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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426962/evidence-for-mechanosensitive-channel-activity-of-tentonin-3-tmem150c
#1
Gyu-Sang Hong, Byeongjun Lee, Uhtaek Oh
Mechanosensation is essential for various physiological processes, and it is mediated by mechanotransduction channels. Recently, we reported that TMEM150C/Tentonin 3 (TTN3) confers mechanically activated currents with slow inactivation kinetics in several cell types, including dorsal root ganglion neurons (Hong et al., 2016). The accompanying Matters Arising by Dubin, Murthy, and colleagues confirms that naive heterologous cells demonstrate a mechanically activated current, but finds that this response is absent in CRISPR-Cas9 Piezo1 knockout cell lines and suggests that TTN3 is a modulator of Piezo1...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425078/involvement-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-bladder-dysfunction-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Zhibo Jin, Yinghui Ding, Rui Xue, Zhankui Jia, Zhenlin Huang, Yafei Ding, Chaohui Gu, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: Bladder dysfunction is an important symptom of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our previous study showed that EAE-induced upregulation of the E-prostanoid receptor 3 (EP3) and E-prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) in the bladder was accompanied by bladder dysfunction. Although many other studies have evaluated the lower urinary tract symptoms in multiple sclerosis, the mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) on bladder dysfunction in a novel neurogenic bladder model induced by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
April 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406229/the-role-of-focal-adhesion-anchoring-domains-of-cas-in-mechanotransduction
#3
Jaroslav Braniš, Csilla Pataki, Marina Spörrer, Richard C Gerum, Astrid Mainka, Vladimir Cermak, Wolfgang H Goldmann, Ben Fabry, Jan Brabek, Daniel Rosel
CAS is a docking protein, which was shown to act as a mechanosensor in focal adhesions. The unique assembly of structural domains in CAS is important for its function as a mechanosensor. The tension within focal adhesions is transmitted to a stretchable substrate domain of CAS by focal adhesion-targeting of SH3 and CCH domain of CAS, which anchor the CAS protein in focal adhesions. Mechanistic models of the stretching biosensor propose equal roles for both anchoring domains. Using deletion mutants and domain replacements, we have analyzed the relative importance of the focal adhesion anchoring domains on CAS localization and dynamics in focal adhesions as well as on CAS-mediated mechanotransduction...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#4
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402883/a-role-of-bk-channel-in-regulation-of-ca-2-channel-in-ventricular-myocytes-by-substrate-stiffness
#5
Hucheng Zhao, Yang Yu, Xiaoan Wu, Sisi Liu, Bailin Liu, Jing Du, Bo Li, Linhua Jiang, Xiqiao Feng
Substrate stiffness is crucial for diverse cell functions, but the mechanisms conferring cells with mechanosensitivity are still elusive. By tailoring substrate stiffness with 10-fold difference, we showed that L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel current density was greater in chick ventricular myocytes cultured on the stiff substrate than on the soft substrate. Blockage of the BK channel increased the Ca(2+) current density on the soft substrate and consequently eliminated substrate stiffness regulation of the Ca(2+) channel...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396411/mechanosensation-is-evolutionarily-tuned-to-locomotor-mechanics
#6
Brett R Aiello, Mark W Westneat, Melina E Hale
The biomechanics of animal limbs has evolved to meet the functional demands for movement associated with different behaviors and environments. Effective movement relies not only on limb mechanics but also on appropriate mechanosensory feedback. By comparing sensory ability and mechanics within a phylogenetic framework, we show that peripheral mechanosensation has evolved with limb biomechanics, evolutionarily tuning the neuromechanical system to its functional demands. We examined sensory physiology and mechanics of the pectoral fins, forelimb homologs, in the fish family Labridae...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385124/mimicking-cartilage-tissue-zonal-organization-by-engineering-tissue-scale-gradient-hydrogels-as-3d-cell-niche
#7
Danqing Zhu, Xinming Tong, Pavin Trinh, Fan Yang
Zonal organization plays an important role in cartilage structure and function, whereas most tissue-engineering strategies developed to date have only allowed the regeneration of cartilage with homogeneous biochemical and mechanical cues. To better restore tissue structure and function, there is a strong need to engineer materials with biomimetic gradient niche cues that recapitulate native tissue organization. To address this critical unmet need, here we report a method for rapid formation of tissue-scale gradient hydrogels as a 3D cell niche with tunable biochemical and physical properties...
April 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361145/substrate-effects-on-cell-envelope-deformation-during-early-stage-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#8
Jiahua Gu, Antonio Valdevit, Tseng-Ming Chou, Matthew Libera
Bacterial adhesion to a surface is the first step in biofilm formation, and adhesive forces between the surface and a bacterium are believed to give rise to planktonic-to-biofilm phenotypic changes. Here we use Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) tomography with backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to image Staphyolococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms grown on Au-coated polystyrene (PS) and Au-coated PS modified by mixed thiols of triethylene glycol mono-11-mercaptoundecyl ether (EG3) and 1-dodecanethiol (CH3)...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#9
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328100/smart-mechanosensing-machineries-enable-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-3d-matrices
#10
REVIEW
Qingjia Chi, Jieling Shan, Xiaorong Ding, Tieying Yin, Yazhou Wang, Dongyu Jia, Guixue Wang
At the early stage of atherosclerosis, neointima is formed due to the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima. VSMCs are surrounded by highly adhesive 3D matrices. They take specific strategies to cross various 3D matrices in the media, including heterogeneous collagen and mechanically-strong basement membrane. Migration of VSMCs is potentially caused by biomechanical mechanism. Most in vitro studies focus on cell migration on 2D substrates in response to biochemical factors...
March 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302906/distinct-focal-adhesion-protein-modules-control-different-aspects-of-mechanotransduction
#11
Ben Stutchbury, Paul Atherton, Ricky Tsang, De-Yao Wang, Christoph Ballestrem
Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular complexes that regulate cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss after photoactivation (FLAP), we found that the mobility of core FA proteins correlates with protein function. Structural proteins such as tensin, talin and vinculin are significantly less mobile in FAs than signaling proteins such as FAK and paxillin. The mobilities of the structural proteins are directly influenced by substrate stiffness, suggesting they are involved in sensing the rigidity of the extracellular environment...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298485/mcak-mediated-regulation-of-endothelial-cell-microtubule-dynamics-is-mechano-sensitive-to-myosin-ii-contractility
#12
Lauren D'Angelo, Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Compliance and dimensionality mechanosensing, the processes by which cells sense the physical attributes of the extracellular environment (ECM), are known to drive cell branching and shape change largely through a myosin-II-mediated reorganization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons. Subcellular regulation of MT dynamics is spatially controlled through a Rac1-Aurora-A kinase pathway that locally inhibits the MT depolymerizing activity of MCAK, thereby promoting leading-edge MT growth and cell polarization...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285999/evolution-of-multiple-sensory-systems-drives-novel-egg-laying-behavior-in-the-fruit-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#13
Marianthi Karageorgi, Lasse B Bräcker, Sébastien Lebreton, Caroline Minervino, Matthieu Cavey, K P Siju, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow, Nicolas Gompel, Benjamin Prud'homme
The rise of a pest species represents a unique opportunity to address how species evolve new behaviors and adapt to novel ecological niches [1]. We address this question by studying the egg-laying behavior of Drosophila suzukii, an invasive agricultural pest species that has spread from Southeast Asia to Europe and North America in the last decade [2]. While most closely related Drosophila species lay their eggs on decaying plant substrates, D. suzukii oviposits on ripening fruit, thereby causing substantial economic losses to the fruit industry [3-8]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271209/tgf-%C3%AE-1-impairs-mechanosensation-of-human-osteoblasts-via-hdac6-mediated-shortening-and-distortion-of-primary-cilia
#14
Sabrina Ehnert, Vrinda Sreekumar, Romina H Aspera-Werz, Sahar O Sajadian, Elke Wintermeyer, Gunther H Sandmann, Christian Bahrs, Jan G Hengstler, Patricio Godoy, Andreas K Nussler
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a critical regulator of bone density owing to its multiple effects on cell growth and differentiation. Recently, we have shown that TGF-β1 effectively blocks bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induced maturation of osteoblasts by upregulating histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of rhTGF-β1 treatment on the expression of specific HDACs and their cellular effects, e.g., microtubule structures (primary cilia) and mechanosensation...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265101/myosin-filament-activation-in-the-heart-is-tuned-to-the-mechanical-task
#15
Massimo Reconditi, Marco Caremani, Francesca Pinzauti, Joseph D Powers, Theyencheri Narayanan, Ger J M Stienen, Marco Linari, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
The mammalian heart pumps blood through the vessels, maintaining the dynamic equilibrium in a circulatory system driven by two pumps in series. This vital function is based on the fine-tuning of cardiac performance by the Frank-Starling mechanism that relates the pressure exerted by the contracting ventricle (end systolic pressure) to its volume (end systolic volume). At the level of the sarcomere, the structural unit of the cardiac myocytes, the Frank-Starling mechanism consists of the increase in active force with the increase of sarcomere length (length-dependent activation)...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256237/two-distinct-actin-networks-mediate-traction-oscillations-to-confer-focal-adhesion-mechanosensing
#16
Zhanghan Wu, Sergey V Plotnikov, Abdiwahab Y Moalim, Clare M Waterman, Jian Liu
Focal adhesions (FAs) are integrin-based transmembrane assemblies that connect a cell to its extracellular matrix (ECM). They are mechanosensors through which cells exert actin cytoskeleton-mediated traction forces to sense the ECM stiffness. Interestingly, FAs themselves are dynamic structures that adapt their growth in response to mechanical force. It is unclear how the cell manages the plasticity of the FA structure and the associated traction force to accurately sense ECM stiffness. Strikingly, FA traction forces oscillate in time and space, and govern the cell mechanosensing of ECM stiffness...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255710/probing-synaptic-biomechanics-using-micropillar-arrays
#17
Weiyang Jin, Charles T Black, Lance C Kam, Morgan Huse
Recent insights into the importance of mechanosensing and force transmission at the immune synapse have spurred increased interest in the mechanical properties of leukocyte cell-cell interactions. In this chapter, we describe an imaging-based strategy for measuring cellular forces that utilizes optically transparent arrays of flexible micropillars. This approach has several distinct advantages over standard traction force microscopy, and we anticipate that it will prove very useful for investigators who wish not only to quantify ligand-induced forces with high spatiotemporal resolution but also to place those forces within the context of a broader cell biological response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248230/extracellular-matrix-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-of-potato-reveals-functionally-distinct-and-diverse-canonical-and-non-canonical-proteoforms
#18
Eman Elagamey, Kanika Narula, Arunima Sinha, Pooja Rani Aggarwal, Sudip Ghosh, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
The extracellular matrix (ECM) has a molecular machinery composed of diverse proteins and proteoforms that combine properties of tensile strength with extensibility exhibiting growth-regulatory functions and self- and non-self-recognition. The identification of ECM proteoforms is the prerequisite towards a comprehensive understanding of biological functions accomplished by the outermost layer of the cell. Regulatory mechanisms of protein functions rely on post-translational modifications, phosphorylation in particular, affecting enzymatic activity, interaction, localization and stability...
June 24, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223315/the-focal-adhesion-targeting-domain-of-p130cas-confers-a-mechanosensing-function
#19
Peta M Bradbury, Kylie Turner, Camilla Mitchell, Kaitlyn R Griffin, Shiloh Middlemiss, Loretta Lau, Rebecca Dagg, Elena Taran, Justin Cooper-White, Ben Fabry, Geraldine M O'Neill
Members of the Cas family of focal adhesion proteins contain a highly conserved C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. To determine the role of the FAT domain in these proteins, we compared wild-type exogenous NEDD9 with a hybrid construct in which the NEDD9 FAT domain had been exchanged for the p130Cas (also known as BCAR1) FAT domain. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed significantly slowed exchange of the fusion protein at focal adhesions and significantly slower two-dimensional migration...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167176/do-exercises-with-the-foam-roller-have-a-short-term-impact-on-the-thoracolumbar-fascia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Annika Griefahn, Jan Oehlmann, Christoff Zalpour, Harry von Piekartz
Due to new research results in the past few years, interest in the fascia of the human body has increased. Dysfunctions of the fascia are indicated by various symptoms, amongst others, musculoskeletal pain. As a result stronger focus has been put on researching therapeutic approaches in this area. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Foam Roll exercises on the mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). Study has been conducted in a randomized and controlled trial which sampled 38 healthy athletic active men and women...
January 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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