level-of-individual-integrin-%C3%AE-1-clusters
#8
Laura Babel, Miriam Grunewald, Robert Lehn, Markus Langhans, Tobias Meckel
The cellular interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates many key processes such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. In addition, cells cultured under 3D conditions in presence of an ECM display a marked radioresistance towards ionizing radiation (IR) in comparison to conventionally 2D cultured cells. This process, also known as "cell-adhesion-mediated-radio-resistance" (CAM-RR), has been linked to the chromatin structure that differs between cells cultured on stiff surfaces versus cell grown on soft planar supports or in 3D environments...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606925/polarity-of-varicosity-initiation-in-central-neuron-mechanosensation
#9
Yuanzheng Gu, Peter Jukkola, Qian Wang, Thomas Esparza, Yi Zhao, David Brody, Chen Gu
Little is known about mechanical regulation of morphological and functional polarity of central neurons. In this study, we report that mechanical stress specifically induces varicosities in the axons but not the dendrites of central neurons by activating TRPV4, a Ca(2+)/Na(+)-permeable mechanosensitive channel. This process is unexpectedly rapid and reversible, consistent with the formation of axonal varicosities in vivo induced by mechanical impact in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. In contrast, prolonged stimulation of glutamate receptors induces varicosities in dendrites but not in axons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580787/printing-functional-protein-nanodots-on-soft-elastomers-from-transfer-mechanism-to-cell-mechanosensing
#11
Ranime Alameddine, Astrid Wahl, Fuwei Pi, Kaoutar Bouzalmate, Laurent Limozin, Anne Charrier, Kheya Sengupta
Living cells sense the physical and chemical nature of their micro/nano environment with exquisite sensitivity. In this context, there is a growing need to functionalize soft materials with micro/nanoscale biochemical patterns for applications in mechanobiology. This, however, is still an engineering challenge. Here a new method is proposed, where submicronic protein-patterns are first formed on glass and are then printed on to an elastomer. The degree of transfer is shown to be governed mainly by hydrophobic interactions and to be influenced by grafting an appropriate fluorophore onto the core protein of interest...
June 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579451/the-fifth-sense-mechanosensory-regulation-of-alpha-actinin-4-and-its-relevance-for-cancer-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Dustin G Thomas, Douglas N Robinson
Metastatic cancer cells invading through dense tumor stroma experience internal and external forces that are sensed through a variety of mechanosensory proteins that drive adaptations for specific environments. Alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4) is a member of the α-actinin family of actin crosslinking proteins that is upregulated in several types of cancers. It shares 86% protein similarity with α-actinin-1, another non-muscle ACTN isoform, which appears to have a more modest role, if any, in cancer progression. While they share regulatory mechanisms, such as phosphorylation, calcium binding, phosphatidyl inositol binding, and calpain cleavage, α-actinin-4 exhibits a unique mechanosensory regulation that α-actinin-1 does not...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561050/multiscale-force-sensing-in-development
#13
REVIEW
Nicoletta I Petridou, Zoltán Spiró, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
The seminal observation that mechanical signals can elicit changes in biochemical signalling within cells, a process commonly termed mechanosensation and mechanotransduction, has revolutionized our understanding of the role of cell mechanics in various fundamental biological processes, such as cell motility, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we will discuss how the interplay and feedback between mechanical and biochemical signals control tissue morphogenesis and cell fate specification in embryonic development...
May 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555369/role-of-molecular-turnover-in-dynamic-deformation-of-a-three-dimensional-cellular-membrane
#14
Satoru Okuda, Mototsugu Eiraku
In cells, the molecular constituents of membranes are dynamically turned over by transportation from one membrane to another. This molecular turnover causes the membrane to shrink or expand by sensing the stress state within the cell, changing its morphology. At present, little is known as to how this turnover regulates the dynamic deformation of cellular membranes. In this study, we propose a new physical model by which molecular turnover is coupled with three-dimensional membrane deformation to explore mechanosensing roles of turnover in cellular membrane deformations...
May 29, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534911/cellular-orientation-is-guided-by-strain-gradients
#15
Sophie Chagnon-Lessard, Hubert Jean-Ruel, Michel Godin, Andrew E Pelling
The strain-induced reorientation response of cyclically stretched cells has been well characterized in uniform strain fields. In the present study, we comprehensively analyse the behaviour of human fibroblasts subjected to a highly non-uniform strain field within a polymethylsiloxane microdevice. Our results indicate that the strain gradient amplitude and direction regulate cell reorientation through a coordinated gradient avoidance response. We provide critical evidence that strain gradient is a key physical cue that can guide cell organization...
May 23, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533383/mechanosensing-of-shear-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-leads-to-increased-levels-of-the-cyclic-di-gmp-signal-initiating-biofilm-development
#16
Christopher A Rodesney, Brian Roman, Numa Dhamani, Benjamin J Cooley, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of sessile microbes that are phenotypically distinct from their genetically identical, free-swimming counterparts. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a solid surface. Attachment triggers intracellular signaling to change gene expression from the planktonic to the biofilm phenotype. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has long been known that intracellular levels of the signal cyclic-di-GMP increase upon surface adhesion and that this is required to begin biofilm development. However, what cue is sensed to notify bacteria that they are attached to the surface has not been known...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532215/matrix-mechanosensing-from-scaling-concepts-in-omics-data-to-mechanisms-in-the-nucleus-regeneration-and-cancer
#17
Dennis E Discher, Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Mark Colasurdo, Andrés J García, Sam Safran
Many of the most important molecules of life are polymers. In animals, the most abundant of the proteinaceous polymers are the collagens, which constitute the fibrous matrix outside cells and which can also self-assemble into gels. The physically measurable stiffness of gels, as well as tissues, increases with the amount of collagen, and cells seem to sense this stiffness. An understanding of this mechanosensing process in complex tissues, including fibrotic disease states with high collagen, is now utilizing 'omics data sets and is revealing polymer physics-type, nonlinear scaling relationships between concentrations of seemingly unrelated biopolymers...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523374/capturing-microscopic-features-of-bone-remodeling-into-a-macroscopic-model-based-on-biological-rationales-of-bone-adaptation
#18
Young Kwan Kim, Yoshitaka Kameo, Sakae Tanaka, Taiji Adachi
To understand Wolff's law, bone adaptation by remodeling at the cellular and tissue levels has been discussed extensively through experimental and simulation studies. For the clinical application of a bone remodeling simulation, it is significant to establish a macroscopic model that incorporates clarified microscopic mechanisms. In this study, we proposed novel macroscopic models based on the microscopic mechanism of osteocytic mechanosensing, in which the flow of fluid in the lacuno-canalicular porosity generated by fluid pressure gradients plays an important role, and theoretically evaluated the proposed models, taking biological rationales of bone adaptation into account...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522599/engineering-macrophages-to-eat-cancer-from-marker-of-self-cd47-and-phagocytosis-to-differentiation
#19
REVIEW
Cory Alvey, Dennis E Discher
The ability of a macrophage to engulf and break down invading cells and other targets provides a first line of immune defense in nearly all tissues. This defining ability to "phagos" or devour can subsequently activate the entire immune system against foreign and diseased cells, and progress is now being made on a decades-old idea of directing macrophages to phagocytose specific targets, such as cancer cells. Engineered T cells provide precedence with recent clinical successes against liquid tumors, but solid tumors remain a challenge, and a handful of clinical trials seek to exploit the abundance of tumor-associated macrophages instead...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504269/yap-regulates-cell-mechanics-by-controlling-focal-adhesion-assembly
#20
Giorgia Nardone, Jorge Oliver-De La Cruz, Jan Vrbsky, Cecilia Martini, Jan Pribyl, Petr Skládal, Martin Pešl, Guido Caluori, Stefania Pagliari, Fabiana Martino, Zuzana Maceckova, Marian Hajduch, Andres Sanz-Garcia, Nicola Maria Pugno, Gorazd Bernard Stokin, Giancarlo Forte
Hippo effectors YAP/TAZ act as on-off mechanosensing switches by sensing modifications in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and mechanics. The regulation of their activity has been described by a hierarchical model in which elements of Hippo pathway are under the control of focal adhesions (FAs). Here we unveil the molecular mechanism by which cell spreading and RhoA GTPase activity control FA formation through YAP to stabilize the anchorage of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. This mechanism requires YAP co-transcriptional function and involves the activation of genes encoding for integrins and FA docking proteins...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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