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drosophila aggression

Liesbeth Zwarts, Veerle Vulsteke, Edgar Buhl, James J L Hodge, Patrick Callaerts
Mutations in proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. We here establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knock-down and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior...
March 22, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Budhaditya Chowdhury, Yick-Bun Chan, Edward A Kravitz
By selection of winners of dyadic fights for 35 generations, we have generated a hyperaggressive Bully line of flies that almost always win fights against the parental wild-type Canton-S stock. Maintenance of the Bully phenotype is temperature dependent during development, with the phenotype lost when flies are reared at 19 °C. No similar effect is seen with the parent line. This difference allowed us to carry out RNA-seq experiments and identify a limited number of genes that are differentially expressed by twofold or greater in the Bullies; one of these was a putative transmembrane transporter, CG13646, which showed consistent and reproducible twofold down-regulation in Bullies...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alexander E Kudinov, John Karanicolas, Erica A Golemis, Yanis Boumber
Aberrant gene expression that drives human cancer can arise from epigenetic dysregulation. While much attention has focused on altered activity of transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins, proteins that act post-transcriptionally can potently affect expression of oncogenic signaling proteins. The RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2) are emerging as regulators of multiple critical biological processes relevant to cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Marijke Versteven, Lies Vanden Broeck, Bart Geurten, Liesbeth Zwarts, Lisse Decraecker, Melissa Beelen, Martin C Göpfert, Ralf Heinrich, Patrick Callaerts
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression...
January 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ayumi Kudo, Shuji Shigenobu, Koji Kadota, Masafumi Nozawa, Tomoko F Shibata, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animals, but its intensity differs between species. In a model animal of genetics, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic basis of aggressive behavior has been studied intensively, including transcriptome analyses to identify genes whose expression level was associated with intra-species variation in aggressiveness. However, whether these genes are also involved in the evolution of aggressiveness among different species has not been examined. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis in the brain of Drosophila prolongata to identify genes associated with the evolution of aggressiveness...
January 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Dariel Ashton-Beaucage, Marc Therrien
Cells respond to changes in their environment, to developmental cues, and to pathogen aggression through the action of a complex network of proteins. These networks can be decomposed into a multitude of signaling pathways that relay signals from the microenvironment to the cellular components involved in eliciting a specific response. Perturbations in these signaling processes are at the root of multiple pathologies, the most notable of these being cancer. The study of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling led to the first description of a mechanism whereby an extracellular signal is transmitted to the nucleus to induce a transcriptional response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
J B Saltz
Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly...
April 2017: Heredity
Jung-Chien Cheng, Hsun-Ming Chang, Siyuan Xiong, Wai-Kin So, Peter C K Leung
Similar to Drosophila Sprouty (SPRY), mammalian SPRY proteins inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. SPRY2 expression levels have been shown to be down-regulated in human ovarian cancer, and patients with low SPRY2 expression have significantly poorer survival than those with high SPRY2 expression. In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer and is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Séverine Trannoy, Edward A Kravitz
In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests...
November 11, 2016: Fly
David J Anderson
Goal-directed social behaviours such as mating and fighting are associated with scalable and persistent internal states of emotion, motivation, arousal or drive. How those internal states are encoded and coupled to behavioural decision making and action selection is not clear. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster and mice have identified circuit nodes that have causal roles in the control of innate social behaviours. Remarkably, in both species, these relatively small groups of neurons can influence both aggression and mating, and also play a part in the encoding of internal states that promote these social behaviours...
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Cheng-Wei Wang, Arunima Purkayastha, Kevin T Jones, Shivani K Thaker, Utpal Banerjee
A well-characterized metabolic landmark for aggressive cancers is the reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the Warburg effect. Models mimicking this process are often incomplete due to genetic complexities of tumors and cell lines containing unmapped collaborating mutations. In order to establish a system where individual components of oncogenic signals and metabolic pathways can be readily elucidated, we induced a glycolytic tumor in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by activating the oncogene PDGF/VEGF-receptor (Pvr)...
September 1, 2016: ELife
Masayuki Koganezawa, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Daisuke Yamamoto
Courtship and aggression are induced in a mutually exclusive manner in male Drosophila melanogaster, which quickly chooses one of these behavioral repertoires to run depending on whether the encountered conspecific is a female or male, yet the neural mechanism underlying this decision making remains obscure. By targeted excitation and synaptic blockage in a subset of brain neurons, we demonstrate here that the fruitless (fru)-negative subfraction (∼20 cells) of a doublesex-positive neural cluster, pC1, acts as the aggression-triggering center whereas the fru-positive subfraction (∼20 cells) of pC1 acts as the courtship-triggering center, and that the mutually exclusive activation of these two centers is attained by a double-layered inhibitory switch composed of two fru single-positive clusters, LC1 and mAL...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Eric D Hoopfer
Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Charles Blatti, Saurabh Sinha
MOTIVATION: Analysis of co-expressed gene sets typically involves testing for enrichment of different annotations or 'properties' such as biological processes, pathways, transcription factor binding sites, etc., one property at a time. This common approach ignores any known relationships among the properties or the genes themselves. It is believed that known biological relationships among genes and their many properties may be exploited to more accurately reveal commonalities of a gene set...
July 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Junko Nambu, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Masakazu Hashimoto, Hirotaka Tashiro, Keizo Sugino, Fumio Shimamoto, Akira Kikuchi, Hideki Ohdan
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is resistant to multimodal treatments. The expression of h-prune, the human homologue of Drosophila prune, has been reported to be correlated with progression and aggressiveness in various cancers including breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We examined the role of h-prune in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of h-prune was performed with 15 surgically resected specimens of anaplastic thyroid cancers...
June 2016: Oncology Reports
Séverine Trannoy, Jill Penn, Kenia Lucey, David Popovic, Edward A Kravitz
In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Masakazu Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Hirotaka Tashiro, Koji Arihiro, Akira Kikuchi, Hideki Ohdan
The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains low despite advances in chemotherapy and surgery. The expression of h-prune (human homolog of Drosophila prune protein; HGNC13420), an exopolyphosphatase, is correlated with progression and aggressiveness in several cancers and promotes migration and invasion. We investigated the role of h-prune in CRLM. To investigate the role of h-prune, immunohistochemical analysis for h-prune was performed in 87 surgically resected specimens of CRLM obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Hiroshima University Hospital...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Takeru Sugihara, Shunsuke Nakagawa, Yuko Sasajima, Takayuki Ichinose, Haruko Hiraike, Fukuo Kondo, Hiroshi Uozaki, Toshio Fukusato, Takuya Ayabe
BACKGROUND: Recent Drosophila studies showed that Discs-large (Dlg) is critical for regulation of cell polarity and tissue architecture. We investigated the possibility that loss of the human homologue of Drosophila Dlg (DLG1) is involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. METHODS: We analysed DLG1 expression in 160 endometrial cancers by immunohistochemical staining. Its expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). We investigated the roles of DLG1 in growth and invasion by knockdown experiment in endometrial cancer cell lines...
April 26, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Claire R Williams, Alyssa Baccarella, Jay Z Parrish, Charles C Kim
BACKGROUND: High-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become the preferred technique for studying gene expression differences between biological samples and for discovering novel isoforms, though the techniques to analyze the resulting data are still immature. One pre-processing step that is widely but heterogeneously applied is trimming, in which low quality bases, identified by the probability that they are called incorrectly, are removed. However, the impact of trimming on subsequent alignment to a genome could influence downstream analyses including gene expression estimation; we hypothesized that this might occur in an inconsistent manner across different genes, resulting in differential bias...
February 25, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
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