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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819695/theoretical-modeling-of-mechanical-homeostasis-of-a-mammalian-cell-under-gravity-directed-vector
#1
Lüwen Zhou, Chen Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shouqin Lü, Shujin Sun, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC)...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818939/preventing-mussel-adhesion-using-lubricant-infused-materials
#2
Shahrouz Amini, Stefan Kolle, Luigi Petrone, Onyemaechi Ahanotu, Steffi Sunny, Clarinda N Sutanto, Shawn Hoon, Lucas Cohen, James C Weaver, Joanna Aizenberg, Nicolas Vogel, Ali Miserez
Mussels are opportunistic macrofouling organisms that can attach to most immersed solid surfaces, leading to serious economic and ecological consequences for the maritime and aquaculture industries. We demonstrate that lubricant-infused coatings exhibit very low preferential mussel attachment and ultralow adhesive strengths under both controlled laboratory conditions and in marine field studies. Detailed investigations across multiple length scales-from the molecular-scale characterization of deposited adhesive proteins to nanoscale contact mechanics to macroscale live observations-suggest that lubricant infusion considerably reduces fouling by deceiving the mechanosensing ability of mussels, deterring secretion of adhesive threads, and decreasing the molecular work of adhesion...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#3
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#4
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811261/mechanosensing-from-proteins-to-tissues
#5
EDITORIAL
Ronen Zaidel Bar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#6
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801801/nuclear-envelope-a-new-frontier-in-plant-mechanosensing
#7
REVIEW
Kateryna Fal, Atef Asnacios, Marie-Edith Chabouté, Olivier Hamant
In animals, it is now well established that forces applied at the cell surface are propagated through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus, leading to deformations of the nuclear structure and, potentially, to modification of gene expression. Consistently, altered nuclear mechanics has been related to many genetic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and progeria. In plants, the integration of mechanical signals in cell and developmental biology has also made great progress. Yet, while the link between cell wall stresses and cytoskeleton is consolidated, such cortical mechanical cues have not been integrated with the nucleoskeleton...
August 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795554/parallel-compression-is-a-fast-low-cost-assay-for-the-high-throughput-screening-of-mechanosensory-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-cells
#8
Chunguang Miao, Eric S Schiffhauer, Evelyn I Okeke, Douglas N Robinson, Tianzhi Luo
Cellular mechanosensing is critical for many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and tissue morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeletal proteins play important roles in cellular mechanosensing. Many techniques have been used to investigate the mechanosensory behaviors of these proteins. However, a fast, low-cost assay for the quantitative characterization of these proteins is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate that compression assay using agarose overlay is suitable for the high throughput screening of mechanosensory proteins in live cells while requiring minimal experimental setup...
August 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781238/multiscale-dynamics-of-the-biophysical-and-biochemical-microenvironment-comment-on-cellular-mechanosensing-of-the-biophysical-microenvironment-a-review-of-mathematical-models-of-biophysical-regulation-of-cell-responses-by-bo-cheng-et-al
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779841/ion-channel-conformation-and-oligomerization-assessment-by-site-directed-spin-labeling-and-pulsed-epr
#10
Christos Pliotas
Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are multimeric integral membrane proteins that respond to increased lipid bilayer tension by opening their nonselective pores to release solutes and relieve increased cytoplasmic pressure. These systems undergo major conformational changes during gating and the elucidation of their mechanism requires a deep understanding of the interplay between lipids and proteins. Lipids are responsible for transmitting lateral tension to MS channels and therefore play a key role in obtaining a molecular-detail model for mechanosensation...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768152/mechanosensing-in-liver-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Ziwei Song, Kapish Gupta, Inn Chuan Ng, Jiangwa Xing, Yi An Yang, Hanry Yu
Liver is highly regenerative as it can restore its function and size even after 70% partial hepatectomy. During liver regeneration, the mechanical and chemical environment of liver is altered with accumulation of various growth factors and remodeling of extracellular environment. Cells can sense the changes in their cellular environment through various chemo and mechanosensors present on their surfaces. These changes are then transduced by initiation of multiple signaling pathways. Traditional view of liver regeneration describes the process as a cascade of chemical signaling pathways...
July 30, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766344/cell-shaping-micropatterns-for-quantitative-super-resolution-microscopy-imaging-of-membrane-mechanosensing-proteins
#12
Anthony Fernandez, Markville Bautista, Ramunas Stanciauskas, Taerin Chung, Fabien Pinaud
Patterning cells on microcontact-printed substrates is a powerful approach to control cell morphology and introduce specific mechanical cues on a cell's molecular organization. Although global changes in cellular architectures caused by micropatterns can easily be probed with diffraction-limited optical microscopy, studying molecular reorganizations at the nanoscale demands micropatterned substrates that accommodate the optical requirements of single molecule microscopy techniques. Here, we developed a simple micropatterning strategy that provides control of cellular architectures and is optimized for nanometer accuracy single molecule tracking and three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of plasma and nuclear membrane proteins in cells...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755662/substrate-stiffness-governs-the-initiation-of-b-cell-activation-by-the-concerted-signaling-of-pkc%C3%AE-and-focal-adhesion-kinase
#13
Samina Shaheen, Zhengpeng Wan, Zongyu Li, Alicia Chau, Xinxin Li, Shaosen Zhang, Yang Liu, Junyang Yi, Yingyue Zeng, Jing Wang, Xiangjun Chen, Liling Xu, Wei Chen, Fei Wang, Yun Lu, Wenjie Zheng, Yan Shi, Xiaolin Sun, Zhanguo Li, Chunyang Xiong, Wanli Liu
The mechanosensing ability of lymphocytes regulates their activation in response to antigen stimulation, but the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. Here, we report that B cell mechanosensing-governed activation requires BCR signaling molecules. PMA-induced activation of PKCβ can bypass the Btk and PLC-γ2 signaling molecules that are usually required for B cells to discriminate substrate stiffness. Instead, PKCβ-dependent activation of FAK is required, leading to FAK-mediated potentiation of B cell spreading and adhesion responses...
July 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755471/mechanical-loading-disrupts-osteocyte-plasma-membranes-which-initiates-mechanosensation-events-in-bone
#14
Kanglun Yu, David P Sellman, Anoosh Bahraini, Mackenzie L Hagan, Ahmed Elsherbini, Kayce T Vanpelt, Peyton L Marshall, Mark W Hamrick, Anna McNeil, Paul L McNeil, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence
Osteocytes sense loading in bone, but their mechanosensation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Plasma membrane disruptions (PMD) develop with loading under physiological conditions in many cell types (e.g., myocytes, endothelial cells). These PMD foster molecular flux across cell membranes that promotes tissue adaptation, but this mechanosensation mechanism had not been explored in osteocytes. Our goal was to investigate whether PMD occur and initiate consequent mechanotransduction in osteocytes during physiological loading...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754442/mechanotransduction-at-the-cell-matrix-interface
#15
REVIEW
K A Jansen, P Atherton, C Ballestrem
The ability of cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals is vital in development and healthy tissue functioning. Many diseases are related to either changing mechanical properties of the tissue, or changes in the ability of cells to sense mechanical signals. This sensing occurs, in part, at integrin-associated complexes (IACs) that form sites of attachment between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we discuss the complex mechanical signals of the ECM. We will also outline how IACs are involved in cellular sensing of these mechanical properties, focussing on the molecular mechanisms of key adhesion molecules...
July 25, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751568/mtor-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-inhibition-decreases-mechanosignaling-collagen-accumulation-and-stiffening-of-the-thoracic-aorta-in-elastin-deficient-mice
#16
Yang Jiao, Guangxin Li, Qingle Li, Rahmat Ali, Lingfeng Qin, Wei Li, Yibing Qyang, Daniel M Greif, Arnar Geirsson, Jay D Humphrey, George Tellides
OBJECTIVE: Elastin deficiency because of heterozygous loss of an ELN allele in Williams syndrome causes obstructive aortopathy characterized by medial thickening and fibrosis and consequent aortic stiffening. Previous work in Eln-null mice with a severe arterial phenotype showed that inhibition of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a key regulator of cell growth, lessened the aortic obstruction but did not prevent early postnatal death. We investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition in Eln-null mice partially rescued by human ELN that manifest a less severe arterial phenotype and survive long term...
July 27, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750206/plant-mechanosensitive-ion-channels-an-ocean-of-possibilities
#17
REVIEW
Debarati Basu, Elizabeth S Haswell
Mechanosensitive ion channels, transmembrane proteins that directly couple mechanical stimuli to ion flux, serve to sense and respond to changes in membrane tension in all branches of life. In plants, mechanosensitive channels have been implicated in the perception of important mechanical stimuli such as osmotic pressure, touch, gravity, and pathogenic invasion. Indeed, three established families of plant mechanosensitive ion channels play roles in cell and organelle osmoregulation and root mechanosensing - and it is likely that many other channels and functions await discovery...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728821/the-kinetics-and-the-permeation-properties-of-piezo-channels
#18
R Gnanasambandam, P A Gottlieb, F Sachs
Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728819/regulation-of-piezo-channels-by-cellular-signaling-pathways
#19
I Borbiro, T Rohacs
The recently identified mechanically activated Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels play major roles in various aspects of mechanosensation in mammals, and their mutations are associated with human diseases. Recent reports show that activation of cell surface receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gq proteins increase the sensitivity of Piezo2 channels to mechanical stimuli. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway was also shown to potentiate Piezo2 channel activity. This phenomenon may play a role in mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia during inflammation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
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