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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912959/human-evolutionary-loss-of-epithelial-neu5gc-expression-and-species-specific-susceptibility-to-cholera
#1
Frederico Alisson-Silva, Janet Z Liu, Sandra L Diaz, Lingquan Deng, Mélanie G Gareau, Ronald Marchelletta, Xi Chen, Victor Nizet, Nissi Varki, Kim E Barrett, Ajit Varki
While infectious agents have typical host preferences, the noninvasive enteric bacterium Vibrio cholerae is remarkable for its ability to survive in many environments, yet cause diarrheal disease (cholera) only in humans. One key V. cholerae virulence factor is its neuraminidase (VcN), which releases host intestinal epithelial sialic acids as a nutrition source and simultaneously remodels intestinal polysialylated gangliosides into monosialoganglioside GM1. GM1 is the optimal binding target for the B subunit of a second virulence factor, the AB5 cholera toxin (Ctx)...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912918/girls-only-vs-mixed-gender-groups-in-the-delivery-of-a-universal-wellness-programme-among-adolescents-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Reut Agam-Bitton, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Moria Golan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the optimal setting for body image prevention programmes is important to maximize the outcomes of such programmes. OBJECTIVES: We examined the preferred setting for a school-based wellness programme called "In Favour of Myself". METHODS: A total of 259 girls (mean 13.82±0.64 years) were divided into a girls-only intervention group, a mixed-gender intervention and a waiting list control group. The participants completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention (2 months) and at follow-up (3 months) examining changes in self-esteem, media literacy, body image and risk factors for eating disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910492/direct-and-indirect-low-skill-fibre-optic-intubation-a-randomised-crossover-manikin-study-of-six-supraglottic-airway-devices
#3
Sau Yee Chow, Yan Ru Tan, Theodore Gar Ling Wong, Vui Kian Ho, Abey Matthew Matthews, Hui Hua Li, Patrick Wong
Background and Aims: Fibre-optic intubation (FOI) through supraglottic airway devices (SADs) is useful in the management of the difficult airway. We compared two methods of FOI through seven SADs in a randomised crossover manikin study to assess each device's performance and discuss implications on SAD selection. Methods: Thirty anaesthetsiologists, 15 seniors and 15 juniors, each performed low skill FOI (LSFOI) with seven SADs using both 'direct' and 'indirect' methods...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910114/isoniazid-rifapentine-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Gibril J Njie, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Ruth N Moro, Andrew A Vernon, Andrey S Borisov
CONTEXT: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients' preference for self-administered therapy, providers' lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909372/an-international-qualitative-study-exploring-patients-experiences-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-study-set-up-and-protocol
#5
Astrid Christine Erber, Byron Arana, Issam Bennis, Afif Ben Salah, Aicha Boukthir, Maria Del Mar Castro Noriega, Mamoudou Cissé, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Farhad Handjani, Mairie Guizaw Kebede, Trudie Lang, Liliana López Carvajal, Kevin Marsh, Dalila Martinez Medina, Emma Plugge, Piero Olliaro
INTRODUCTION: Lack of investments in drug development, lack of standardisation of clinical trials and the complexity of disease presentations contribute to the current lack of effective, safe and adapted treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). One aspect concerns outcomes affecting patients' quality of life (QoL): these are hardly assessed in trials, despite potential functional and/or aesthetic impairment caused by CL, which typically affects disadvantaged and vulnerable people living in rural areas...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909280/the-influence-of-articulation-dynamics-on-recognition-memory
#6
Berit Lindau, Sascha Topolinski
Previous research has demonstrated an effect of consonantal direction on preference, showing that words following inward articulation dynamics (e.g., EMOK or OPIK) are generally liked more than words following outward dynamics (e.g., EKOM or OKIP). The present studies extended this line of research by hypothesizing an effect of consonantal direction on recognition memory, specifically familiarity. In a total of 7 experimental studies (N = 1043), we tested and confirmed this hypothesis, consistently finding increased hits and false alarms for inward compared to outward pseudo-words...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909251/fnirs-reveals-enhanced-brain-activation-to-female-versus-male-infant-directed-speech-relative-to-adult-directed-speech-in-young-human-infants
#7
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
June 14, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908467/a-french-hernia-in-dubai-a-case-report
#8
Yousif H Al Abboudi, Hajer A Busharar, Labib S Alozaibi, Asnin Shah, Rafya Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: De Garengeot hernia was first described in 1731. It is rare type of hernia and there is no established mode of treatment for it to date. This work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016). PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a 72 years old male with a non-reducible right inguinal swelling diagnosed to be a femoral hernia with congested appendix within. There are less than 100 cases like this reported to date in the literature...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908235/the-effect-of-antibiotics-on-social-aversion-following-early-life-inflammation
#9
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908204/lipase-mediated-direct-in-situ-ring-opening-polymerization-of-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-formed-by-a-chemo-enzymatic-method
#10
Yuanyuan Zhang, Peiyu Lu, Qinghua Sun, Tao Li, Lanjie Zhao, Xin Gao, Fanye Wang, Junhong Liu
A novel method to synthesize poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) through a three-step, lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction from cyclohexanone using an immobilized lipase from Trichosporon laibacchii (T. laibacchii) CBS5791 was developed. The immobilized preparation with 1280 U· g-1 used here was obtained by a method of purification and in situ immobilization where the crude intracellular lipase (cell homogenate) was subjected to partial purification by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of 12% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and 13% (w/w) potassium phosphate (K2 HPO4 ) and then in situ immobilization directly on diatomite from the top PEG-rich phase of ATPS...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906322/dressings-and-topical-agents-for-treating-venous-leg-ulcers
#11
REVIEW
Gill Norman, Maggie J Westby, Amber D Rithalia, Nikki Stubbs, Marta O Soares, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression therapy, but a wide range of dressings and topical treatments are also used. This diversity of treatments makes evidence-based decision-making challenging, and a clear and current overview of all the evidence is required...
June 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905616/implementation-of-perioperative-music-using-the-consolidated-framework-for-implementation-research
#12
Jessica E Carter, Srinivas Pyati, Frances A Kanach, Ann Miller W Maxwell, Charles M Belden, Christopher M Shea, Thomas Van de Ven, Jillian Thompson, Helen Hoenig, Karthik Raghunathan
BACKGROUND: Complementary integrative health therapies have a perioperative role in the reduction of pain, analgesic use, and anxiety, and increasing patient satisfaction. However, long implementation lags have been quantified. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) can help mitigate this translational problem. METHODS: We reviewed evidence for several nonpharmacological treatments (CFIR domain: characteristics of interventions) and studied external context and organizational readiness for change by surveying providers at 11 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals (domains: outer and inner settings)...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905515/diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-official-american-thoracic-society-clinical-practice-guideline
#13
Adam J Shapiro, Stephanie D Davis, Deepika Polineni, Michele Manion, Margaret Rosenfeld, Sharon D Dell, Mark A Chilvers, Thomas W Ferkol, Maimoona A Zariwala, Scott D Sagel, Maureen Josephson, Lucy Morgan, Ozge Yilmaz, Kenneth N Olivier, Carlos Milla, Jessica E Pittman, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Marcus Herbert Jones, Ibrahim A Janahi, Stephanie M Ware, Sam J Daniel, Matthew L Cooper, Lawrence M Nogee, Billy Anton, Tori Eastvold, Lynn Ehrne, Elena Guadagno, Michael R Knowles, Margaret W Leigh, Valery Lavergne
BACKGROUND: This document presents the American Thoracic Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). TARGET AUDIENCE: Clinicians investigating adult and pediatric patients for possible PCD. METHODS: Systematic reviews and, when appropriate, meta-analyses were conducted to summarize all available evidence pertinent to our clinical questions. Evidence was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach for diagnosis and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel with expertise in PCD...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904805/economic-evaluation-of-patient-navigation-programs-in-colorectal-cancer-care-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman
Patient navigation has expanded as a promising approach to improve cancer care coordination and patient adherence. This paper addresses the need to identify the evidence on the economic impact of patient navigation in colorectal cancer, following the Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines. Articles indexed in Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Web of Science between January 2000 and March 2017 were analyzed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
June 14, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904782/multidimensional-internal-dynamics-underlying-the-perception-of-motion
#15
Mark Wexler
When ambiguous visual stimuli are presented continuously, they often lead to oscillations between usually two perceptions. Because of these oscillations, it has been thought that the underlying neural dynamics also arises from a binary or two-state system. Contradicting the binary assumption, it has been shown recently that the perception of some ambiguous stimuli is governed by continuously varying internal states, measured as biases that differ considerably from one observer to the next and that can also evolve over time (Wexler, Duyck, & Mamassian, 2015)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902943/preferred-sampler-inlet-configurations-for-collection-of-aerosolized-nano-scale-materials
#16
John Jankovic, Tracy L Zontek, Megan Moore, Burton R Ogle, Scott Hollenbeck
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of standard industrial hygiene sampling protocols for collection of nano-scale materials, sampling inlet device selection is left to individual researchers and professionals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare nano-scale aspiration efficiency for common inlet configurations with that of an open-ended sampler tube that is a commonly used inlet for direct reading instruments such as a condensation particle counter. METHODS: A polydisperse aerosol was generated using an electric motor as the aerosol source...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901838/existing-self-replicators-can-direct-the-emergence-of-new-ones
#17
Yigit Altay, Meniz Altay, Sijbren Otto
The study of the interplay between different self-replicating molecules constitutes an important new phase in the synthesis of life and in unravelling the origin of life. Here we show how existing replicators can direct the nature of a newly formed replicator. Starting from the same building block, 6-ring replicators formed when the mixture was exposed to pre-existing 6-membered replicators, while pre-formed 8-membered replicators funneled the building block into 8-ring replicators. Not only ring size, but also the mode of assembly of the rings into stacks was inherited from the pre-existing replicators...
June 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901530/the-direct-oblique-method-a-new-gold-standard-for-bronchoscopic-navigation-that-is-superior-to-automatic-methods
#18
Kotaro Miyake, Osamu Morimura, Takako Inoue, Kenya Yoshida, Izumi Nagatomo, Takashi Kijima, Atsushi Kumanogoh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify bronchi on computed tomographic (CT) images, manual analysis is more accurate than automatic methods. Nonetheless, manual bronchoscopic navigation is not preferred as it involves mentally reconstructing a route to a bronchial target by interpreting 2-dimensional CT images. Here, we established the direct oblique method (DOM), a form of manual bronchoscopic navigation that does not necessitate mental reconstruction, and compared it with automatic virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900220/taiwanese-consumer-survey-data-for-investigating-the-role-of-information-on-equivalence-of-organic-standards-in-directing-food-choice
#19
Ching-Hua Yeh, Monika Hartmann, Stefan Hirsch
The presentation of credence attributes such as the product's origin or the production method has a significant influence on consumers' food purchase decisions. The dataset includes survey responses from a discrete choice experiment with 1309 food shoppers in Taiwan using the example of sweet pepper. The survey was carried out in 2014 in the three largest Taiwanese cities. It evaluates the impact of providing information on the equality of organic standards on consumers' preferences at the example of sweet pepper...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899854/the-outweigh-of-toxicity-versus-risk-of-recurrence-for-adjuvant-interferon-therapy-a-survey-in-german-melanoma-patients-and-their-treating-physicians
#20
Katharina C Kähler, Christine Blome, Andrea Forschner, Ralf Gutzmer, Axel Hauschild, Lucie Heinzerling, Elisabeth Livingstone, Carmen Loquai, Tina Müller-Brenne, Dirk Schadendorf, Jochen Utikal, Tobias Wagner, Matthias Augustin
After more than two decades with interferon alfa-2a and 2b (IFN) as the only approved drugs in the adjuvant setting for melanoma, new treatment approaches like immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF-MEK inhibitors improve the progression free survival (PFS) and also the overall survival (OS). We compared physicians' preferences ("utilities") for health states associated with IFN therapy to their patients' preferences. Utilities describe a preference for a specific health state on a scale of 0 (as bad as death) to 1...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
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