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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682673/sociability-in-fruit-flies-genetic-variation-heritability-and-plasticity
#1
Andrew M Scott, Ian Dworkin, Reuven Dukas
Sociability, defined as individuals' propensity to participate in non-aggressive activities with conspecifics, is a fundamental feature of behavior in many animals including humans. However, we still have a limited knowledge of the mechanisms and evolutionary biology of sociability. To enhance our understanding, we developed a new protocol to quantify sociability in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). In a series of experiments with 59 F1 hybrids derived from inbred lines, we documented, first, significant genetic variation in sociability in both males and females, with broad-sense heritabilities of 0...
April 23, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665857/the-htlv-1-oncoprotein-tax-is-modified-by-the-ubiquitin-related-modifier-1-urm1
#2
Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe, Ali Bazarbachi
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling...
April 17, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514083/pi3k-akt-cooperates-with-oncogenic-notch-by-inducing-nitric-oxide-dependent-inflammation
#3
Santiago Nahuel Villegas, Rita Gombos, Lucia García-López, Irene Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jesús García-Castillo, Diana Marcela Vallejo, Vanina Gabriela Da Ros, Esther Ballesta-Illán, József Mihály, Maria Dominguez
The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, Notch, and other oncogenes cooperate in the induction of aggressive cancers. Elucidating how the PI3K/Akt pathway facilitates tumorigenesis by other oncogenes may offer opportunities to develop drugs with fewer side effects than those currently available. Here, using an unbiased in vivo chemical genetic screen in Drosophila, we identified compounds that inhibit the activity of proinflammatory enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX) as selective suppressors of Notch-PI3K/Akt cooperative oncogenesis...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446094/experimental-evidence-that-density-mediates-negative-frequency-dependent-selection-on-aggression
#4
R Julia Kilgour, Andrew G McAdam, Gustavo S Betini, D Ryan Norris
Aggression can be beneficial in competitive environments if aggressive individuals are more likely to access resources than non-aggressive individuals. However, variation in aggressive behaviour persists within populations, suggesting that high levels of aggression might not always be favoured. The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the effects of population density and phenotypic frequency on selection on aggression in a competitive environment. We compared survival of two strains of Drosophila melanogaster that differ in aggression across three density treatments and five frequency treatments (single strain groups, equal numbers of each strain and strains mixed at 3:1 and 1:3 ratios) during a period of limited resources...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348307/non-mammalian-models-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#5
REVIEW
Tirtha K Das, Ross L Cagan
Twenty-five years ago, RET was identified as the primary driver of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome. MEN2 is characterized by several transformation events including pheochromocytoma, parathyroid adenoma and, especially penetrant, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Overall, MTC is a rare but aggressive type of thyroid cancer for which no effective treatment currently exists. Surgery, radiation, radioisotope treatment and chemotherapeutics have all shown limited success, and none of these approaches have proven durable in advanced disease...
February 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339481/repetitive-aggressive-encounters-generate-a-long-lasting-internal-state-in-drosophila-melanogaster-males
#6
Yong-Kyu Kim, Mathias Saver, Jasper Simon, Clement F Kent, Lisha Shao, Mark Eddison, Pavan Agrawal, Michael Texada, James W Truman, Ulrike Heberlein
Multiple studies have investigated the mechanisms of aggressive behavior in Drosophila ; however, little is known about the effects of chronic fighting experience. Here, we investigated if repeated fighting encounters would induce an internal state that could affect the expression of subsequent behavior. We trained wild-type males to become winners or losers by repeatedly pairing them with hypoaggressive or hyperaggressive opponents, respectively. As described previously, we observed that chronic losers tend to lose subsequent fights, while chronic winners tend to win them...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281014/systematic-genetic-interaction-studies-identify-histone-demethylase-utx-as-potential-target-for-ameliorating-huntington-s-disease
#7
Wan Song, Nóra Zsindely, Anikó Faragó, J Lawrence Marsh, László Bodai
Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by alterations in the huntingtin gene (htt). Transcriptional dysregulation is an early event in HD progression. Protein acetylation and methylation particularly on histones regulates chromatin structure thereby preventing or facilitating transcription. Although protein acetylation has been found to affect HD symptoms, little is known about the potential role of protein methylation in HD pathology. In recent years, a series of proteins have been described that are responsible for methylating and demethylating histones as well as other proteins...
February 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208219/neuronal-modulation-of-d-melanogaster-sexual-behaviour
#8
REVIEW
Bárður Eyjólfsson Ellendersen, Anne C von Philipsborn
Drosophila melanogaster sexual behaviour relies on well-studied genetically determined neuronal circuits. At the same time, it can be flexible and is modulated by multiple external and internal factors. This review focuses on how physiological state, behavioural context and social experience impact sexual circuits in the two sexes. We discuss how females tune receptivity and other behaviours depending on mating status and how males adjust courtship intensity based on sexual satiety, age and the conflicting drive for aggression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174947/rbfox1-encoding-a-splicing-regulator-is-a-candidate-gene-for-aggressive-behavior
#9
Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Gabriela Gan, Marjolein M J van Donkelaar, Mariliis Vaht, Heike Weber, Wolfgang Retz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Barbara Franke, Jaanus Harro, Andreas Reif, Stephen V Faraone, Bru Cormand
The RBFOX1 gene (or A2BP1) encodes a splicing factor important for neuronal development that has been related to autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Evidence from complementary sources suggests that this gene contributes to aggressive behavior. Suggestive associations with RBFOX1 have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anger, conduct disorder, and aggressive behavior. Nominal association signals in RBFOX1 were also found in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of aggressive behavior...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109180/isolation-of-aggressive-behavior-mutants-in-drosophila-using-a-screen-for-wing-damage
#10
Shaun M Davis, Amanda L Thomas, Lingzhi Liu, Ian M Campbell, Herman A Dierick
Aggression is a complex social behavior that is widespread in nature. To date, only a limited number of genes that affect aggression have been identified, in large part because the complexity of the phenotype makes screening difficult and time-consuming regardless of the species that is studied. We discovered that aggressive group-housed Drosophila melanogaster males inflict damage on each other's wings, and show that wing damage negatively affects their ability to fly and mate. Using this wing-damage phenotype, we screened males from ∼1400 chemically mutagenized strains and found ∼40 mutant strains with substantial wing damage...
January 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#11
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, such as male-male aggression in Drosophila , are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer-lasting, social-status-dependent behavioral modifications, resulting in a robust loser effect...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858625/to-fight-or-not-to-fight
#12
Talmo D Pereira, Mala Murthy
In this issue of Neuron, Watanabe et al. (2017) uncover how octopamine, an invertebrate norepinephrine analog, modulates the neural pathways that bias Drosophila males toward aggression.
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858617/a-circuit-node-that-integrates-convergent-input-from-neuromodulatory-and-social-behavior-promoting-neurons-to-control-aggression-in-drosophila
#13
Kiichi Watanabe, Hui Chiu, Barret D Pfeiffer, Allan M Wong, Eric D Hoopfer, Gerald M Rubin, David J Anderson
Diffuse neuromodulatory systems such as norepinephrine (NE) control brain-wide states such as arousal, but whether they control complex social behaviors more specifically is not clear. Octopamine (OA), the insect homolog of NE, is known to promote both arousal and aggression. We have performed a systematic, unbiased screen to identify OA receptor-expressing neurons (OARNs) that control aggression in Drosophila. Our results uncover a tiny population of male-specific aSP2 neurons that mediate a specific influence of OA on aggression, independent of any effect on arousal...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794215/male-relatedness-and-familiarity-are-required-to-modulate-male-induced-harm-to-females-in-drosophila
#14
Sally Le Page, Irem Sepil, Ewan Flintham, Tommaso Pizzari, Pau Carazo, Stuart Wigby
Males compete over mating and fertilization, and often harm females in the process. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that increasing relatedness within groups of males may relax competition and discourage male harm of females as males gain indirect benefits. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster are consistent with these predictions, and have found that within-group male relatedness increases female fitness, though others have found no effects. Importantly, these studies did not fully disentangle male genetic relatedness from larval familiarity, so the extent to which modulation of harm to females is explained by male familiarity remains unclear...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718438/tissue-intrinsic-tumor-hotspots-terroir-for-tumorigenesis
#15
REVIEW
Yoichiro Tamori, Wu-Min Deng
Epithelial tissues are highly organized systems with a remarkable homeostatic ability to maintain morphology through regulation of cellular proliferation and tissue integrity. This robust self-organizing system is progressively disrupted during tumor development. Recent studies of conserved tumor-suppressor genes in Drosophila showed how protumor cells deviate from the robustly organized tissue microenvironment to take the first steps into becoming aggressive tumors. Here we review the 'tumor hotspot' hypothesis that explains how the tissue-intrinsic local microenvironment has a pivotal role in the initial stage of tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelia and discuss comparable mechanisms in mammalian tissues...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#16
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#17
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580431/sperm-and-sex-peptide-stimulate-aggression-in-female-drosophila
#18
Eleanor Bath, Samuel Bowden, Carla Peters, Anjali Reddy, Joseph A Tobias, Evan Easton-Calabria, Nathalie Seddon, Stephen F Goodwin, Stuart Wigby
Female aggression towards other females is associated with reproduction in many taxa, and traditionally thought to be related to the protection or provisioning of offspring, such as through increased resource acquisition. However, the underlying reproductive factors causing aggressive behaviour in females remain unknown. Here we show that female aggression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is strongly stimulated by the receipt of sperm at mating, and in part by an associated seminal fluid protein, the sex peptide...
June 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#19
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553207/dm5-ht2b-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-fifth-serotonin-receptor-subtype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Wolfgang Blenau, Stöppler Daniel, Sabine Balfanz, Markus Thamm, Arnd Baumann
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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