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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580431/sperm-and-sex-peptide-stimulate-aggression-in-female-drosophila
#1
Eleanor Bath, Samuel Bowden, Carla Peters, Anjali Reddy, Joseph A Tobias, Evan Easton-Calabria, Nathalie Seddon, Stephen F Goodwin, Stuart Wigby
Female aggression towards other females is associated with reproduction in many taxa, and traditionally thought to be related to the protection or provisioning of offspring, such as through increased resource acquisition. However, the underlying reproductive factors causing aggressive behaviour in females remain unknown. Here we show that female aggression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is strongly stimulated by the receipt of sperm at mating, and in part by an associated seminal fluid protein, the sex peptide...
June 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#2
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553207/dm5-ht2b-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-fifth-serotonin-receptor-subtype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Wolfgang Blenau, Stöppler Daniel, Sabine Balfanz, Markus Thamm, Arnd Baumann
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550016/genomic-analysis-of-genotype-by-social-environment-interaction-for-drosophila-aggressive-behavior
#4
Palle Duun Rohde, Bryn Gaertner, Kirsty Wards, Peter Sørensen, Trudy F C Mackay
Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability of conducting a violent act. Here, we used the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to investigate the genetic basis of variation in male aggressive behavior for flies reared in a socialized and socially isolated environment...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#5
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484630/aggressive-behaviours-food-deprivation-and-the-foraging-gene
#6
Silu Wang, Marla B Sokolowski
A pleiotropic gene governs multiple traits, which might constrain the evolution of complexity due to conflicting selection on these traits. However, if the pleiotropic effect is modular, then this can facilitate synergistic responses to selection on functionally related traits, thereby leveraging the evolution of complexity. To understand the evolutionary consequence of pleiotropy, the relation among functionally different traits governed by the same gene is key. We examined a pleiotropic function of the foraging (for) gene with its rover and sitter allelic variants in fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466236/pleiotropic-effects-of-ddt-resistance-on-male-size-and-behaviour
#7
Wayne G Rostant, Jemima Bowyer, Jack Coupland, James Facey, David J Hosken, Nina Wedell
Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively...
May 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#8
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418397/bap180-baf180-is-required-to-maintain-homeostasis-of-intestinal-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-and-mice
#9
Xiaomeng He, Junjing Yu, Min Wang, Yang Cheng, Yanan Han, Shuo Yang, Guizhi Shi, Lei Sun, Ying Fang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhong Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Lei Pan, Hong Tang
Immune homeostasis is a prerequisite to protective immunity against gastrointestinal infections. In Drosophila, immune deficiency (IMD) signalling (tumour necrosis factor receptor/interleukin-1 receptor, TNFR/IL-1R in mammals) is indispensable for intestinal immunity against invading bacteria. However, how this local antimicrobial immune response contributes to inflammatory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we show that flies lacking intestinal Bap180 (a subunit of the chromatin-remodelling switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex) are susceptible to infection as a result of hyper-inflammation rather than bacterial overload...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405290/reproductive-interference-by-male-drosophila-subobscura-on-female-d-%C3%A2-persimilis-a-laboratory-experiment
#10
Brenda Manzano-Winkler, Alexander J Hish, Emily K Aarons, Mohamed A F Noor
While females often reject courtship attempts by heterospecific males, reproductive interference by harassment from such males can nonetheless occur, potentially reducing female fitness. Such effects may be profound following a range expansion, when males from a new species may suddenly encounter (and perhaps even become abundant relative to) females of related native species. Drosophila subobscura recently invaded North America and may impact native species through reproductive interference and other processes...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375770/neuromodulation-and-strategic-action-choice-in-drosophila-aggression
#11
Kenta Asahina
In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360128/circadian-rhythms-and-sleep-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
REVIEW
Christine Dubowy, Amita Sehgal
The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331058/slga-the-homologue-of-the-human-schizophrenia-associated-prodh-gene-acts-in-clock-neurons-to-regulate-drosophila-aggression
#13
Liesbeth Zwarts, Veerle Vulsteke, Edgar Buhl, James J L Hodge, Patrick Callaerts
Mutations in proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. We here establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knock-down and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior...
March 22, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193893/putative-transmembrane-transporter-modulates-higher-level-aggression-in-drosophila
#14
Budhaditya Chowdhury, Yick-Bun Chan, Edward A Kravitz
By selection of winners of dyadic fights for 35 generations, we have generated a hyperaggressive Bully line of flies that almost always win fights against the parental wild-type Canton-S stock. Maintenance of the Bully phenotype is temperature dependent during development, with the phenotype lost when flies are reared at 19 °C. No similar effect is seen with the parent line. This difference allowed us to carry out RNA-seq experiments and identify a limited number of genes that are differentially expressed by twofold or greater in the Bullies; one of these was a putative transmembrane transporter, CG13646, which showed consistent and reproducible twofold down-regulation in Bullies...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143872/musashi-rna-binding-proteins-as-cancer-drivers-and-novel-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Alexander E Kudinov, John Karanicolas, Erica A Golemis, Yanis Boumber
Aberrant gene expression that drives human cancer can arise from epigenetic dysregulation. Although much attention has focused on altered activity of transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins, proteins that act posttranscriptionally can potently affect expression of oncogenic signaling proteins. The RNA-binding proteins (RBP) Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2) are emerging as regulators of multiple critical biological processes relevant to cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115690/hearing-regulates-drosophila-aggression
#16
Marijke Versteven, Lies Vanden Broeck, Bart Geurten, Liesbeth Zwarts, Lisse Decraecker, Melissa Beelen, Martin C Göpfert, Ralf Heinrich, Patrick Callaerts
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115271/comparative-analysis-of-the-brain-transcriptome-in-a-hyper-aggressive-fruit-fly-drosophila-prolongata
#17
Ayumi Kudo, Shuji Shigenobu, Koji Kadota, Masafumi Nozawa, Tomoko F Shibata, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animals, but its intensity differs between species. In a model animal of genetics, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic basis of aggressive behavior has been studied intensively, including transcriptome analyses to identify genes whose expression level was associated with intra-species variation in aggressiveness. However, whether these genes are also involved in the evolution of aggressiveness among different species has not been examined. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis in the brain of Drosophila prolongata to identify genes associated with the evolution of aggressiveness...
January 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924555/how-genetics-has-helped-piece-together-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#19
Dariel Ashton-Beaucage, Marc Therrien
Cells respond to changes in their environment, to developmental cues, and to pathogen aggression through the action of a complex network of proteins. These networks can be decomposed into a multitude of signaling pathways that relay signals from the microenvironment to the cellular components involved in eliciting a specific response. Perturbations in these signaling processes are at the root of multiple pathologies, the most notable of these being cancer. The study of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling led to the first description of a mechanism whereby an extracellular signal is transmitted to the nucleus to induce a transcriptional response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848947/genetic-variation-in-social-environment-construction-influences-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
J B Saltz
Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly...
April 2017: Heredity
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