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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#1
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317876/extreme-adaptations-for-probable-visual-courtship-behaviour-in-a-cretaceous-dancing-damselfly
#2
Daran Zheng, André Nel, Edmund A Jarzembowski, Su-Chin Chang, Haichun Zhang, Fangyuan Xia, Haoying Liu, Bo Wang
Courtship behaviours, frequent among modern insects, have left extremely rare fossil traces. None are known previously for fossil odonatans. Fossil traces of such behaviours are better known among the vertebrates, e.g. the hypertelic antlers of the Pleistocene giant deer Megaloceros giganteus. Here we describe spectacular extremely expanded, pod-like tibiae in males of a platycnemidid damselfly from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Such structures in modern damselflies, help to fend off other suitors as well as attract mating females, increasing the chances of successful mating...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302869/motor-and-mechanical-bases-of-the-courtship-call-of-the-male-treehopper-umbonia-crassicornis
#3
Carol I Miles, Brianna E Allison, Michael J Losinger, Quang T Su, Ronald N Miles
This study is a physiological, anatomical, and biophysical analysis of how plant-borne vibrational signals are produced by the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis During courtship, males and females engage in a vibrational duet, with each producing a characteristic call. For males, this consists of a frequency-modulated tonal signal which is accompanied by rhythmic broad-band clicks. While previous studies described these complex signals in detail, little is known about how they are produced. By combining video recordings, electromyograms, dissections and mechanical modelling, we describe the mechanism by which the male produces his courtship signal...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296131/the-reproductive-strategy-and-the-vibrational-duet-of-the-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the
#4
Rachele Nieri, Valerio Mazzoni
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24-hour period enabled us to detect and describe two male and one female signal...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294190/active-and-passive-sexual-roles-that-arise-in-drosophila-male-male-courtship-are-modulated-by-dopamine-levels-in-ppl2ab-neurons
#5
Shiu-Ling Chen, Yu-Hui Chen, Chuan-Chan Wang, Yhu-Wei Yu, Yu-Chen Tsai, Hsiao-Wen Hsu, Chia-Lin Wu, Pei-Yu Wang, Lien-Cheng Chen, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Tsai-Feng Fu
The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289557/acoustic-monitoring-indicates-a-correlation-between-calling-and-spawning-in-captive-spotted-seatrout-cynoscion-nebulosus
#6
Eric W Montie, Matt Hoover, Christopher Kehrer, Justin Yost, Karl Brenkert, Tim O'Donnell, Michael R Denson
BACKGROUND: Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287755/female-bearded-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-use-objects-to-solicit-the-sexual-partner
#7
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Cecilia Di Bernardi, Luca A Marino, Dorothy Fragaszy, Patricia Izar
Female wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) that use stone and stick tools during foraging occasionally toss or throw stones at the male during courtship. We report similar behaviors in a different population that uses stones as tools in foraging. We video-recorded the sexual behavior of four females (27 days during nine proceptive periods) belonging to a group of wild capuchins living in Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 320 km from SCNP. Three females used stones or branches when they solicited the alpha male (79 episodes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287580/measuring-and-altering-mating-drive-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Christine L Boutros, Lauren E Miner, Ofer Mazor, Stephen X Zhang
Despite decades of investigation, the neuronal and molecular bases of motivational states remain mysterious. We have recently developed a novel, reductionist, and scalable system for in-depth investigation of motivation using the mating drive of male Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila), the methods for which we detail here. The behavioral paradigm centers on the finding that male mating drive decreases alongside fertility over the course of repeated copulations and recovers over ~3 d. In this system, the powerful neurogenetic tools available in the fly converge with the genetic accessibility and putative wiring diagram available for sexual behavior...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278362/testing-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-inbreeding
#9
Wolfgang Forstmeier, Malika Ihle, Pavlína Opatová, Katrin Martin, Ulrich Knief, Jana Albrechtová, Tomáš Albrecht, Bart Kempenaers
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis suggests that females can judge male fertility by inspecting male phenotypic traits. This is because male sexually selected traits might correlate with sperm quality if both are sensitive to factors that influence male condition. A recent meta-analysis found little support for this hypothesis, suggesting little or no shared condition dependence. However, we recently reported that in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) inbreeding had detrimental effects both on phenotypic traits and on measures of sperm quality, implying that variation in inbreeding could induce positive covariance between indicator traits and sperm quality...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273663/sex-specific-transcript-diversity-in-the-fly-head-is-established-during-pupal-stages-and-adulthood-and-is-largely-independent-of-the-mating-process-and-the-germline
#10
Carmen Mohr, Sarah Kleiner, Marco Blanchette, George Pyrowolakis, Britta Hartmann
Alternative splicing (AS), the process which generates multiple RNA and protein isoforms from a single pre-mRNA, greatly contributes to transcript diversity and compensates for the fact that the gene number does not scale with organismal complexity. A number of genomic approaches have established that the extent of AS is much higher than previously expected, raising questions on its spatio-temporal regulation and function. In the present study, we address AS in the context of sex-specific neuronal development in the model Drosophila melanogaster...
March 9, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273111/mating-success-follows-duet-dancing-in-the-java-sparrow
#11
Masayo Soma, Midori Iwama
Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270774/distinct-roles-of-met-and-interacting-proteins-on-the-expressions-of-takeout-family-genes-in-brown-planthopper
#12
Xinda Lin, Ling Zhang, Yanyun Jiang
The takeout family genes encode relatively small proteins that are related to olfaction and are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH). The takeout genes modulate various physiological processes, such as behavioral plasticity in the migratory locust Locusta migraloria and feeding and courtship behaviors in Drosophila. Therefore, to understand the regulatory mechanism of these physiological processes, it is important to study the expressions of the takeout genes that are regulated by JH signaling. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) to study the role of JH signaling in the regulation of the takeout family genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254160/how-does-a-viviparous-semifossorial-lizard-reproduce-ophiodes-intermedius-squamata-anguidae-from-subtropical-climate-in-the-wet-chaco-region-of-argentina
#13
Martín A Ortiz, Jorgelina M Boretto, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
The best predictors of reproductive patterns are commonly associated with climate factors, but evolutionary history also plays an important role. The semifossorial and viviparous lizard Ophiodes intermedius from the Wet Chaco region of Argentina showed an annual cycle with asynchrony between males and females and an unusual pattern for subtropical climates, with vitellogenesis beginning in autumn, ovulation and copulation in spring, and births occurring in summer. Males exhibited annual variation of testicular size associated with spermatogenic activity, reaching their maximum gonadal activity in late summer (March), but sperm storage in the epididymis and/or deferent duct occurred throughout the year...
January 16, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245824/alternative-reproductive-tactics-and-inverse-size-assortment-in-a-high-density-fish-spawning-aggregation
#14
Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran, Rohan Arthur
BACKGROUND: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. RESULTS: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239241/the-role-of-temporal-call-structure-in-species-recognition-of-male-allobates-talamancae-cope-1875-anura-dendrobatidae
#15
Dennis Kollarits, Christian Wappl, Max Ringler
Acoustic species recognition in anurans depends on spectral and temporal characteristics of the advertisement call. The recognition space of a species is shaped by the likelihood of heterospecific acoustic interference. The dendrobatid frogs Allobates talamancae (Cope, 1875) and Silverstoneia flotator (Dunn, 1931) occur syntopically in south-west Costa Rica. A previous study showed that these two species avoid acoustic interference by spectral stratification. In this study, the role of the temporal call structure in the advertisement call of A...
January 30, 2017: Herpetozoa (Wien)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228675/new-species-of-habronattus-and-pellenes-jumping-spiders-araneae-salticidae-harmochirina
#16
Wayne P Maddison
The harmochirine jumping spiders include the New World Habronattus, notable for their complex courtship displays, and Pellenes, found throughout the Old World and North America. Five new species of Habronattus and one new species of Pellenes are here described from North America: Habronattus aestus, sp. n., Habronattus chamelasp. n., Habronattus empyrussp. n., Habronattus luminosussp. n., Habronattus robertisp. n., and Pellenes canadensissp. n. For each of the new species, photographs of living specimens are given, as well as notes on habitat...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223035/effects-of-quinestrol-on-the-vocal-behavior-of-mice-during-courtship-interactions
#17
Yi Chen, Qian-Qian Su, Quan-Sheng Liu
Vocalizations are a crucial part of courtship and mating in a wide variety of species. Mating behavior, including courtship calls, is modulated by sex steroid hormones. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations to attract females during heterosexual encounters. However, rare is the knowledge on whether vocal behavior of mice changes under sterilant treatment which will affect gonadal hormone levels. In the present study, we treat male mice with quinestrol, which interferes with the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and has a significant anti-fertility effect in rodents...
February 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219984/motor-neurons-tune-premotor-activity-in-a-vertebrate-central-pattern-generator
#18
Kristy J Lawton, Wick M Perry, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202817/adaptive-shaping-of-the-behavioural-and-neuroendocrine-phenotype-during-adolescence
#19
Tobias D Zimmermann, Sylvia Kaiser, Michael B Hennessy, Norbert Sachser
Environmental conditions during early life can adaptively shape the phenotype for the prevailing environment. Recently, it has been suggested that adolescence represents an additional temporal window for adaptive developmental plasticity, though supporting evidence is scarce. Previous work has shown that male guinea pigs living in large mixed-sex colonies develop a low-aggressive phenotype as part of a queuing strategy that is adaptive for integrating into large unfamiliar colonies. By contrast, males living in pairs during adolescence become highly aggressive towards strangers...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198464/sublethal-doses-of-imidacloprid-disrupt-sexual-communication-and-host-finding-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#20
Lars Tappert, Tamara Pokorny, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther
Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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