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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534911/cellular-orientation-is-guided-by-strain-gradients
#1
Sophie Chagnon-Lessard, Hubert Jean-Ruel, Michel Godin, Andrew E Pelling
The strain-induced reorientation response of cyclically stretched cells has been well characterized in uniform strain fields. In the present study, we comprehensively analyse the behaviour of human fibroblasts subjected to a highly non-uniform strain field within a polymethylsiloxane microdevice. Our results indicate that the strain gradient amplitude and direction regulate cell reorientation through a coordinated gradient avoidance response. We provide critical evidence that strain gradient is a key physical cue that can guide cell organization...
May 23, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533383/mechanosensing-of-shear-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-leads-to-increased-levels-of-the-cyclic-di-gmp-signal-initiating-biofilm-development
#2
Christopher A Rodesney, Brian Roman, Numa Dhamani, Benjamin J Cooley, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of sessile microbes that are phenotypically distinct from their genetically identical, free-swimming counterparts. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a solid surface. Attachment triggers intracellular signaling to change gene expression from the planktonic to the biofilm phenotype. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has long been known that intracellular levels of the signal cyclic-di-GMP increase upon surface adhesion and that this is required to begin biofilm development. However, what cue is sensed to notify bacteria that they are attached to the surface has not been known...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532215/matrix-mechanosensing-from-scaling-concepts-in-omics-data-to-mechanisms-in-the-nucleus-regeneration-and-cancer
#3
Dennis E Discher, Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Mark Colasurdo, Andrés J García, Sam Safran
Many of the most important molecules of life are polymers. In animals, the most abundant of the proteinaceous polymers are the collagens, which constitute the fibrous matrix outside cells and which can also self-assemble into gels. The physically measurable stiffness of gels, as well as tissues, increases with the amount of collagen, and cells seem to sense this stiffness. An understanding of this mechanosensing process in complex tissues, including fibrotic disease states with high collagen, is now utilizing 'omics data sets and is revealing polymer physics-type, nonlinear scaling relationships between concentrations of seemingly unrelated biopolymers...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523374/capturing-microscopic-features-of-bone-remodeling-into-a-macroscopic-model-based-on-biological-rationales-of-bone-adaptation
#4
Young Kwan Kim, Yoshitaka Kameo, Sakae Tanaka, Taiji Adachi
To understand Wolff's law, bone adaptation by remodeling at the cellular and tissue levels has been discussed extensively through experimental and simulation studies. For the clinical application of a bone remodeling simulation, it is significant to establish a macroscopic model that incorporates clarified microscopic mechanisms. In this study, we proposed novel macroscopic models based on the microscopic mechanism of osteocytic mechanosensing, in which the flow of fluid in the lacuno-canalicular porosity generated by fluid pressure gradients plays an important role, and theoretically evaluated the proposed models, taking biological rationales of bone adaptation into account...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522599/engineering-macrophages-to-eat-cancer-from-marker-of-self-cd47-and-phagocytosis-to-differentiation
#5
REVIEW
Cory Alvey, Dennis E Discher
The ability of a macrophage to engulf and break down invading cells and other targets provides a first line of immune defense in nearly all tissues. This defining ability to "phagos" or devour can subsequently activate the entire immune system against foreign and diseased cells, and progress is now being made on a decades-old idea of directing macrophages to phagocytose specific targets, such as cancer cells. Engineered T cells provide precedence with recent clinical successes against liquid tumors, but solid tumors remain a challenge, and a handful of clinical trials seek to exploit the abundance of tumor-associated macrophages instead...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504269/yap-regulates-cell-mechanics-by-controlling-focal-adhesion-assembly
#6
Giorgia Nardone, Jorge Oliver-De La Cruz, Jan Vrbsky, Cecilia Martini, Jan Pribyl, Petr Skládal, Martin Pešl, Guido Caluori, Stefania Pagliari, Fabiana Martino, Zuzana Maceckova, Marian Hajduch, Andres Sanz-Garcia, Nicola Maria Pugno, Gorazd Bernard Stokin, Giancarlo Forte
Hippo effectors YAP/TAZ act as on-off mechanosensing switches by sensing modifications in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and mechanics. The regulation of their activity has been described by a hierarchical model in which elements of Hippo pathway are under the control of focal adhesions (FAs). Here we unveil the molecular mechanism by which cell spreading and RhoA GTPase activity control FA formation through YAP to stabilize the anchorage of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. This mechanism requires YAP co-transcriptional function and involves the activation of genes encoding for integrins and FA docking proteins...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504247/actomyosin-meshwork-mechanosensing-enables-tissue-shape-to-orient-cell-force
#7
Soline Chanet, Callie J Miller, Eeshit Dhaval Vaishnav, Bard Ermentrout, Lance A Davidson, Adam C Martin
Sculpting organism shape requires that cells produce forces with proper directionality. Thus, it is critical to understand how cells orient the cytoskeleton to produce forces that deform tissues. During Drosophila gastrulation, actomyosin contraction in ventral cells generates a long, narrow epithelial furrow, termed the ventral furrow, in which actomyosin fibres and tension are directed along the length of the furrow. Using a combination of genetic and mechanical perturbations that alter tissue shape, we demonstrate that geometrical and mechanical constraints act as cues to orient the cytoskeleton and tension during ventral furrow formation...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502667/mechanosensitivity-from-aristotle-s-sense-of-touch-to-cardiac-mechano-electric-coupling
#8
REVIEW
Johann P Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Jochen Schaefer, Nicolaus Wilder
Scientific interest in mechanosensation likely commenced with Aristotle's description of the sense of touch in his treatise de Anima [On the Soul]. Considering touch as a vital sense distributed over the whole body, the philosopher outlined a "physiological concept" at the macro-level already 2400 years ago. From this starting point, we outline the onset of modern sensory physiology during the early 19th century. Physiologists distinguished between outer and inner senses at that time, without, however, referring to specific receptors or nerves...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495795/the-desmoplakin-intermediate-filament-linkage-regulates-cell-mechanics
#9
Joshua A Broussard, Ruiguo Yang, Changjin Huang, S Shiva P Nathamgari, Allison M Beese, Lisa M Godsel, Sherry Lee, Fan Zhou, Nathan J Sniadecki, Kathleen J Green, Horacio D Espinosa
The translation of mechanical forces into biochemical signals plays a central role in guiding normal physiological processes during tissue development and homeostasis. Interfering with this process contributes to cardiovascular disease, cancer progression, and inherited disorders. The actin-based cytoskeleton and its associated adherens junctions are well-established contributors to mechanosensing and transduction machinery; however, the role of the desmosome/intermediate filament network is poorly understood in this context...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490606/comparison-of-10-murine-models-reveals-a-distinct-biomechanical-phenotype-in-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms
#10
C Bellini, M R Bersi, A W Caulk, J Ferruzzi, D M Milewicz, F Ramirez, D B Rifkin, G Tellides, H Yanagisawa, J D Humphrey
Thoracic aortic aneurysms are life-threatening lesions that afflict young and old individuals alike. They frequently associate with genetic mutations and are characterized by reduced elastic fibre integrity, dysfunctional smooth muscle cells, improperly remodelled collagen and pooled mucoid material. There is a pressing need to understand better the compromised structural integrity of the aorta that results from these genetic mutations and renders the wall vulnerable to dilatation, dissection or rupture. In this paper, we compare the biaxial mechanical properties of the ascending aorta from 10 murine models: wild-type controls, acute elastase-treated, and eight models with genetic mutations affecting extracellular matrix proteins, transmembrane receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, or intracellular signalling molecules...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484847/genetic-kidney-diseases-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-model-system
#11
REVIEW
Athina Ganner, Elke Neumann-Haefelin
Despite its apparent simplicity, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a high rating as a model in molecular and developmental biology and biomedical research. C. elegans has no excretory system comparable with the mammalian kidney but many of the genes and molecular pathways involved in human kidney diseases are conserved in C. elegans. The plethora of genetic, molecular and imaging tools available in C. elegans has enabled major discoveries in renal research and advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of genetic kidney diseases...
May 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481973/t-tubular-collagen-a-new-player-in-mechanosensing-and-disease
#12
William E Louch, Stanley Nattel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474792/molecular-stretching-modulates-mechanosensing-pathways
#13
REVIEW
Xian Hu, Felix Margadant, Mingxi Yao, Michael Sheetz
For individual cells in tissues to create the diverse forms of biological organisms, it is necessary that they must reliably sense and generate the correct forces over the correct distances and directions. There is considerable evidence that the mechanical aspects of the cellular microenvironment provide critical physical parameters to be sensed. How proteins sense forces and cellular geometry to create the correct morphology is not understood in detail but protein unfolding appears to be a major component in force and displacement sensing...
May 5, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468803/multiscale-model-predicts-increasing-focal-adhesion-size-with-decreasing-stiffness-in-fibrous-matrices
#14
Xuan Cao, Ehsan Ban, Brendon M Baker, Yuan Lin, Jason A Burdick, Christopher S Chen, Vivek B Shenoy
We describe a multiscale model that incorporates force-dependent mechanical plasticity induced by interfiber cross-link breakage and stiffness-dependent cellular contractility to predict focal adhesion (FA) growth and mechanosensing in fibrous extracellular matrices (ECMs). The model predicts that FA size depends on both the stiffness of ECM and the density of ligands available to form adhesions. Although these two quantities are independent in commonly used hydrogels, contractile cells break cross-links in soft fibrous matrices leading to recruitment of fibers, which increases the ligand density in the vicinity of cells...
May 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459445/egfr-and-her2-activate-rigidity-sensing-only-on-rigid-matrices
#15
Mayur Saxena, Shuaimin Liu, Bo Yang, Cynthia Hajal, Rishita Changede, Junqiang Hu, Haguy Wolfenson, James Hone, Michael P Sheetz
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts with integrins during cell spreading and motility, but little is known about the role of EGFR in these mechanosensing processes. Here we show, using two different cell lines, that in serum- and EGF-free conditions, EGFR or HER2 activity increase spreading and rigidity-sensing contractions on rigid, but not soft, substrates. Contractions peak after 15-20 min, but diminish by tenfold after 4 h. Addition of EGF at that point increases spreading and contractions, but this can be blocked by myosin-II inhibition...
May 1, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447179/influence-of-inherent-mechanophenotype-on-competitive-cellular-adherence
#16
Manisha K Shah, Iris H Garcia-Pak, Eric M Darling
Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426962/evidence-for-mechanosensitive-channel-activity-of-tentonin-3-tmem150c
#17
Gyu-Sang Hong, Byeongjun Lee, Uhtaek Oh
Mechanosensation is essential for various physiological processes, and it is mediated by mechanotransduction channels. Recently, we reported that TMEM150C/Tentonin 3 (TTN3) confers mechanically activated currents with slow inactivation kinetics in several cell types, including dorsal root ganglion neurons (Hong et al., 2016). The accompanying Matters Arising by Dubin, Murthy, and colleagues confirms that naive heterologous cells demonstrate a mechanically activated current, but finds that this response is absent in CRISPR-Cas9 Piezo1 knockout cell lines and suggests that TTN3 is a modulator of Piezo1...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425078/involvement-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-bladder-dysfunction-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Zhibo Jin, Yinghui Ding, Rui Xue, Zhankui Jia, Zhenlin Huang, Yafei Ding, Chaohui Gu, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: Bladder dysfunction is an important symptom of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our previous study showed that EAE-induced upregulation of the E-prostanoid receptor 3 (EP3) and E-prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) in the bladder was accompanied by bladder dysfunction. Although many other studies have evaluated the lower urinary tract symptoms in multiple sclerosis, the mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) on bladder dysfunction in a novel neurogenic bladder model induced by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
April 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406229/the-role-of-focal-adhesion-anchoring-domains-of-cas-in-mechanotransduction
#19
Jaroslav Braniš, Csilla Pataki, Marina Spörrer, Richard C Gerum, Astrid Mainka, Vladimir Cermak, Wolfgang H Goldmann, Ben Fabry, Jan Brabek, Daniel Rosel
CAS is a docking protein, which was shown to act as a mechanosensor in focal adhesions. The unique assembly of structural domains in CAS is important for its function as a mechanosensor. The tension within focal adhesions is transmitted to a stretchable substrate domain of CAS by focal adhesion-targeting of SH3 and CCH domain of CAS, which anchor the CAS protein in focal adhesions. Mechanistic models of the stretching biosensor propose equal roles for both anchoring domains. Using deletion mutants and domain replacements, we have analyzed the relative importance of the focal adhesion anchoring domains on CAS localization and dynamics in focal adhesions as well as on CAS-mediated mechanotransduction...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#20
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
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