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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848947/genetic-variation-in-social-environment-construction-influences-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
J B Saltz
Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly...
November 16, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835572/sprouty2-inhibits-amphiregulin-induced-down-regulation-of-e-cadherin-and-cell-invasion-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
Jung-Chien Cheng, Hsun-Ming Chang, Siyuan Xiong, Wai-Kin So, Peter C K Leung
Similar to Drosophila Sprouty (SPRY), mammalian SPRY proteins inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. SPRY2 expression levels have been shown to be down-regulated in human ovarian cancer, and patients with low SPRY2 expression have significantly poorer survival than those with high SPRY2 expression. In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer and is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834611/strategy-changes-in-subsequent-fights-as-consequences-of-winning-and-losing-in-fruit-fly-fights
#3
Séverine Trannoy, Edward A Kravitz
In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752072/circuit-modules-linking-internal-states-and-social-behaviour-in-flies-and-mice
#4
David J Anderson
Goal-directed social behaviours such as mating and fighting are associated with scalable and persistent internal states of emotion, motivation, arousal or drive. How those internal states are encoded and coupled to behavioural decision making and action selection is not clear. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster and mice have identified circuit nodes that have causal roles in the control of innate social behaviours. Remarkably, in both species, these relatively small groups of neurons can influence both aggression and mating, and also play a part in the encoding of internal states that promote these social behaviours...
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585295/in-vivo-genetic-dissection-of-tumor-growth-and-the-warburg-effect
#5
Cheng-Wei Wang, Arunima Purkayastha, Kevin T Jones, Shivani K Thaker, Utpal Banerjee
A well-characterized metabolic landmark for aggressive cancers is the reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the Warburg effect. Models mimicking this process are often incomplete due to genetic complexities of tumors and cell lines containing unmapped collaborating mutations. In order to establish a system where individual components of oncogenic signals and metabolic pathways can be readily elucidated, we induced a glycolytic tumor in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by activating the oncogene PDGF/VEGF-receptor (Pvr)...
September 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185554/the-neural-circuitry-that-functions-as-a-switch-for-courtship-versus-aggression-in-drosophila-males
#6
Masayuki Koganezawa, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Daisuke Yamamoto
Courtship and aggression are induced in a mutually exclusive manner in male Drosophila melanogaster, which quickly chooses one of these behavioral repertoires to run depending on whether the encountered conspecific is a female or male, yet the neural mechanism underlying this decision making remains obscure. By targeted excitation and synaptic blockage in a subset of brain neurons, we demonstrate here that the fruitless (fru)-negative subfraction (∼20 cells) of a doublesex-positive neural cluster, pC1, acts as the aggression-triggering center whereas the fru-positive subfraction (∼20 cells) of pC1 acts as the courtship-triggering center, and that the mutually exclusive activation of these two centers is attained by a double-layered inhibitory switch composed of two fru single-positive clusters, LC1 and mAL...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179788/neural-control-of-aggression-in-drosophila
#7
REVIEW
Eric D Hoopfer
Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153592/characterizing-gene-sets-using-discriminative-random-walks-with-restart-on-heterogeneous-biological-networks
#8
Charles Blatti, Saurabh Sinha
MOTIVATION: Analysis of co-expressed gene sets typically involves testing for enrichment of different annotations or 'properties' such as biological processes, pathways, transcription factor binding sites, etc., one property at a time. This common approach ignores any known relationships among the properties or the genes themselves. It is believed that known biological relationships among genes and their many properties may be exploited to more accurately reveal commonalities of a gene set...
July 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109060/h-prune-affects-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis
#9
Junko Nambu, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Masakazu Hashimoto, Hirotaka Tashiro, Keizo Sugino, Fumio Shimamoto, Akira Kikuchi, Hideki Ohdan
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is resistant to multimodal treatments. The expression of h-prune, the human homologue of Drosophila prune, has been reported to be correlated with progression and aggressiveness in various cancers including breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We examined the role of h-prune in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of h-prune was performed with 15 surgically resected specimens of anaplastic thyroid cancers...
June 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071097/short-and-long-lasting-behavioral-consequences-of-agonistic-encounters-between-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Séverine Trannoy, Jill Penn, Kenia Lucey, David Popovic, Edward A Kravitz
In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037526/h-prune-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastases
#11
Masakazu Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Hirotaka Tashiro, Koji Arihiro, Akira Kikuchi, Hideki Ohdan
The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains low despite advances in chemotherapy and surgery. The expression of h-prune (human homolog of Drosophila prune protein; HGNC13420), an exopolyphosphatase, is correlated with progression and aggressiveness in several cancers and promotes migration and invasion. We investigated the role of h-prune in CRLM. To investigate the role of h-prune, immunohistochemical analysis for h-prune was performed in 87 surgically resected specimens of CRLM obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Hiroshima University Hospital...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002939/loss-of-the-cell-polarity-determinant-human-discs-large-is-a-novel-molecular-marker-of-nodal-involvement-and-poor-prognosis-in-endometrial-cancer
#12
Takeru Sugihara, Shunsuke Nakagawa, Yuko Sasajima, Takayuki Ichinose, Haruko Hiraike, Fukuo Kondo, Hiroshi Uozaki, Toshio Fukusato, Takuya Ayabe
BACKGROUND: Recent Drosophila studies showed that Discs-large (Dlg) is critical for regulation of cell polarity and tissue architecture. We investigated the possibility that loss of the human homologue of Drosophila Dlg (DLG1) is involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. METHODS: We analysed DLG1 expression in 160 endometrial cancers by immunohistochemical staining. Its expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). We investigated the roles of DLG1 in growth and invasion by knockdown experiment in endometrial cancer cell lines...
April 26, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911985/trimming-of-sequence-reads-alters-rna-seq-gene-expression-estimates
#13
Claire R Williams, Alyssa Baccarella, Jay Z Parrish, Charles C Kim
BACKGROUND: High-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become the preferred technique for studying gene expression differences between biological samples and for discovering novel isoforms, though the techniques to analyze the resulting data are still immature. One pre-processing step that is widely but heterogeneously applied is trimming, in which low quality bases, identified by the probability that they are called incorrectly, are removed. However, the impact of trimming on subsequent alignment to a genome could influence downstream analyses including gene expression estimation; we hypothesized that this might occur in an inconsistent manner across different genes, resulting in differential bias...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780386/a-new-approach-that-eliminates-handling-for-studying-aggression-and-the-loser-effect-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Severine Trannoy, Budhaditya Chowdhury, Edward A Kravitz
Aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of the sequential expression of stereotypical behavioral patterns (for analysis see (1)). This complex behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. As in many organisms, previous fighting experience influences the fighting strategy of flies and the outcome of later contests: losing a fight increases the probability of losing later contests, revealing "loser" effects that likely involve learning and memory (2-4). The learning and memory that accompanies expression of complex social behaviors like aggression, is sensitive to pre-test handling of animals (5,6)...
December 30, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714106/p1-interneurons-promote-a-persistent-internal-state-that-enhances-inter-male-aggression-in-drosophila
#15
Eric D Hoopfer, Yonil Jung, Hidehiko K Inagaki, Gerald M Rubin, David J Anderson
How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension...
2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658421/female-choice-or-male-sex-drive-the-advantages-of-male-body-size-during-mating-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Santosh Jagadeeshan, Ushma Shah, Debarti Chakrabarti, Rama S Singh
The mating success of larger male Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory and the wild has been traditionally been explained by female choice, even though the reasons are generally hard to reconcile. Female choice can explain this success by virtue of females taking less time to mate with preferred males, but so can the more aggressive or persistent courtships efforts of large males. Since mating is a negotiation between the two sexes, the behaviors of both are likely to interact and influence mating outcomes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656654/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Liesbeth Zwarts, Lies Vanden Broeck, Elisa Cappuyns, Julien F Ayroles, Michael M Magwire, Veerle Vulsteke, Jason Clements, Trudy F C Mackay, Patrick Callaerts
Genetic variation in brain size may provide the basis for the evolution of the brain and complex behaviours. The genetic substrate and the selective pressures acting on brain size are poorly understood. Here we use the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to map polymorphic variants affecting natural variation in mushroom body morphology. We identify 139 genes and 39 transcription factors and confirm effects on development and adult plasticity. We show correlations between morphology and aggression, sleep and lifespan...
December 11, 2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573956/salt-inducible-kinases-mediate-nutrient-sensing-to-link-dietary-sugar-and-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila
#18
Susumu Hirabayashi, Ross L Cagan
Cancer cells demand excessive nutrients to support their proliferation but how cancer cells sense and promote growth in the nutrient favorable conditions remain incompletely understood. Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity is a risk factor for various types of cancers. Feeding Drosophila a high dietary sugar was previously demonstrated to not only direct metabolic defects including obesity and organismal insulin resistance, but also transform Ras/Src-activated cells into aggressive tumors. Here we demonstrate that Ras/Src-activated cells are sensitive to perturbations in the Hippo signaling pathway...
November 17, 2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425438/a-novel-link-between-fmr-gene-and-the-jnk-pathway-provides-clues-to-possible-role-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#19
Ajay Srivastava
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive form of thoracic cancer with poor prognosis. While some studies have identified the molecular alterations associated with MPM, little is known about their role in MPM. For example, fragile X mental retardation (FMR) gene is up-regulated in MPM but its role in MPM is unknown. Here, utilizing Drosophila genetics, I investigate the possible role FMR may be playing in MPM. I provide evidence which suggests that FMR may contribute to tumorigenesis by up-regulating a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and by degrading the basement membrane (BM), both important for tumor metastasis...
2015: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26421208/evolutionary-consequences-of-male-driven-sexual-selection-and-sex-biased-fitness-modifications-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-members-of-the-simulans-clade
#20
Santosh Jagadeeshan, Wilfried Haerty, Monika Moglinicka, Abha Ahuja, Scot De Vito, Rama S Singh
Males have evolved a variety of behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits to manipulate their mates in order to maximize their chances of success. These traits are bound to influence how females respond to male behaviors and influence the nature of sexual selection/conflict. A common consequence of aggressive male mating strategies in Drosophila melanogaster is the reduction of female lifespan. Our study shows that this is common across members of the simulans clade. Reduced life expectancy of females implies that female contribution to a population is less than that of males per generation...
2015: International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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