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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725411/choosing-a-mate-in-a-high-predation-environment-female-preference-in-the-fiddler-crab-uca-terpsichores
#1
Daniela M Perez, John H Christy, Patricia R Y Backwell
The interplay between a receiver's sensory system and a sender's courtship signals is fundamental to the operation of sexual selection. Male courtship signals that match a female receiver's preexisting perceptual biases can be favored yet the message they communicate is not always clear. Do they simply beacon the male's location or also indicate his quality? We explored this question in a species of fiddler crab Uca terpsichores that courts under elevated predation risk and that mates and breeds underground in the safety of males' burrows...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#2
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#3
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#4
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708528/competition-for-oestrous-ewes-between-rams-reared-by-their-mothers-or-artificially-reared-effects-on-sexual-behaviour-and-testosterone-and-cortisol-serum-concentrations
#5
J P Damián, M J Hötzel, G Banchero, R Ungerfeld
The objective of this study was to determine how the social competition for an oestrous ewe affects the sexual behaviour and the endocrine response in two groups of rams, one reared by their mothers and another artificially reared. Thus, we compared the sexual behaviour and testosterone and cortisol changes in each group of rams in competitive and non-competitive tests, both during the first and second breeding seasons. Two groups of rams were: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36 h after birth (Week 0) and artificially fed with sheep milk until 10 weeks of age (group AR, n = 14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10 weeks of age (group DR, n = 13)...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701929/anatomic-and-physiologic-heterogeneity-of-subgroup-a-auditory-sensory-neurons-in-fruit-flies
#6
Yuki Ishikawa, Natsuki Okamoto, Mizuki Nakamura, Hyunsoo Kim, Azusa Kamikouchi
The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca(2+) imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695826/an-insect-anti-antiaphrodisiac
#7
Colin S Brent, John A Byers, Anat Levi-Zada
Passive mechanisms of mate guarding are used by males to promote sperm precedence with little cost, but these tactics can be disadvantageous for their mates and other males. Mated females of the plant bug Lygus hesperus are rendered temporarily unattractive by seminal fluids containing myristyl acetate and geranylgeranyl acetate. These antiaphrodisiac pheromones are gradually released from the female's gonopore, declining until they no longer suppress male courtship. Because starting quantities of these compounds can vary widely, the repellant signal becomes less reliable over time...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694497/role-of-visual-and-olfactory-cues-in-sex-recognition-in-butterfly-cethosia-cyane-cyane
#8
Chengzhe Li, Hua Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Jun Yao, Lei Shi, Chengli Zhou
Butterflies use multiple signals, including visual, olfactory and tactile cues, to identify same- and opposite-sex individuals during courtship. In this study of the sexually dimorphic butterfly Cethosia cyane cyane, we explored the roles of visual and olfactory cues in conspecific mate recognition during courtship. Our results showed that males took the initiative in actively chasing females during courtship using only visual cues. Males could distinguish the gender of conspecifics using visual cues alone...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#9
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680056/seasonal-and-daily-protandry-in-a-cyprinid-fish
#10
Marek Šmejkal, Daniel Ricard, Lukáš Vejřík, Tomáš Mrkvička, Lucie Vebrová, Roman Baran, Petr Blabolil, Zuzana Sajdlová, Ivana Vejříková, Marie Prchalová, Jan Kubečka
In polygynandrous mating systems, in which females limit reproductive success, males can increase their success by investing in courtship. Earlier arrival at the spawning ground compared to when females arrive may increase their opportunities in competitive mating systems. In this study, we used passive telemetry to test whether a male minnow known as the asp, Leuciscus aspius, times its arrival at spawning grounds relative to the arrival of females. Males arrived in a model stream approximately five days earlier than females on average and left four to five days later than females over two years...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679793/light-oiling-of-feathers-increases-flight-energy-expenditure-in-a-migratory-shorebird
#11
Ivan Maggini, Lisa V Kennedy, Alexander Macmillan, Kyle H Elliott, Karen Dean, Christopher G Guglielmo
Flying birds depend on their feathers to undertake most activities, and maintain them in peak condition through periodic molt and frequent preening. Even small exposures to crude oil reduce the integrity of feathers, and could impair flight performance. We trained wild western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) to perform endurance flights in a wind tunnel, and used magnetic resonance body composition analysis to measure energy expenditure after birds were exposed to weathered MC252 crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#12
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal - accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664190/social-interactions-in-different-environments-impacts-and-motivates-reproductive-displays-in-college-students
#13
J Wortham, A Miller
Social environments can have an impact on the interactions between the sexes, specifically pre-courtship behaviors. Sexual selection theory may explain social interactions of the sexes, where males display and attract mates more than females. These behaviors may intensify in a sexual environment. It was hypothesized that individuals would display more in a sexualized environment compared to a non-sexualized location. This research sampled N = 880 participants at a university in a southern state in North America and asked which unisex sunglasses they preferred...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640343/the-peculiar-breeding-biology-of-the-amazonian-frog-allobates-subfolionidificans-aromobatidae
#14
Jesus R D Souza, Igor L Kaefer, Albertina P Lima
Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627422/down-regulation-of-kv4-channel-in-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons-contributes-to-a%C3%AE-42-induced-courtship-memory-deficits
#15
Ge Feng, Jie Pang, Xin Yi, Qian Song, Jiaxing Zhang, Can Li, Guang He, Yong Ping
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is widely believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kv4 is an A-type K(+) channel, and our previous report shows the degradation of Kv4, induced by the Aβ42 accumulation, may be a critical contributor to the hyperexcitability of neurons in a Drosophila AD model. Here, we used well-established courtship memory assay to investigate the contribution of the Kv4 channel to short-term memory (STM) deficits in the Aβ42-expressing AD model. We found that Aβ42 over-expression in Drosophila leads to age-dependent courtship STM loss, which can be also induced by driving acute Aβ42 expression post-developmentally...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625191/attraction-and-consumption-of-methyl-eugenol-by-male-bactrocera-umbrosa-fabricius-diptera-tephritidae-promotes-conspecific-sexual-communication-and-mating-performance
#16
S L Wee, M Z Abdul Munir, A K W Hee
The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest...
June 19, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624606/identifying-individual-male-reproductive-consistency-in-drosophila-melanogaster-the-importance-of-controlling-female-behaviour
#17
Jesse Balaban-Feld, Thomas J Valone
Work on the repeatability of reproductive behaviour has mainly focused on the consistency of female preferences. We characterised the consistency of individual male Drosophila melanogaster reproductive behaviour in two experiments. In the first experiment, we allowed males to interact with a pair of live females that differed in body size. We then controlled female behaviour in a second experiment by examining the courtship behaviour of individual males interacting with a pair of decapitated females that varied in body size...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623148/male-sexual-enhancement-after-methoprene-treatment-in-anastrepha-fraterculus-diptera-tephritidae-a-sustained-response-that-does-not-fade-away-after-sexual-maturation
#18
G E Bachmann, F Devescovi, A L Nussenbaum, J L Cladera, P C Fernández, M T Vera, P E A Teal, D F Segura
The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620201/interactions-between-the-developmental-and-adult-social-environments-mediate-group-dynamics-and-offspring-traits-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Juliano Morimoto, Fleur Ponton, Ilona Tychsen, Jason Cassar, Stuart Wigby
Developmental conditions can strongly influence adult phenotypes and social interactions, which in turn affect key evolutionary processes such as sexual selection and sexual conflict. While the implications of social interactions in phenotypically mixed populations at the individual level are increasingly well known, how these effects influence the fate of groups remains poorly understood, which limits our understanding of the broader ecological implications. To address this problem we manipulated adult phenotypes and social composition in Drosophila melanogaster - by experimentally manipulating the larval density of the group-members - and measured a range of group-level outcomes across the lifespan of groups...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620015/genetic-editing-of-the-androgen-receptor-contributes-to-impaired-male-courtship-behavior-in-zebrafish
#20
Lengxob Yong, Zayer Thet, Yong Zhu
Elucidating the genes that contribute to behavioral variation has become an important endeavor in behavioral studies. While advances in genomics have narrowed down candidate genes, functionally validating them has been lagging, partly because of challenges associated with rapid gene manipulations. Consequently, few studies have demonstrated causal genetic changes linked to behaviors. The 'gene editing revolution' has offered unprecedented opportunities to interrogate candidate genes responsible for critical behaviors...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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