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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539621/wing-reduction-influences-male-mating-success-but-not-female-fitness-in-cockroaches
#1
Michael Kotyk, Zuzana Varadínová
Although cockroaches (Blattodea s. str.) exhibit high proportion of species with reduced wings, the underlying evolutionary forces remain unclear. Wing reduction in insects is generally considered advantageous for females and a trade-off between investment into the flying apparatus and reproduction is predicted to explain its evolution. However, what if the wing maintenance is an important issue for males' fitness? Males raise wings during the ritualized courtship which is viewed as an unavoidable movement unveiling the tergal glands for female access...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539523/courtship-song-preferences-in-female-zebra-finches-are-shaped-by-developmental-auditory-experience
#2
Yining Chen, Oliver Clark, Sarah C Woolley
The performance of courtship signals provides information about the behavioural state and quality of the signaller, and females can use such information for social decision-making (e.g. mate choice). However, relatively little is known about the degree to which the perception of and preference for differences in motor performance are shaped by developmental experiences. Furthermore, the neural substrates that development could act upon to influence the processing of performance features remains largely unknown...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533977/serotonergic-activation-during-courtship-and-aggression-in-the-brown-anole-anolis-sagrei
#3
Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, David Kabelik
The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in social behavior regulation is not fully understood. While 5-HT release in nuclei of the social behavior network has generally been associated with inhibition of aggressive behavior across multiple classes of vertebrates, less is known about its effects on sexual, especially non-copulatory courtship display behaviors. Furthermore, most research has examined effects at 5-HT release sites, while studies examining the behavioral relevance of source cell populations have generated contradictory findings...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533465/human-colour-in-mate-choice-and-competition
#4
REVIEW
Hannah M Rowland, Robert P Burriss
The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520775/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-androgen-receptor-expression-and-sociosexual-behavior-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#5
Eric R Schuppe, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Cathleen Drilling, Michael Black, Matthew S Grober
Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518074/eliciting-and-analyzing-male-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalization-usv-songs
#6
Jonathan Chabout, Joshua Jones-Macopson, Erich D Jarvis
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of social contexts throughout development and adulthood. These USVs are used for mother-pup retrieval(1), juvenile interactions(2), opposite and same sex interactions(3)(,)(4)(,)(5), and territorial interactions(6). For decades, the USVs have been used by investigators as proxies to study neuropsychiatric and developmental or behavioral disorders(7)(,)(8)(,)(9), and more recently to understand mechanisms and evolution of vocal communication among vertebrates(10)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507134/dopaminergic-modulation-of-basal-ganglia-output-through-coupled-excitation-inhibition
#7
Agata Budzillo, Alison Duffy, Kimberly E Miller, Adrienne L Fairhall, David J Perkel
Learning and maintenance of skilled movements require exploration of motor space and selection of appropriate actions. Vocal learning and social context-dependent plasticity in songbirds depend on a basal ganglia circuit, which actively generates vocal variability. Dopamine in the basal ganglia reduces trial-to-trial neural variability when the bird engages in courtship song. Here, we present evidence for a unique, tonically active, excitatory interneuron in the songbird basal ganglia that makes strong synaptic connections onto output pallidal neurons, often linked in time with inhibitory events...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503728/female-undergraduate-s-perceptions-of-intrusive-behavior-in-12-countries
#8
Lorraine Sheridan, Adrian J Scott, John Archer, Karl Roberts
The present study examines young women's (N = 1,734) perceptions of the unacceptability of 47 intrusive activities enacted by men. Female undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they considered to be unacceptable. Responses were compared with parasite-stress values, a measure of global gender equality and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures...
May 15, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502868/no-pain-no-gain-male-plasticity-in-burrow-digging-according-to-female-rejection-in-a-sand-dwelling-wolf-spider
#9
Matilde Carballo, Fabiana Baldenegro, Fedra Bollatti, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496012/daytime-behavior-of-pteropus-vampyrus-in-a-natural-habitat-the-driver-of-viral-transmission
#10
Yupadee Hengjan, Didik Pramono, Hitoshi Takemae, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Keisuke Iida, Takeshi Ando, Supratikno Supratikno, Chaerul Basri, Yuli Sulistya Fitriana, Eko M Z Arifin, Yasushige Ohmori, Ken Maeda, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Eiichi Hondo
Flying foxes, the genus Pteropus are considered viral reservoirs. Their colonial nature and long flight capability enhance their ability to spread viruses quickly. To understand how the viral transmission occurs between flying foxes and other animals, we investigated daytime behavior of the large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) in the Leuweung Sancang conservation area, Indonesia, by using instantaneous scan sampling and all occurrence focal sampling. The data were obtained from 0700 to 1700 hr, during May 11-25, 2016...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480003/are-body-size-and-volatile-blends-honest-signals-in-orchid-bees
#11
Brenda Jessica Arriaga-Osnaya, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Francisco Javier Espinosa-García, Yolanda Magdalena García-Rodríguez, Miguel Moreno-García, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza, Héctor Godínez-Álvarez, Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
Secondary sexual traits may convey reliable information about males' ability to resist pathogens and that females may prefer those traits because their genes for resistance would be passed on to their offspring. In many insect species, large males have high mating success and can canalize more resources to the immune function than smaller males. In other species, males use pheromones to identify and attract conspecific mates, and thus, they might function as an honest indicator of a male's condition. The males of orchid bees do not produce pheromones...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469022/flightin-maintains-myofilament-lattice-organization-required-for-optimal-flight-power-and-courtship-song-quality-in-drosophila
#12
Samya Chakravorty, Bertrand C W Tanner, Veronica Lee Foelber, Hien Vu, Matthew Rosenthal, Teresa Ruiz, Jim O Vigoreaux
The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain (fln(ΔN62) ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467464/the-role-of-courtship-song-in-female-mate-choice-in-south-american-cactophilic-drosophila
#13
Patricia P Iglesias, Esteban Hasson
Courtship songs have undergone a spectacular diversification in the Drosophila buzzatii cluster. Accordingly, it has been suggested that sexual selection has played a significant role in promoting rapid diversification, reproductive isolation and speciation. However, there is no direct evidence (i.e., song playback experiments with wingless males) supporting this tenet. Moreover, several studies have showed that the courtship song in the genus Drosophila is not always used in female mate choice decisions, nor plays the same role when it is taken into account...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466236/pleiotropic-effects-of-ddt-resistance-on-male-size-and-behaviour
#14
Wayne G Rostant, Jemima Bowyer, Jack Coupland, James Facey, David J Hosken, Nina Wedell
Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively...
May 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464964/bactrocera-oleae-induced-olive-vocs-routing-mate-searching-in-psyttalia-concolor-males-impact-of-associative-learning
#15
G Giunti, G Benelli, V Palmeri, A Canale
Olfaction is a key sense routing foraging behaviour in parasitoids. Preferences for food, mate and host stimuli can be innate in parasitic wasps. Alternatively, learning-mediated mechanisms play a crucial role. Females of the braconid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor exploit olfactory cues arising from tephritid hosts and related microhabitats. However, little is known on the olfactory stimuli routing males searching for mates. In this study, we focused on the attractiveness of Bactrocera oleae-induced olive volatiles towards P...
May 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453566/flylimbtracker-an-active-contour-based-approach-for-leg-segment-tracking-in-unmarked-freely-behaving-drosophila
#16
Virginie Uhlmann, Pavan Ramdya, Ricard Delgado-Gonzalo, Richard Benton, Michael Unser
Understanding the biological underpinnings of movement and action requires the development of tools for quantitative measurements of animal behavior. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal model for developing such tools: the fly has unparalleled genetic accessibility and depends on a relatively compact nervous system to generate sophisticated limbed behaviors including walking, reaching, grooming, courtship, and boxing. Here we describe a method that uses active contours to semi-automatically track body and leg segments from video image sequences of unmarked, freely behaving D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#17
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438684/two-spliced-isoforms-of-the-sex-determination-gene-fruitless-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#18
Peiyao Li, Yuan Liu, Danli Luo, Chengwen Song, Zhaoxia Cui
The fruitless (fru) gene plays an important role in the sex determination pathway and courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, two fru isoforms (Esfru1 and Esfru2) were identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Sequence analysis showed that Esfru1 and Esfru2 were encoded by the same genomic locus and generated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Esfru1 had all introns completely spliced out, while Esfru2 had a longer exon1 with an additional 78bp sequence. They both contained a conserved BTB domain which was also found in D...
April 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#19
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433926/discredited-legacy-stigma-and-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-northwestern-portugal
#20
Álvaro Mendes, Liliana Sousa, Jorge Sequeiros, Angus Clarke
RATIONALE: Genetic inherited conditions may result in feelings of stigmatisation, mainly because of visible physical appearance and its transmissibility to offspring. OBJECTIVE: This article reports accounts of stigmatisation from Portuguese patients affected by the inherited neurodegenerative disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), living in the largest cluster of patients worldwide. METHOD: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals at-risk or affected by FAP, recruited through the national patients' association, about their experiences of stigmatisation related to the illness...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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