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minority health

Peter J Stasikelis, Aaron T Creek, Linda I Wack
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency of complications in children with myelodysplasia (MD) undergoing tibial rotational osteotomies with a matched cohort of children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was postulated that because of the unique health issues facing children with MD more complications would be observed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify children with MD who underwent primary tibial rotational osteotomy between 1997 and 2012 and had a minimum 2-year follow-up...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Zhenjie Wang, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Lihua Pang, Xiaoying Zheng
Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15-64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Catherine E Mosher, Rebecca N Adams, Paul R Helft, Bert H O'Neil, Safi Shahda, Nicholas A Rattray, Victoria L Champion
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed positive changes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers following diagnosis. We compared self-reported positive changes within patient-caregiver dyads as well as self-reports and patient reports of positive changes in caregivers. DESIGN: Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and 23 caregivers. A theoretical thematic analysis of interview transcripts was framed by posttraumatic growth theory...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Christine M Lee, Jessica Blayney, Isaac C Rhew, Melissa A Lewis, Debra Kaysen
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults are at elevated risk for drinking compared to heterosexual young adults, and this discrepancy is particularly striking for sexual minority women (SMW). Perceived social norms are strong predictors of young adult alcohol use, especially among college students. The college environment is often one where increases in alcohol use are seen, but the impact of college status on SMW's drinking has been understudied. The present study explored patterns of alcohol use and consequences among SMW and the extent to which social norms relate to use and consequences...
March 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Claudia Chaufan, Andrew J Karter, Howard H Moffet, Judy Quan, Melissa M Parker, Jenna Kruger, Dean Schillinger, Alicia Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Language barriers negatively impact health care access and quality for US immigrants. Latinos are the second largest immigrant group and the largest, fastest growing minority. Health care systems need simple, low cost and accurate tools that they can use to identify physicians with Spanish language competence. We sought to address this need by validating a simple and low-cost tool already in use in a major health plan. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS: A web-based survey conducted in 2012 among physicians caring for patients in a large, integrated health care delivery system...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Jenny M L Rystedt, Agneta K Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Existing reports on quality-of-life (QoL) after bile duct injury (BDI) are conflicting. METHODS: Case-control study were QoL assessment was performed using SF-36 (36-item short Form health survey). Patients with BDI were compared to a matched control group (1:2) subject to cholecystectomy. RESULTS: In total 168 BDIs (0.3%) were eligible for participation and 64% returned SF-36. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed/attempted in 93% of BDI patients and 92% were diagnosed intraoperatively...
October 20, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Eric Y Tenkorang
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects nearly over three million Canadians, including immigrants. The timing of the first onset of diabetes has been linked to several other severe diseases. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical studies that examine the timing of the first onset of diabetes among Canadians, in general, and among immigrants and ethnic minority populations within Canada, in particular. DESIGN: Applying event history techniques to the 2013 Canadian Community and Health Survey, we address this research void by examining factors that contribute to the first onset of diabetes among immigrant and visible minority populations in Canada (N = 8905)...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
O T A Lyons, M Baguneid, T D Barwick, R E Bell, N Foster, S Homer-Vanniasinkam, S Hopkins, A Hussain, K Katsanos, B Modarai, J A T Sandoe, S Thomas, N M Price
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The management of aortic graft infection (AGI) is highly complex and in the absence of a universally accepted case definition and evidence-based guidelines, clinical approaches and outcomes vary widely. The objective was to define precise criteria for diagnosing AGI. METHODS: A process of expert review and consensus, involving formal collaboration between vascular surgeons, infection specialists, and radiologists from several English National Health Service hospital Trusts with large vascular services (Management of Aortic Graft Infection Collaboration [MAGIC]), produced the definition...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Christin Waage, Anne Karen Jenum, Ibrahimu Mdala, Jens Petter Berg, Kåre Richardsen, Kåre Birkeland
AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of elevated HbA1c 14 weeks postpartum in different ethnic groups and in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the index pregnancy and to explore demographic and biological factors from early pregnancy associated with elevated HbA1c (HbA1c ≥5.7% (≥39mmol/mol)) postpartum. METHODS: From a cohort study in Oslo, Norway, we included 570 pregnant women, examined in gestational week 15, 28, and 14 weeks postpartum...
October 19, 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
Tim Stokes, Elizabeth J Shaw, Janette Camosso-Stefinovic, Mari Imamura, Lovney Kanguru, Julia Hussein
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality remains a major international health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and most could have been prevented by quality improvement interventions already demonstrated to be effective, such as clinical guideline implementation strategies. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise qualitative evidence on guideline implementation strategies to improve obstetric care practice in LMIC in order to identify barriers and enablers to their successful implementation...
October 22, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Joan K Monin, Natalie Mota, Becca Levy, John Pachankis, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVES: Objectives were to: (a) identify the mental health needs of older and younger sexual minority and heterosexual U.S. veterans and (b) examine whether sexual minority status confers vulnerability or resiliency in older adulthood. Support and trauma exposure were examined as potential mechanisms for age by sexual orientation differences. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of 3,095 U.S. veterans (ages 21 to 96 years). Measures included demographics, military characteristics, sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or bisexual; LGB), social support, trauma, and mental health indicators (lifetime and present depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); lifetime anxiety and suicidal ideation)...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Francesco Domanico, Giovanni Forte, Costanza Majorani, Oreste Senofonte, Francesco Petrucci, Vincenzo Pezzi, Alessandro Alimonti
Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Vachan Misir, Anna Skosireva, Aseefa Sarang, Jo Connelly, Adam Whisler, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. METHODS: This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Aaron S Kesselheim, Wesley Eddings, Tara Raj, Eric G Campbell, Jessica M Franklin, Kathryn M Ross, Lisa A Fulchino, Jerry Avorn, Joshua J Gagne
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are cost-effective versions of brand-name drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following proof of pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence. Generic drugs are widely prescribed by physicians, although there is disagreement over the clinical comparability of generic drugs to brand-name drugs within the physician community. The objective of this survey was to assess physicians' perceptions of generic drugs and the generic drug approval process...
2016: PloS One
Sylvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Philip M Massey, Brent A Langellier, Tetine Sentell, Jennifer Manganello
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. RESULTS: Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Madhav V Deo
A buzzword in Indian press and amongst the policy makers is that India is short of the WHO recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1000. The recommendations were formulated to facilitate programs to achieve some of the health related UN-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infections and malnutrition, which can be comfortably handled by a basic MBBS doctor, were the dominant health issues at the time of the formulation of the MDGs. However, all countries worldwide are going through health epidemiological transition and health impact of the non-communicable disorders (NCDs) can be no more ignored even by the low income nations...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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