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Noah T Ashley, Greg E Demas
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions...
October 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
Marisa Hoeschele, Daniel L Bowling
A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here, we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) - a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat - with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Walter Wilczynski, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
A new study shows that nocturnal courtship vocalization is regulated by a circadian rhythm and potentiated by melatonin at multiple timescales. These findings are in contrast to those in diurnal vocalizers and provide a striking example of melatonin's niche-specific functions.
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yurika Hitoshi, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
Choosiness, or female receptivity to copulation, is a critical component in female preference for a mating partner, as it functions at the final step in the mating process by determining whether she accepts copulation with a given male. In spite of its importance in the evolutionary process of male traits via sexual selection, little is known about the genetic variation and inheritance pattern of female receptivity. Drosophila prolongata shows a unique courtship behavior, leg vibration, which increases female receptivity to copulation...
October 2016: Zoological Science
S Lujo, E Hartman, K Norton, E A Pregmon, B B Rohde, R W Mankin
Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lucie Vaníčková, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
Gemma L Cole, John A Endler
The appearance of animal colour signals depends jointly upon the ambient light spectrum and the signal's reflectance spectra. Light environment heterogeneity might, therefore, allow individuals to enhance their signal by signalling in an environment that increases signal efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by providing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a choice of three light environments in which to display their colour signal to females: green, lilac, and clear. We paired males with both receptive and non-receptive females to test whether female response might affect male behavioural decisions...
September 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Eszter Szöllősi, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Gergely Hegyi, Miklós Laczi, Balázs Rosivall, János Török
In ecological studies of haemosporidian parasites, prevalence is typically considered as a stable attribute. However, little is known about the possible within-host dynamics of these parasites that may originate from environmental fluctuations, parasite life cycles and the ability of hosts to suppress or clear infection. We sampled the blood of male collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis twice within a breeding season and investigated the determinants of initial infection status and change in infection status...
September 27, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ni Y Feng, Andrew H Bass
The patterning of social acoustic signaling at multiple timescales, from day-night rhythms to acoustic temporal properties, enhances sender-receiver coupling and reproductive success [1-8]. In diurnal birds, the nocturnal production of melatonin, considered the major vertebrate timekeeping hormone [9, 10], suppresses vocal activity but increases song syllable duration over circadian and millisecond timescales, respectively [11, 12]. Comparable studies are lacking for nocturnal vertebrates, including many teleost fish species that are also highly vocal during periods of reproduction [4, 13-20]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ariel Firebaugh, Kyle J Haynes
Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have a unique communication system whereby bioluminescent flashes are used in courtship displays to find and attract mates. We performed a series of manipulative field experiments in which we quantified the effects of adding artificial nighttime lighting on abundances and total flashing activity of fireflies, courtship behaviors and mating between tethered females and free-flying males, and dispersal distances of marked individuals...
December 2016: Oecologia
Jeremy A Spool, Sharon A Stevenson, Caroline S Angyal, Lauren V Riters
Animals integrate social information with their internal endocrine state to control the timing of behavior, but how these signals are integrated in the brain is not understood. The medial preoptic area (mPOA) may play an integrative role in the control of courtship behavior, as it receives projections from multiple sensory systems, and is central to the hormonal control of courtship behavior across vertebrates. Additionally, data from many species implicate opioid and dopaminergic systems in the mPOA in the control of male courtship behavior...
September 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Wei-Hsin Yu, Janet Chen-Lan Kuo
Many single adult children in countries around the world live with their parents. Such coresidence has been thought to delay the transition to first marriage, although the exact reasons for the delay have not been sufficiently examined. Using panel data from Japan, we investigate whether changes in never-married adults' residential status lead to alterations in their marital aspirations, courtship behaviors, romantic opportunities, and perceived obstacles to marrying. Our estimation of fixed-effects models helps address potential bias caused by single individuals' selection into living in the parental home...
October 2016: Demography
Yue Wang, Dan Li, Yang Liu, Xue-Jiao Li, Wei-Ning Cheng, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Svetlana Pitts, Elizabeth Pelser, Julian Meeks, Dean Smith
In insects, pheromones function as triggers to elicit complex behavior programs, such as courtship and mating behavior. In most species, the neurons tuned to pheromones are localized in a specific subset of olfactory sensilla located on the antenna called trichoid sensilla. In Drosophila there are two classes of trichoid sensilla, at1 sensilla that contain the dendrites of a single neuron that is specifically tuned to the male-specific pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA), and at4 sensilla that contain three neurons with relatively poorly defined chemical specificity and function...
2016: PloS One
Scott J South, Katherine Trent, Sunita Bose
We merged individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with district-level data derived from the 1991 and 2001 Indian population censuses to examine how the numerical supply of men to which married women were exposed during late adolescence is associated with women's agency in the mate selection process and the duration of courtships. Multilevel models that control for an array of both individual and contextual factors showed that exposure to a relative surplus of potential mates is associated with a higher likelihood that women will have little or no say in the selection of their husband and an increased probability that women will meet their husband for the first time on their wedding day...
2016: Journal of Comparative Family Studies
Jasmine L Loveland, Russell D Fernald
Despite continued study on the neurobiological bases of aggressive and sexual behaviors, it is still not well understood how the brain integrates social information with physiological and neural states to produce context-specific behavioral outcomes. In fishes, manipulation of endogenous levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) through peripheral and intracerebroventricular pharmacological injections results in significant changes in social behaviors, including aggressive and reproduction-related behaviors. In addition, many features of AVT neurons have been shown to correlate with social status and associated behavioral phenotypes...
September 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Masaharu Hasebe, Shinji Kanda, Yoshitaka Oka
Close interaction exists between energy-consuming reproduction and nutritional status. However, there are differences in costs and priority for reproduction among species and even between sexes, which leads to diversification of interactions between reproduction and nutritional status. Despite such diversified interactions among species and sexes, most of the analysis of the nutritional status-dependent regulation of reproduction has been limited to an endothermic vertebrate, mammalian species of either sex...
September 8, 2016: Endocrinology
Carolina Rezával, Siddharth Pattnaik, Hania J Pavlou, Tetsuya Nojima, Birgit Brüggemeier, Luis A D D'Souza, Hany K M Dweck, Stephen F Goodwin
Courtship in Drosophila melanogaster offers a powerful experimental paradigm for the study of innate sexually dimorphic behaviors [1, 2]. Fruit fly males exhibit an elaborate courtship display toward a potential mate [1, 2]. Females never actively court males, but their response to the male's display determines whether mating will actually occur. Sex-specific behaviors are hardwired into the nervous system via the actions of the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [1]. Activation of male-specific dsx/fru(+) P1 neurons in the brain initiates the male's courtship display [3, 4], suggesting that neurons unique to males trigger this sex-specific behavior...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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