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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244556/seasonal-food-scarcity-prompts-long-distance-foraging-by-a-wild-social-bee
#1
Nathaniel S Pope, Shalene Jha
Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244269/current-trends-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-a-developing-country
#2
Carlos A Batagello, Fabio Carvalho Vicentini, Giovanni Scala Marchini, Fabio Cesar Miranda Torricelli, Miguel Srougi, Willian Carlos Nahas, Eduardo Mazzucchi
INTRODUCTION: To present the current practice patterns on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was offered to Brazilian urologists during the II International Endourology Symposium held in Sao Paulo, in 2015. The first seven questions were related to demographic data while the 20 remaining were directed to urologists who performed PCNL. RESULTS: From 250 participants, 100 replied to the survey, 81% performed PCNL and 60...
December 18, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242722/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-tspo-pet-ligands-for-neuroinflammation-imaging-in-neurological-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Md Maqusood Alam, Jihye Lee, Sang-Yoon Lee
Neuroinflammation is heavily associated with various neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. It is strongly characterized by the activation of microglia which can be visualized using position emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the preferred target for imaging the inflammatory progression of the microglial component. TSPO is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and present in very low concentrations in the healthy human brain, but is markedly upregulated in response to brain injury and inflammation...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241597/understanding-patient-preference-in-female-pelvic-imaging-transvaginal-ultrasound-and-mri
#4
Michelle D Sakala, Ruth C Carlos, Mishal Mendiratta-Lala, Elisabeth H Quint, Katherine E Maturen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women with pelvic pain or abnormal uterine bleeding may undergo diagnostic imaging. This study evaluates patient experience in transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explores correlations between preference and symptom severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study. Fifty premenopausal women with pelvic symptoms evaluated by recent TVUS and MRI and without history of gynecologic cancer or hysterectomy were included...
December 11, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#5
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240815/evolution-guided-adaptation-of-an-adenylation-domain-substrate-specificity-to-an-unusual-amino-acid
#6
Simon Vobruba, Stanislav Kadlcik, Radek Gazak, Jiri Janata
Adenylation domains CcbC and LmbC control the specific incorporation of amino acid precursors in the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics celesticetin and lincomycin. Both proteins originate from a common L-proline-specific ancestor, but LmbC was evolutionary adapted to use an unusual substrate, (2S,4R)-4-propyl-proline (PPL). Using site-directed mutagenesis of the LmbC substrate binding pocket and an ATP-[32P]PPi exchange assay, three residues, G308, A207 and L246, were identified as crucial for the PPL activation, presumably forming together a channel of a proper size, shape and hydrophobicity to accommodate the propyl side chain of PPL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239649/goal-directed-tail-use-in-colombian-spider-monkeys-ateles-fusciceps-rufiventris-is-highly-lateralized
#7
Eliza L Nelson, Giulianna A Kendall
Behavioral laterality refers to a bias in the use of one side of the body over the other and is commonly studied in paired organs (e.g., hands, feet, eyes, antennae). Less common are reports of laterality in unpaired organs (e.g., trunk, tongue, tail). The goal of the current study was to examine tail use biases across different tasks in the Colombian spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris) for the first time (N = 14). We hypothesized that task context and task complexity influence tail laterality in spider monkeys, and we predicted that monkeys would exhibit strong preferences for using the tail for manipulation to solve out-of-reach feeding problems, but not for using the tail at rest...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239578/national-vaccination-program-a-success-story-of-public-health-and-economy
#8
Heini Salo, Terhi Kilpi
The savings in treatment costs generated by disease cases prevented by the national vaccination program exceed the costs of the vaccination program by at least 60 million euros. In addition, other costs due to contracting the illness are avoided. Vaccinations serve the purpose of both increasing well-being and releasing resources for other uses. Financial support of vaccinations through the health insurance system would be costly and targetted to those with the ability to pay. Public funds should be directed to the development of a vaccination program...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237844/hsv-1-dna-polymerase-rnase-h-activity-acts-in-a-3-5-direction-and-is-dependent-on-the-3-5-exonuclease-active-site
#9
Jessica L Lawler, Purba Mukherjee, Donald M Coen
The catalytic subunit (Pol) of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) DNA polymerase has been extensively studied both as a model for other family B DNA polymerases and for its differences from these enzymes as an antiviral target. Among the activities of HSV-1 Pol is an intrinsic RNase H activity that cleaves RNA from RNA:DNA hybrids. There has long been a controversy regarding whether this activity is due to the 3' -5' exonuclease of Pol or whether it is a separate activity, possibly acting on 5' RNA termini. To investigate this issue, we compared wild-type HSV-1 Pol and a 3' -5' exonuclease-deficient mutant, D368A, for DNA polymerase activity, 3' -5' exonuclease activity, and RNase H activity in vitro Additionally, we assessed the RNase H activity using differentially end-labeled templates with 5' or 3' RNA termini...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237440/experiences-of-community-members-and-researchers-on-community-engagement-in-an-ecohealth-project-in-south-africa-and-zimbabwe
#10
Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J Chimbari
BACKGROUND: Community engagement (CE) models have provided much needed guidance for researchers to conceptualise and design engagement strategies for research projects. Most of the published strategies, however, still show very limited contribution of the community to the engagement process. One way of achieving this is to document experiences of community members in the CE processes during project implementation. The aim of our study was to explore the experiences of two research naïve communities, regarding a CE strategy collaboratively developed by researchers and study communities in a multicountry study...
December 13, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236481/exploring-the-nanotoxicology-of-mos2-a-study-on-the-interaction-of-mos2-nanoflake-and-k-channels
#11
Zonglin Gu, Leigh D Plant, Xuanyu Meng, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Zegao Wang, Mingdong Dong, Diomedes E Logothetis, Ruhong Zhou
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterial has recently found various applications in the biomedical field mainly due to its outstanding physicochemical properties. However, little is known about its interactions with biological systems at the atomic level, which intimately relates to the biocompatibility of the material. To provide insights into the effects of MoS2 in biological entities, we investigated the interactions of MoS2 with proteins from a functionally important membrane family, the ubiquitous potassium (K+) channels...
December 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235027/a-study-on-the-causal-effect-of-urban-population-growth-and-international-trade-on-environmental-pollution-evidence-from-china
#12
Kofi Baah Boamah, Jianguo Du, Angela Jacinta Boamah, Kingsley Appiah
This study seeks to contribute to the recent literature by empirically investigating the causal effect of urban population growth and international trade on environmental pollution of China, for the period 1980-2014. The Johansen cointegration confirmed a long-run cointegration association among the utilised variables for the case of China. The direction of causality among the variables was, consequently, investigated using the recent bootstrapped Granger causality test. This bootstrapped Granger causality approach is preferred as it provides robust and accurate critical values for statistical inferences...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234237/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-r-sulfolactate-dehydrogenase-comc-from-the-rumen-methanogen-methanobrevibacter-millerae-sm9
#13
Yanli Zhang, Linley R Schofield, Carrie Sang, Debjit Dey, Ron S Ronimus
(R)-Sulfolactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.337), termed ComC, is a member of an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of 2-hydroxyacids into their corresponding 2-oxoacids. The ComC reaction is reversible and in the biosynthetic direction causes the conversion of (R)-sulfolactate to sulfopyruvate in the production of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid). Coenzyme M is an essential cofactor required for the production of methane by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232724/inter-rater-reliability-of-air-saline-hycosy-hyfosy-and-hyfosy-combined-with-power-doppler-for-screening-tubal-patency
#14
Inga Ludwin, Artur Ludwin, Carolina O Nastri, Marcela A Coelho Neto, Jan Kottner, Wellington P Martins
Purpose To estimate the inter-observer reliability and agreement of offline analyses of three different ultrasound techniques for assessing tubal patency. Methods 100 tubes (n = 100) in 50 women were evaluated for tubal patency between November 2013 and July 2015 using ultrasound as index tests and laparoscopy as the reference standard. Three different ultrasound techniques were applied: two-dimensional grayscale ultrasound using air + saline as the contrast media (2D-HyCoSy); two- and three-dimensional grayscale ultrasound using foam as the contrast media (2 D/3D-HyFoSy); and the same technique but adding bi-directional power Doppler (2 D/3D-Doppler-HyFoSy)...
December 12, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228983/characterization-of-interactions-between-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5b-polymerase-annexin-a2-and-rna-effects-on-ns5b-catalysis-and-allosteric-inhibition
#15
Sara M Ø Solbak, Eldar Abdurakhmanov, Anni Vedeler, U Helena Danielson
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) provide efficient hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy and clearance for a majority of patients, but are not available or effective for all patients. They risk developing HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which the mechanism remains obscure and therapy is missing. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been reported to co-precipitate with the non-structural (NS) HCV proteins NS5B and NS3/NS4A, indicating a role in HCC tumorigenesis and effect on DAA therapy...
December 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227851/the-specificity-of-reciprocity-young-children-reciprocate-more-generously-to-those-who-intentionally-benefit-them
#16
Amrisha Vaish, Robert Hepach, Michael Tomasello
Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227560/enhancing-van-der-waals-interactions-of-non-polar-adsorbates-with-functionalized-uio-66-the-unique-effect-of-para-hydroxyl-groups
#17
Trenton Tovar, Ivan Iordanov, Dorina Sava Gallis, Jared Bernard DeCoste
For small, nonpolar adsorbates, physisorption is dominated by weak Van der Waals interactions limiting the adsorption capacity. A common strategy to enhance the adsorption properties of isoreticular metal-organic framework (MOFs), such as UiO-66, is to add functional groups to the organic linker. Low and high pressure O2 isotherms were measured on UiO-66 MOFs functionalized with electron donating and withdrawing groups. It was found that the electron donating effects of -NH2, -OH, and -OCF3 groups enhance the uptake of O2...
December 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227305/lung-transplantation-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-past-present-and-future-directions
#18
Faisal M Siddiqui, Joshua M Diamond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation offers an effective treatment modality for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exact determination of when to refer, list, and offer transplant as well as the preferred transplant procedure type remains unclear. Additionally, there are special considerations specific to patients with COPD being considered for lung transplantation, including the implications of single lung transplantation on lung cancer risk, native lung hyperinflation, and overall survival...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226723/pen-devices-for-self-injection-contrasting-measured-injection-force-with-users-perceived-ease-of-injection
#19
Andreas E Schneider, Jakob Lange
OBJECTIVES: Past research has emphasized injection force as a clinically highly relevant technical attribute of pen devices. However, little work has been conducted to relate these results to in-use studies. This article explores whether and how differences in pen injection force profiles influence users' self-reported perceived ease of injection and preferences. METHODS: Three different pen systems were subjected to measurements of injection force using an automated mechanical set-up followed by a simulated use study where users assessed perceived ease of injection...
December 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226262/topology-optimization-aided-structural-design-interpretation-computational-aspects-and-3d-printing
#20
Georgios Kazakis, Ioannis Kanellopoulos, Stefanos Sotiropoulos, Nikos D Lagaros
Construction industry has a major impact on the environment that we spend most of our life. Therefore, it is important that the outcome of architectural intuition performs well and complies with the design requirements. Architects usually describe as "optimal design" their choice among a rather limited set of design alternatives, dictated by their experience and intuition. However, modern design of structures requires accounting for a great number of criteria derived from multiple disciplines, often of conflicting nature...
October 2017: Heliyon
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