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Elizabeth R Everman, Jennifer L Delzeit, F Kate Hunter, Jennifer M Gleason, Theodore J Morgan
Fitness is determined by the ability of an organism to both survive and reproduce; however, the mechanisms that lead to increased survival may not have the same effect on reproductive success. We used nineteen natural Drosophila melanogaster genotypes from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to determine if adaptive plasticity following short-term acclimation through rapid cold-hardening (RCH) affects mating behavior and mating success. We confirmed that exposure to the acclimation temperature is beneficial to survival following cold stress; however, we found that this same acclimation temperature exposure led to less efficient male courtship and a significant decrease in the likelihood of mating...
2018: PloS One
Aditi Mishra, Troy Zars
Sex is rewarding. Out of the many steps needed for successful mating, from courtship through copulation, the ultimate ejaculatory step in male fruit flies has profound rewarding properties.
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Wing trills are pulsed sounds produced by modified wing feathers at one or more specific points in time during a wingbeat. Male Allen's Hummingbird ( Selasphorus sasin ) produce a sexually dimorphic 9 kHz wing trill in flight. Here we investigate the kinematic basis for trill production. The wingtip velocity hypothesis posits that trill production is modulated by the airspeed of the wingtip at some point during the wingbeat, whereas the wing rotation hypothesis posits that trill production is instead modulated by wing rotation kinematics...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Ángel Fierros-García, Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Virginio Aguirre, Agustín Orihuela
Two experiments were performed to determine if the tail has a role: 1) in proceptive behavior, and 2) in facilitating copulation in hair sheep. The movements and position of the tail of estrous and non-estrous ewes in response to male courtship were compared in the first study. In the second study, the courtship of rams and mating behavior directed towards tailed or tail-docked, in estrus or diestrus ewes, were compared. Both experiments were conducted with restrained ewes during 3 min assessment periods...
May 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Susan M Lyons, Keith W Sockman, Donna L Maney
Sensory responses to courtship signals can be altered by reproductive hormones. In seasonally-breeding female songbirds, for example, sound-induced immediate early gene expression in the auditory pathway is selective for male song over behaviourally irrelevant sounds only when plasma estradiol reaches breeding-like levels. This selectivity has been hypothesized to be mediated by release of monoaminergic neuromodulators in the auditory pathway. We previously showed that in oestrogen-primed female white-throated sparrows, exposure to male song induced dopamine and serotonin release in auditory regions...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jörg Henninger, Rüdiger Krahe, Frank Kirschbaum, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda
Sensory systems evolve in the ecological niches each species is occupying. Accordingly, encoding of natural stimuli by sensory neurons is expected to be adapted to the statistics of these stimuli. For a direct quantification of sensory scenes we tracked natural communication behavior of male and female weakly electric fish, Apteronotus rostratus , in their Neotropical rainforest habitat with high spatio-temporal resolution over several days. In the context of courtship we observed large quantities of electrocommunication signals...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
E M Wojan, S M Bertram, D A Clendenen, C Castillo, H M Neldner, G R Kolluru
Sexually selected displays often include suites of integrated traits. Black morph males of the poeciliid fish Girardinus metallicus perform courtship and aggressive displays that exhibit their conspicuous yellow and black coloration. Body size, gonopodium size and ventral black area are correlated with intermale aggression, which is key for access to mates. A previous study showed that females may prefer dominant males prior to watching them fight; however, that result was obtained in trials that allowed for male-male interactions across partitions, and to date no study has uncovered the traits important in female choice...
May 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Caroline Marie Nieberding, Marie-Jeanne Holveck
Over the last years, several studies suggested that male courtship activity is more important than female preference for male secondary sexual traits in determining male mating success in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We use Kehl et al. (Front Zool 12, 2015)'s study and related publications, to highlight three methodological and conceptual aspects of laboratory experiments that distort the social environment compared to natural conditions. We argue that such experimental biases prevent the expression of female mate choice and artificially inflate the role of male activity in determining mating success...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Eden W McQueen, Nathan I Morehouse
Complex signaling traits such as pheromone profiles can play an important role in the early stages of reproductive isolation between populations. These signals can diverge along multiple trait axes, and signal receivers are often sensitive to subtle differences in signal properties. In the Lepidoptera, prior research has highlighted that natural selection can drive rapid chemical signal divergence, for instance via mate recognition to maintain species boundaries. Much less is known about the occurrence of such changes for predominantly sexually selected chemical signals, such as those released by many male lepidopterans...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nozipho Mvune, Deevia Bhana, Emmanuel Mayeza
This paper explores how some South African teenage fathers in rural KwaZulu-Natal engage in heterosexual relationships. Drawing on findings from a qualitative based study with twenty teenage fathers aged between seventeen and nineteen years old, we examine how they talk about two highly sexualised gatherings - umhlalaphansi (an overnight Zulu dance ceremony) and inkwari (a weekend-long rave-like party). We find that these social and cultural gatherings provide opportunities to express gender and sexuality whilst simultaneously increasing the risk for early childbearing...
April 24, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Edwin Scholes, Timothy G Laman
The birds-of-paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) are a quintessential example of elaborate ornamental diversification among animals. Ornamental evolution in the birds-of-paradise is exemplified by the presence of a highly integrated courtship phenotype, which is the whole package of plumage ornaments, behaviors and sounds that each species uses during courtship. Characterizing a species' courtship phenotype is therefore a key part of evolutionary and taxonomic investigation in the group. With its unprecedented transmogrification from bird-like form into something abstract and otherworldly, the courtship phenotype of the Superb Bird-of-Paradise, Lophorina superba, is one of the most remarkable of all...
2018: PeerJ
Andrew C Gallup, Bernhard Fink
Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jin Ge, Jia-Ning Wei, Ding-Jie Zhang, Chun Hu, De-Zhi Zheng, Le Kang
The pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) is a notorious pest of vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide. Despite a large number of studies on its biology and ecology, the courtship behavior and sexual communication of this species remain unclear. Here, we studied the vibrational communication in the sexual interaction of the pea leafminer. On host plant leaves, females and males behaviorally displayed the bobbing-quivering alternation, which finally led to copulation. Moreover, records of laser vibrometry revealed three-signal duets underlying the behavioral alternation...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
Andrew J Parnell, James E Bradford, Emma V Curran, Adam L Washington, Gracie Adams, Melanie N Brien, Stephanie L Burg, Carlos Morochz, J Patrick A Fairclough, Pete Vukusic, Simon J Martin, Scott Doak, Nicola J Nadeau
Iridescence is an optical phenomenon whereby colour changes with the illumination and viewing angle. It can be produced by thin film interference or diffraction. Iridescent optical structures are fairly common in nature, but relatively little is known about their production or evolution. Here we describe the structures responsible for producing blue-green iridescent colour in Heliconius butterflies. Overall the wing scale structures of iridescent and non-iridescent Heliconius species are very similar, both having longitudinal ridges joined by cross-ribs...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
P P Iglesias, E M Soto, I M Soto, B Colines, E Hasson
Closely related species often differ in the signals involved in sexual communication and mate recognition. Determining the factors influencing signal quality (i.e. signal's content and conspicuousness) provides an important insight into the potential pathways by which these interspecific differences evolve. Host specificity could bias the direction of the evolution of sexual communication and the mate recognition system, favoring sensory channels that work best in the different host conditions. In this study, we focus on the cactophilic sibling species Drosophila buzzatii and D...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Male hummingbirds court females with a high-speed dive in which they "sing" with their tail feathers. The male's choice of trajectory provides him strategic control over acoustic frequency and pressure levels heard by the female. Unlike related species, male Costa's hummingbirds (Calypte costae) choose to place their dives to the side of females. Here we show that this minimizes an audible Doppler curve in their dive sound, thereby depriving females of an acoustic indicator that would otherwise reveal male dive speed...
March 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Kristina Fialko
Does variation in the environment in which a signal is presented affect the components of a complex, ritualized animal display? Using a signal phenotype network, Rosenthal et al. (2018) find that light and female presence alter the structure of wolf spider courtship displays, providing evidence that complex signaling behaviors may be modified depending on the social and environmental context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 31, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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