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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453566/flylimbtracker-an-active-contour-based-approach-for-leg-segment-tracking-in-unmarked-freely-behaving-drosophila
#1
Virginie Uhlmann, Pavan Ramdya, Ricard Delgado-Gonzalo, Richard Benton, Michael Unser
Understanding the biological underpinnings of movement and action requires the development of tools for quantitative measurements of animal behavior. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal model for developing such tools: the fly has unparalleled genetic accessibility and depends on a relatively compact nervous system to generate sophisticated limbed behaviors including walking, reaching, grooming, courtship, and boxing. Here we describe a method that uses active contours to semi-automatically track body and leg segments from video image sequences of unmarked, freely behaving D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#2
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438684/two-spliced-isoforms-of-the-sex-determination-gene-fruitless-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#3
Peiyao Li, Yuan Liu, Danli Luo, Chengwen Song, Zhaoxia Cui
The fruitless (fru) gene plays an important role in sex determination pathway and courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, two fru isoforms (Esfru1 and Esfru2) were identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Sequence analysis showed that Esfru1 and Esfru2 were encoded by the same genomic locus and generated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Esfru1 had all introns completely spliced out, while Esfru2 had a longer exon1 with an additional 78bp sequence. They both contained a conserved BTB domain which was also found in D...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#4
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433926/discredited-legacy-stigma-and-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-northwestern-portugal
#5
Álvaro Mendes, Liliana Sousa, Jorge Sequeiros, Angus Clarke
RATIONALE: Genetic inherited conditions may result in feelings of stigmatisation, mainly because of visible physical appearance and its transmissibility to offspring. OBJECTIVE: This article reports accounts of stigmatisation from Portuguese patients affected by the inherited neurodegenerative disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), living in the largest cluster of patients worldwide. METHOD: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals at-risk or affected by FAP, recruited through the national patients' association, about their experiences of stigmatisation related to the illness...
April 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432288/overexpression-of-human-nr2b-receptor-subunit-in-lman-causes-stuttering-and-song-sequence-changes-in-adult-zebra-finches
#6
Mukta Chakraborty, Liang-Fu Chen, Emma E Fridel, Marguerita E Klein, Rebecca A Senft, Abhra Sarkar, Erich D Jarvis
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn to produce songs in a manner reminiscent of spoken language development in humans. One candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B). Consistent with this idea, NR2B levels are high in the song learning nucleus LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) during juvenile vocal learning, and decreases to low levels in adults after learning is complete and the song becomes more stereotyped...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431298/bioluminescence-emissions-of-female-fireflies-of-the-species-luciola-praeusta
#7
Mana Mohan Rabha, Upamanyu Sharma, Angana Goswami, Anurup Gohain Barua
Numerous investigations have been carried out on bioluminescence emissions from male fireflies. However, very few observations have been made on the emitted light from female specimens. Even in those, apart from observing responses from females to courtship flashes from conspecific males, detailed studies have not been performed. Here we present a first report on the light of female fireflies of the Indian species Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera:Lampyridae:Luciolinae). In the steady-state emission spectrum over the temperature range of 20-40°C, the peak wavelength is the same as, while the full width at half maximum is larger than, that of a male specimen of this species...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419833/sexual-selection-sexual-isolation-and-pheromones-in-drosophila-melanogaster-strains-after-long-term-maintaining-on-different-diets
#8
Jelena Trajković, Dragana Miličić, Tatjana Savić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić
Evolution of reproductive isolation may be a consequence of a variety of signals used in courtship and mate preferences. Pheromones play an important role in both sexual selection and sexual isolation. The abundance of pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster may depend on different environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to ascertain to which degree principal pheromones affect sexual selection in D. melanogaster. We used D. melanogaster strains reared for 14 years on four substrates: standard cornmeal substrate and those containing tomato, banana and carrot...
April 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405396/multimodal-communication-in-courting-fiddler-crabs-reveals-male-performance-capacities
#9
Sophie L Mowles, Michael Jennions, Patricia R Y Backwell
Courting males often perform different behavioural displays that demonstrate aspects of their quality. Male fiddler crabs, Uca sp., are well known for their repetitive claw-waving display during courtship. However, in some species, males produce an additional signal by rapidly stridulating their claw, creating a 'drumming' vibrational signal through the substrate as a female approaches, and even continue to drum once inside their burrow. Here, we show that the switch from waving to drumming might provide additional information to the female about the quality of a male, and the properties of his burrow (multiple message hypothesis)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405290/reproductive-interference-by-male-drosophila-subobscura-on-female-d-%C3%A2-persimilis-a-laboratory-experiment
#10
Brenda Manzano-Winkler, Alexander J Hish, Emily K Aarons, Mohamed A F Noor
While females often reject courtship attempts by heterospecific males, reproductive interference by harassment from such males can nonetheless occur, potentially reducing female fitness. Such effects may be profound following a range expansion, when males from a new species may suddenly encounter (and perhaps even become abundant relative to) females of related native species. Drosophila subobscura recently invaded North America and may impact native species through reproductive interference and other processes...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401905/apterous-brain-neurons-control-receptivity-to-male-courtship-in-drosophila-melanogaster-females
#11
Márcia M Aranha, Dennis Herrmann, Hugo Cachitas, Ricardo M Neto-Silva, Sophie Dias, Maria Luísa Vasconcelos
Courtship behaviours allow animals to interact and display their qualities before committing to reproduction. In fly courtship, the female decides whether or not to mate and is thought to display receptivity by slowing down to accept the male. Very little is known on the neuronal brain circuitry controlling female receptivity. Here we use genetic manipulation and behavioural studies to identify a novel set of neurons in the brain that controls sexual receptivity in the female without triggering the postmating response...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397601/life-history-of-a-unique-asian-plethodontid-salamander-karsenia-koreana
#12
Jae-Young Song, Masafumi Matsui, Takashi Matsuki, Kanto Nishikawa, Kyo-Soung Koo, Hong-Shik Oh
Using preserved specimens, we studied the basic life history of the topotypic population of the unique Asian plethodontid salamander, Karsenia koreana. Of 51 individuals examined, 11 males and 13 females were judged as mature from the development of gonads. The ovarian eggs were large (diameter 3.7-4.8 mm) and yellow to orange in color, and the clutch size was about 8-10. These values approximate those of actually spawned eggs recently reported. Skeletochronological analyses revealed the average age of males (5...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396913/geographical-variation-in-sexual-behavior-and-body-traits-in-a-sex-role-reversed-wolf-spider
#13
Fedra Bollatti, Virginia Garcia Diaz, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381620/age-related-sex-differences-in-body-condition-and-telomere-dynamics-of-red-sided-garter-snakes
#14
Nicky Rollings, Emily J Uhrig, Randolph W Krohmer, Heather L Waye, Robert T Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M Whittington, Christopher R Friesen
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379968/frequent-misdirected-courtship-in-a-natural-community-of-colorful-habronattus-jumping-spiders
#15
Lisa A Taylor, Erin C Powell, Kevin J McGraw
Male courtship display is common in many animals; in some cases, males engage in courtship indiscriminately, spending significant time and energy courting heterospecifics with whom they have no chance of mating or producing viable offspring. Due to high costs and few if any benefits, we might expect mechanisms to evolve to reduce such misdirected courtship (or 'reproductive interference'). In Habronattus jumping spiders, males frequently court heterospecifics with whom they do not mate or hybridize; females are larger and are voracious predators, posing a severe risk to males who court indiscriminately...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374006/optogenetic-activation-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-input-to-the-forebrain-differentially-modulates-investigation-of-opposite-versus-same-sex-urinary-chemosignals-and-stimulates-mating-in-male-mice
#16
Tenzin Kunkhyen, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Wayne J Korzan, Danielle Doctor, Xue Han, Michael J Baum, James A Cherry
Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males' investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360128/circadian-rhythms-and-sleep-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Christine Dubowy, Amita Sehgal
The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358844/olfactory-effects-of-a-hypervariable-multicomponent-pheromone-in-the-red-legged-salamander-plethodon-shermani
#18
Damien B Wilburn, Kari A Doty, Adam J Chouinard, Sarah L Eddy, Sarah K Woodley, Lynne D Houck, Richard C Feldhoff
Chemical communication via chemosensory signaling is an essential process for promoting and modifying reproductive behavior in many species. During courtship in plethodontid salamanders, males deliver a mixture of non-volatile proteinaceous pheromones that activate chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) and increase female receptivity. One component of this mixture, Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), is a hypervariable pheromone expressed as more than 30 unique isoforms that differ between individual males-likely driven by co-evolution with female receptors to promote gene duplication and positive selection of the PMF gene complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343933/testing-the-immunocompetence-handicap-hypothesis-testosterone-manipulation-does-not-affect-wound-healing-in-male-salamanders
#19
Jessica R Thomas, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, a bidirectional relationship exists between the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, sexual dimorphism in immunity has been documented in many vertebrates as well as some invertebrates, and males are generally less immunocompetent than their female counterparts. A possible explanation for this is described by the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that elevated testosterone (T) levels direct resources towards the promotion of secondary sexual characteristics at a cost to immune function...
March 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#20
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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