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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913165/larger-females-are-choosier-in-the-gray-treefrog-hyla-versicolor
#1
Michael C Kuczynski, Thomas Getty, Eben Gering
Individual variation in female mate choice has important implications for sexual trait evolution and the maintenance of phenotypic diversity. In this study we examined several potential drivers of individual variation in female choosiness for the well-studied, energetically expensive courtship signal of male gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between female choosiness and other female traits (female body size, physical condition, and age) using a costly choice playback experiment where females traveled different simulated distances to reach attractive mates...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#2
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883361/adaptation-to-divergent-larval-diets-in-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata
#3
Philip T Leftwich, William J Nash, Lucy A Friend, Tracey Chapman
Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881754/neuroendocrine-correlates-of-sex-role-reversal-in-barred-buttonquails
#4
Cornelia Voigt
Sex differences in brain structure and behaviour are well documented among vertebrates. An excellent model exploring the neural mechanisms of sex differences in behaviour is represented by sex-role-reversed species. In the majority of bird species, males compete over access to mates and resources more strongly than do females. It is thought that the responsible brain regions are therefore more developed in males than in females. Because these behaviours and brain regions are activated by androgens, males usually have increased testosterone levels during breeding...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880074/what-does-the-fruitless-gene-tell-us-about-nature-versus-nurture-in-the-sex-life-of-drosophila
#5
Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
November 23, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866406/prevalence-of-factors-related-to-active-reproductive-health-behavior-a-cross-sectional-study-indonesian-adolescent
#6
Tantut Susanto, Iis Rahmawati, Emi Wuri Wuryaningsih, Ruka Saito, Syahrul, Rumiko Kimura, Akiko Tsuda, Noriko Tabuchi, Junko Sugama
OBJECTIVES: Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855330/behavioural-effect-of-low-dose-bpa-on-male-zebrafish-tuning-of-male-mating-competition-and-female-mating-preference-during-courtship-process
#7
Xiang Li, Jia-Yu Guo, Xu Li, Hai-Jun Zhou, Shu-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Dong Liu, Dong-Yan Chen, Yong-Chun Fang, Xi-Zeng Feng
The ubiquity of environmental pollution by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) is progressively considered as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Numerous toxicological studies have proved that BPA are hazardous to aquatic environment, along with alterations in the development and physiology of aquatic vertebrates. However, generally, there is a paucity in knowledge of behavioural and physiological effects of BPA with low concentration, for example, 0.22 nM (50 ng/L) and 2...
November 14, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855059/neural-circuitry-coordinating-male-copulation
#8
Hania J Pavlou, Andrew C Lin, Megan C Neville, Tetsuya Nojima, Fengqiu Diao, Brian E Chen, Benjamin H White, Stephen F Goodwin
Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829697/experiments-with-claw-models-explain-the-function-of-the-waving-display-of-ilyoplax-pusilla-brachyura-dotillidae
#9
Daichi Izumi, Yoko Kawano, Yasuhisa Henmi
Males of the dotillid crab, Ilyoplax pusilla, perform waving displays during the reproductive season. Unlike many fiddler crabs (genus Uca), however, the function of the waving display is unclear for this species. Experiments using waving and static claw models over short (10 cm) and long (25 cm) distances were conducted to investigate responses by wandering females to artificial waving signals. In long-distance choice experiments, presuming undirected waving to unseen females as broadcast waving, females were equally likely to approach the waving and static claw sections during the non-reproductive season, but significantly more females (65 %) chose the waving claw section during the reproductive season...
2016: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813667/neuropeptides-as-regulators-of-behavior-in-insects
#10
Liliane Schoofs, Arnold De Loof, Matthias Boris Van Hiel
Neuropeptides are by far the largest and most diverse group of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms. They are ancient molecules important in regulating a multitude of processes. Their small proteinaceous character allowed them to evolve and radiate quickly into numerous different molecules. On average, hundreds of distinct neuropeptides are present in animals, sometimes with unique classes that do not occur in distantly related species. Acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, or growth factors, they are extremely diverse and are involved in controlling growth, development, ecdysis, digestion, diuresis, and many more physiological processes...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805042/functional-insights-into-the-testis-transcriptome-of-the-edible-sea-urchin-loxechinus-albus
#11
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roland Sánchez, Paulina Bruning, Leyla Cárdenas
The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802141/oxidative-stress-during-courtship-affects-male-and-female-reproductive-effort-differentially-in-a-wild-bird-with-biparental-care
#12
Bibiana Montoya, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas, Roxana Torres
Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the physiological mechanisms modulating reproductive effort, including investment in mate choice. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress influences breeding decisions by acting as a cost of or constraint on reproduction in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster), a long-lived seabird with prolonged biparental care. We found that during courtship, levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) of males and females were positively associated with gular skin color, a trait presumably used in mate choice, while levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher as laying approached and in early breeding pairs...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796008/changes-of-sexual-behaviors-in-rapamycin-injected-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni-males
#13
Tae Ha Kim, Young Chang Sohn
Cichlid fish species exhibit characteristic sexual behaviors according to not only reproductive stages but also social status. In a reproductive season, Astatotilapia burtoni males compete for females and a small number of dominant winners finally obtain the chance of spermiation. In addition to the characteristic behaviors, the dominant males have relatively bigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of brain compared to those of subordinate males. Although the stimulatory effect of GnRH1 in vertebrate reproduction is well established, little is known about the triggering signal pathway to control GnRH1 neurons and GnRH1-mediated sexual behavior...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795616/the-elaborate-postural-display-of-courting-drosophila-persimilis-flies-produces-substrate-borne-vibratory-signals
#14
Mónica Vega Hernández, Caroline Cecile Gabrielle Fabre
Sexual selection has led to the evolution of extraordinary and elaborate male courtship behaviors across taxa, including mammals and birds, as well as some species of flies. Drosophila persimilis flies perform complex courtship behaviors found in most Drosophila species, which consist of visual, air-borne, gustatory and olfactory cues. In addition, Drosophila persimilis courting males also perform an elaborate postural display that is not found in most other Drosophila species. This postural display includes an upwards contortion of their abdomen, specialized movements of the head and forelegs, raising both wings into a "wing-posture" and, most remarkably, the males proffer the female a regurgitated droplet...
2016: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777727/stress-induced-peak-but-not-resting-metabolism-correlates-with-mating-display-intensity-in-male-guppies
#15
Peter A Biro, Kerry V Fanson, Francesca Santostefano
Recent empirical and conceptual papers have highlighted the potential for metabolism to act as a proximate mechanism for behavior that could explain animal personality (consistency over time). Under this hypothesis, individuals with consistently high levels of behavioral activity should also have high resting metabolic rate (RMR) as it can reflect capacity to process food and generate energy. We tested for the predicted positive covariance between RMR and three behaviors that differ in energy demands in 30 male guppies, using multivariate mixed models; we repeatedly measured their activity (10 times each), courtship displays (nine times), voracity (10 times), and metabolism (four-times)...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765499/neuroendocrine-immune-circuits-phenotypes-and-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Noah T Ashley, Gregory E Demas
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions...
October 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#17
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757099/sex-differences-in-rhythmic-preferences-in-the-budgerigar-melopsittacus-undulatus-a-comparative-study-with-humans
#18
Marisa Hoeschele, Daniel L Bowling
A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here, we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) - a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat - with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733819/analysis-of-within-subjects-variability-in-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalization-pups-exhibit-inconsistent-state-like-patterns-of-call-production
#19
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728793/biological-rhythms-melatonin-shapes-the-space-time-continuum-of-social-communication
#20
Walter Wilczynski, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
A new study shows that nocturnal courtship vocalization is regulated by a circadian rhythm and potentiated by melatonin at multiple timescales. These findings are in contrast to those in diurnal vocalizers and provide a striking example of melatonin's niche-specific functions.
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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