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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811831/potent-phosphodiesterase-inhibition-and-nitric-oxide-release-stimulation-of-anti-impotence-thai-medicinal-plants-from-manosroi-iii-database
#1
Aranya Manosroi, Theeraphong Tangjai, Charinya Chankhampan, Worapaka Manosroi, Yaravee Najarut, Worapong Kitdamrongtham, Jiradej Manosroi
Seven plants in the top rank were selected from the "MANOSROI III" database using the two Thai keywords which meant impotence and sexual tonic. Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. extract [EDP1-001(1)] gave the highest PDE inhibition activity of 4.36-fold sildenafil, a standard anti-impotence drug. Plumbago indica Linn. extract [EDP2-001(1)] exhibited the highest NO release stimulation activity of 666.85% which was 1.50-fold acetylcholine, a standard drug. Most selected plant extracts were nontoxic to EA.hy926 cells at 1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811167/differences-in-mating-behavior-between-two-allopatric-populations-of-a-neotropical-scorpion
#2
Paola A Olivero, Camilo I Mattoni, Alfredo V Peretti
Courtship and mating behavior generally evolve rapidly in diverging populations and species. The adaptation to different environments may cause behavioral divergence in characteristics involved in mate choice. Our objective in this study was to compare the sexual behavior of two distant populations of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis. This species has a broad distribution in South America, inhabiting Central Argentina, Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil. It is known that in this species there is a divergence in morphological patterns (body size, coloration, allometry and fluctuating asymmetry indexes) among distant populations...
July 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808542/the-relationship-between-male-sexual-signals-cognitive-performance-and-mating-success-in-stickleback-fish
#3
Ross Minter, Jason Keagy, Robin M Tinghitella
Cognitive ability varies dramatically among individuals, yet the manner in which this variation correlates with reproduction has rarely been investigated. Here, we ask (1) do male sexual signals reflect their cognitive ability, and (2) is cognitive ability associated with male mating success? Specifically, we presented threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with a detour-reaching task to assess initial inhibitory control. Fish that performed better were those who solved the detour-reaching task, solved it faster, and required fewer attempts to solve...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797610/causes-and-consequences-of-behavioral-interference-between-species
#4
REVIEW
Gregory F Grether, Kathryn S Peiman, Joseph A Tobias, Beren W Robinson
Behavioral interference between species, such as territorial aggression, courtship, and mating, is widespread in animals. While aggressive and reproductive forms of interspecific interference have generally been studied separately, their many parallels and connections warrant a unified conceptual approach. Substantial evidence exists that aggressive and reproductive interference have pervasive effects on species coexistence, range limits, and evolutionary processes, including divergent and convergent forms of character displacement...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796534/pronoun-usage-in-online-sexual-predation
#5
Maxim V Baryshevtsev, Matthew S McGlone
We investigated pronoun usage by sexual predators in their online interactions with "decoys" (i.e., adults identifying themselves as children). Computerized text analysis was conducted for 561 instant messaging conversations between contact-driven solicitation offenders (CDSOs) and decoys. CDSOs not only used significantly fewer first-person and more second-person singular pronouns than the decoys but also used more second-person pronouns than adult romantic partners discussing their courtship. The other-focused nature of CDSOs' text messages is consistent with theories of the luring process positing predators' emphasis on making their targets feel special to initiate the cycle of entrapment...
August 10, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794482/the-white-gene-controls-copulation-success-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Chengfeng Xiao, Shuang Qiu, R Meldrum Robertson
Characteristics of male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster have been well-described, but the genetic basis of male-female copulation is largely unknown. Here we show that the white (w) gene, a classical gene for eye color, is associated with copulation success. 82.5% of wild-type Canton-S flies copulated within 60 minutes in circular arenas, whereas few white-eyed mutants mated successfully. The w (+) allele exchanged to the X chromosome or duplicated to the Y chromosome in the white-eyed genetic background rescued the defect of copulation success...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794215/male-relatedness-and-familiarity-are-required-to-modulate-male-induced-harm-to-females-in-drosophila
#7
Sally Le Page, Irem Sepil, Ewan Flintham, Tommaso Pizzari, Pau Carazo, Stuart Wigby
Males compete over mating and fertilization, and often harm females in the process. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that increasing relatedness within groups of males may relax competition and discourage male harm of females as males gain indirect benefits. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster are consistent with these predictions, and have found that within-group male relatedness increases female fitness, though others have found no effects. Importantly, these studies did not fully disentangle male genetic relatedness from larval familiarity, so the extent to which modulation of harm to females is explained by male familiarity remains unclear...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770501/unsaturated-cuticular-hydrocarbons-enhance-responses-to-sex-pheromone-in-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana
#8
P J Silk, E Eveleigh, L Roscoe, K Burgess, S Weatherby, G Leclair, P Mayo, M Brophy
The primary sex pheromone components of the female spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), are (E)- and (Z)-11-tetradecenal, produced in 95:5 ratio. However, male flight responses to calling females in a wind tunnel were faster and maintained longer than responses to any synthetic aldehyde blend. Analyses of cuticular extracts from spruce budworm adults revealed series of n-alkanes and n-monoalkenes with predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms from C23- C29 in both sexes...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765838/sex-specific-molecular-responses-of-quick-to-court-protein-in-indian-malarial-vector-anopheles-culicifacies-conflict-of-mating-versus-blood-feeding-behaviour
#9
Tanwee Das De, Punita Sharma, Charu Rawal, Seena Kumari, Sanjay Tavetiya, Jyoti Yadav, Yasha Hasija, Rajnikant Dixit
Understanding the molecular basis of mosquito behavioural complexity plays a central role in designing novel molecular tools to fight against their vector-borne diseases. Although the olfactory system plays an important role in guiding and managing many behavioural responses including feeding and mating, but the sex-specific regulation of olfactory responses remain poorly investigated. From our ongoing transcriptomic data annotation of olfactory tissue of blood fed adult female An. culicifacies mosquitoes; we have identified a 383 bp long unique transcript encoding a Drosophila homolog of the quick-to-court protein...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764448/call-divergence-in-three-sympatric-rattus-species
#10
Yi Chen, Qian-Qian Su, Jiao Qin, Quan-Sheng Liu
To reduce errors in species recognition and the probability of interbreeding that lowers fitness, individuals within sympatric zones shift the signals to differentiate from those of other species. In the present study, the differences of the acoustic features of ultrasounds (courtship calls during heterosexual encounters) and audible calls (distress calls during tail-clamp stress) are compared among three sympatric Rattus species (Rattus andamanensis, R. norvegicus, and R. losea). Results showed that the three species have significantly different call parameters, including call duration, peak frequency, bandwidth, pitch, goodness of pitch, frequency modulation, and Wiener entropy...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754889/genetic-and-neuronal-mechanisms-governing-the-sex-specific-interaction-between-sleep-and-sexual-behaviors-in-drosophila
#11
Dandan Chen, Divya Sitaraman, Nan Chen, Xin Jin, Caihong Han, Jie Chen, Mengshi Sun, Bruce S Baker, Michael N Nitabach, Yufeng Pan
Animals execute one particular behavior among many others in a context-dependent manner, yet the mechanisms underlying such behavioral choice remain poorly understood. Here we studied how two fundamental behaviors, sex and sleep, interact at genetic and neuronal levels in Drosophila. We show that an increased need for sleep inhibits male sexual behavior by decreasing the activity of the male-specific P1 neurons that coexpress the sex determination genes fru (M) and dsx, but does not affect female sexual behavior...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747988/no-speed-dating-please-patterns-of-social-preference-in-male-and-female-house-mice
#12
Miriam Linnenbrink, Sophie von Merten
BACKGROUND: In many animal species, interactions between individuals of different sex often occur in the context of courtship and mating. During these interactions, a specific mating partner can be chosen. By discriminating potential mates according to specific characteristics, individuals can increase their evolutionary fitness in terms of reproduction and offspring survival. In this study, we monitored the partner preference behaviour of female and male wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from populations in Germany (G) and France (F) in a controlled cage setup for 5 days and six nights...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743754/sik3-hdac4-signaling-regulates-drosophila-circadian-male-sex-drive-rhythm-via-modulating-the-dn1-clock-neurons
#13
Shinsuke Fujii, Patrick Emery, Hubert Amrein
The physiology and behavior of many organisms are subject to daily cycles. In Drosophila melanogaster the daily locomotion patterns of single flies are characterized by bursts of activity at dawn and dusk. Two distinct clusters of clock neurons-morning oscillators (M cells) and evening oscillators (E cells)-are largely responsible for these activity bursts. In contrast, male-female pairs of flies follow a distinct pattern, most notably characterized by an activity trough at dusk followed by a high level of male courtship during the night...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733816/relative-weighting-of-acoustic-information-during-mating-decisions-in-grasshoppers-indicates-signatures-of-sexual-selection
#14
Jan Clemens, Jennifer Aufderheide, Bernhard Ronacher
The decision with whom to mate is crucial in determining an individual's fitness and is often based on the evaluation of visual or acoustic displays produced during courtship. Accordingly, the algorithms for evaluating such courtship signals are shaped by sexual selection and should reflect the expected benefits and costs of mating: signals bearing heterospecific features should be rapidly rejected, since mating would produce no fertile offspring, while signals resembling conspecific ones should be weighted proportional to mate quality...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725411/choosing-a-mate-in-a-high-predation-environment-female-preference-in-the-fiddler-crab-uca-terpsichores
#15
Daniela M Perez, John H Christy, Patricia R Y Backwell
The interplay between a receiver's sensory system and a sender's courtship signals is fundamental to the operation of sexual selection. Male courtship signals that match a female receiver's preexisting perceptual biases can be favored yet the message they communicate is not always clear. Do they simply beacon the male's location or also indicate his quality? We explored this question in a species of fiddler crab Uca terpsichores that courts under elevated predation risk and that mates and breeds underground in the safety of males' burrows...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#16
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#17
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#18
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708528/competition-for-oestrous-ewes-between-rams-reared-by-their-mothers-or-artificially-reared-effects-on-sexual-behaviour-and-testosterone-and-cortisol-serum-concentrations
#19
J P Damián, M J Hötzel, G Banchero, R Ungerfeld
The objective of this study was to determine how the social competition for an oestrous ewe affects the sexual behaviour and the endocrine response in two groups of rams, one reared by their mothers and another artificially reared. Thus, we compared the sexual behaviour and testosterone and cortisol changes in each group of rams in competitive and non-competitive tests, both during the first and second breeding seasons. Two groups of rams were: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36 h after birth (Week 0) and artificially fed with sheep milk until 10 weeks of age (group AR, n = 14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10 weeks of age (group DR, n = 13)...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701929/anatomic-and-physiologic-heterogeneity-of-subgroup-a-auditory-sensory-neurons-in-fruit-flies
#20
Yuki Ishikawa, Natsuki Okamoto, Mizuki Nakamura, Hyunsoo Kim, Azusa Kamikouchi
The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca(2+) imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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