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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088352/mutations-at-the-darkener-of-apricot-locus-modulate-pheromone-production-and-sex-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Julien Fumey, Claude Wicker-Thomas
Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot (Doa) locus of Drosophila melanogaster alter sexual differentiation by disrupting sex-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, a key regulator of sex determination. Here, we study the effect of seven Doa alleles and several trans-heterozygous combinations on pheromones and courtship behavior. The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile was slightly masculinized in females, with an accumulation of shorter compounds (C23 and C25) and a reduction in longer compounds (C27 and C29)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#3
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070304/an-exception-to-the-matched-filter-hypothesis-a-mismatch-of-male-call-frequency-and-female-best-hearing-frequency-in-a-torrent-frog
#4
Longhui Zhao, Jichao Wang, Yue Yang, Bicheng Zhu, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Jianguo Cui
The matched filter hypothesis proposes that the tuning of auditory sensitivity and the spectral character of calls will match in order to maximize auditory processing efficiency during courtship. In this study, we analyzed the acoustic structure of male calls and both male and female hearing sensitivities in the little torrent frog (Amolops torrentis), an anuran species who transmits acoustic signals across streams. The results were in striking contradiction to the matched filter hypothesis. Auditory brainstem response results showed that the best hearing range was 1...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062580/hidden-female-physiological-resistance-to-male-accessory-gland-substances-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#5
Monica Lodi, Joris M Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057827/phylogeny-environment-and-sexual-communication-across-the-drosophila-genus
#6
REVIEW
Jacob A Jezovit, Joel D Levine, Jonathan Schneider
Social behaviour emerges from the local environment but is constrained by the animal's life history and its evolutionary lineage. In this perspective, we consider the genus Drosophila and provide an overview of how these constraints can shape how individuals interact. Our focus is restricted to visual and chemical signals and how their use varies across species during courtship - currently the only social behaviour well-studied across many Drosophila species. We broadly categorize species into four climatic groups - cosmopolitan, tropical, temperate and arid - which serve as discussion points as we review comparative behavioural and physiological studies and relate them to the abiotic conditions of a species environment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056078/early-life-social-isolation-influences-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalizations-during-male-male-social-encounters
#7
Sarah M Keesom, Caitlyn J Finton, Gabrielle L Sell, Laura M Hurley
Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049707/pleiotropic-effects-of-loss-of-the-d%C3%AE-1-subunit-in-drosophila-melanogaster-implications-for-insecticide-resistance
#8
Jason Somers, Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Judith Mitchell, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a highly conserved gene family that form pentameric receptors involved in fast excitatory synaptic neurotransmission. The specific roles individual nAChR subunits perform in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects are relatively uncharacterized. Of the 10 D. melanogaster nAChR subunits, only three have described roles in behavioral pathways; Dα3 and Dα4 in sleep, and Dα7 in the escape response. Other subunits have been associated with resistance to several classes of insecticides...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011819/evolution-of-vocal-patterns-tuning-hindbrain-circuits-during-species-divergence
#9
Charlotte L Barkan, Erik Zornik, Darcy B Kelley
The neural circuits underlying divergent courtship behaviors of closely related species provide a framework for insight into the evolution of motor patterns. In frogs, male advertisement calls serve as unique species identifiers and females prefer conspecific to heterospecific calls. Advertisement calls of three relatively recently (∼8.5mya) diverged species - Xenopus laevis, X. petersii and X. victorianus - include rapid trains of sound pulses (fast trills). We show that while fast trills are similar in pulse rate (∼60 pulses/second) across the 3 species, they differ in call duration and period (time from onset of call to the onset of the following call)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000210/behaviour-of-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus-during-an-induced-mating-season-in-captivity-how-male-relative-size-influences-male-behavioural-investment-and-female-preference-over-time
#10
M Bolgan, J O'Brien, M Picciulin, L Manning, M Gammell
The behaviour of sexually mature Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus specimens (fifth farm generation) was observed in captivity for four consecutive days. Only agonistic interactions between males of different size were facilitated on the first 2 days, while both agonistic and courtship interactions were possible from the third day up to the end of the experiment. The reliability of behavioural analysis was assessed in order to reduce the possibility of observer errors within the generated datasets. The behavioural investment of big males, small males and females was analysed using general linear models (two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with time and male size as factors)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974053/courtship-and-mating-behaviour-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-cotesia-urabae-hymenoptera-braconidae-mate-location-and-the-influence-of-competition-and-body-size-on-male-mating-success
#11
G A Avila, T M Withers, G I Holwell
Cotesia urabae is a solitary larval endoparasitoid that was introduced into New Zealand in 2011 as a classical biological control agent against Uraba lugens. A detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology is required to optimize mass rearing efficiency. In this study, the courtship and mating behaviour of C. urabae is described and investigated from a series of experiments, conducted to understand the factors that influence male mating success. Cotesia urabae males exhibited a high attraction to virgin females but not mated females, whereas females showed no attraction to either virgin or mated males...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913165/larger-females-are-choosier-in-the-gray-treefrog-hyla-versicolor
#12
Michael C Kuczynski, Thomas Getty, Eben Gering
Individual variation in female mate choice has important implications for sexual trait evolution and the maintenance of phenotypic diversity. In this study we examined several potential drivers of individual variation in female choosiness for the well-studied, energetically expensive courtship signal of male gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between female choosiness and other female traits (female body size, physical condition, and age) using a costly choice playback experiment where females traveled different simulated distances to reach attractive mates...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#13
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883361/adaptation-to-divergent-larval-diets-in-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata
#14
Philip T Leftwich, William J Nash, Lucy A Friend, Tracey Chapman
Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881754/neuroendocrine-correlates-of-sex-role-reversal-in-barred-buttonquails
#15
Cornelia Voigt
Sex differences in brain structure and behaviour are well documented among vertebrates. An excellent model exploring the neural mechanisms of sex differences in behaviour is represented by sex-role-reversed species. In the majority of bird species, males compete over access to mates and resources more strongly than do females. It is thought that the responsible brain regions are therefore more developed in males than in females. Because these behaviours and brain regions are activated by androgens, males usually have increased testosterone levels during breeding...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880074/what-does-the-fruitless-gene-tell-us-about-nature-vs-nurture-in-the-sex-life-of-drosophila
#16
Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
November 23, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866406/prevalence-of-factors-related-to-active-reproductive-health-behavior-a-cross-sectional-study-indonesian-adolescent
#17
Tantut Susanto, Iis Rahmawati, Emi Wuri Wuryaningsih, Ruka Saito, Syahrul, Rumiko Kimura, Akiko Tsuda, Noriko Tabuchi, Junko Sugama
OBJECTIVES: Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855330/behavioural-effect-of-low-dose-bpa-on-male-zebrafish-tuning-of-male-mating-competition-and-female-mating-preference-during-courtship-process
#18
Xiang Li, Jia-Yu Guo, Xu Li, Hai-Jun Zhou, Shu-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Dong Liu, Dong-Yan Chen, Yong-Chun Fang, Xi-Zeng Feng
The ubiquity of environmental pollution by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) is progressively considered as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Numerous toxicological studies have proved that BPA are hazardous to aquatic environment, along with alterations in the development and physiology of aquatic vertebrates. However, generally, there is a paucity in knowledge of behavioural and physiological effects of BPA with low concentration, for example, 0.22 nM (50 ng/L) and 2...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855059/neural-circuitry-coordinating-male-copulation
#19
Hania J Pavlou, Andrew C Lin, Megan C Neville, Tetsuya Nojima, Fengqiu Diao, Brian E Chen, Benjamin H White, Stephen F Goodwin
Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829697/experiments-with-claw-models-explain-the-function-of-the-waving-display-of-ilyoplax-pusilla-brachyura-dotillidae
#20
Daichi Izumi, Yoko Kawano, Yasuhisa Henmi
Males of the dotillid crab, Ilyoplax pusilla, perform waving displays during the reproductive season. Unlike many fiddler crabs (genus Uca), however, the function of the waving display is unclear for this species. Experiments using waving and static claw models over short (10 cm) and long (25 cm) distances were conducted to investigate responses by wandering females to artificial waving signals. In long-distance choice experiments, presuming undirected waving to unseen females as broadcast waving, females were equally likely to approach the waving and static claw sections during the non-reproductive season, but significantly more females (65 %) chose the waving claw section during the reproductive season...
2016: Journal of Ethology
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