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Directional preference

Heidi M Olsen, Wendy J Brown, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Nicola W Burton
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n=28) six months after the introduction of a flexible work policy...
April 18, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
Tero Kämäräinen, Mariko Ago, Jani Seitsonen, Janne Raula, Esko I Kauppinen, Janne Ruokolainen, Orlando J Rojas
Wrinkling of colloidal particles alter a wide variety of interfacial properties but quantitative topographical descriptions have been explored experimentally to a very limited extent. In this study, we present a harmonic analysis of surface wrinkles and folds on submicron colloidal particles, obtained using an aerosol flow route, with small radius (<300 nm) and high crust thickness-to-radius ratio (>0.1). The particle surface coordinates were mapped in their entirety using cryo-electron tomography and subsequently reconstructed using spherical harmonics, allowing a spectral topographical description of the instability patterns and the identification of their surface modes by lateral wavelength...
April 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Thomas L Lewis, Hugh N Furness, George W Miller, Nicholas Parsons, Kate Seers, Martin Underwood, Andrew J Metcalfe
INTRODUCTION: Efficient adoption of clinically effective novel surgical innovations has great potential benefits for patients. Factors affecting the adoption of surgical innovation are not well understood and proposed models of adoption do not accurately correlate with historical evidence. This protocol is for a systematic review that aims to identify the qualitative evidence relating to surgeon views regarding the adoption of novel surgical innovation into clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance will be performed...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Colten Luedke, Michael J Kissenberth, Stefan J Tolan, Richard J Hawkins, John M Tokish
BACKGROUND: Total shoulder arthroplasty remains an effective procedure for shoulder pain relief. Despite the negative effect of abnormal glenoid morphology and specifically retroverted and posteriorly subluxated glenoids, there is no consensus for management of B2 glenoids in total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes and complication rates for B2 glenoid techniques so as to provide a baseline understanding of the current state of treatment of this pathology...
April 17, 2018: JBJS Reviews
Joey A Lussier, Fabian J Simon, Pamela S Whitfield, Kalpana Singh, Venkataraman Thangadurai, Mario Bieringer
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are solid-state electrochemical devices that directly convert chemical energy of fuels into electricity with high efficiency. Because of their fuel flexibility, low emissions, high conversion efficiency, no moving parts, and quiet operation, they are considered as a promising energy conversion technology for low carbon future needs. Solid-state oxide and proton conducting electrolytes play a crucial role in improving the performance and market acceptability of SOFCs. Defect fluorite phases are some of the most promising fast oxide ion conductors for use as electrolytes in SOFCs...
April 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
V L Negenborn, R E G Dikmans, M B Bouman, H A H Winters, J W R Twisk, P Q Ruhé, M A M Mureau, J M Smit, S Tuinder, J Hommes, Y Eltahir, N A S Posch, J M van Steveninck-Barends, M A Meesters-Caberg, R R W J van der Hulst, M J P F Ritt, M G Mullender
BACKGROUND: In the multicentre randomized trial BRIOS (Breast Reconstruction In One Stage), direct-to-implant (DTI) breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) was associated with a markedly higher postoperative complication rate compared with two-stage tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the occurrence of complications after DTI ADM-assisted breast reconstruction. METHODS: Data were obtained from the BRIOS study, including all patients treated with DTI ADM-assisted breast reconstruction...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Marzieh Parizad Nasirkandy, Gholamreza Badfar, Masoumeh Shohani, Shoboo Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein YektaKooshali, Shamsi Abbasalizadeh, Ali Soleymani, Milad Azami
Background: The clinical consequences of hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy such as preterm birth are not still clear. Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the relation of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and preterm birth. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis were utilized. Searching the cohort studies were done by two researchers independently without any restrictions on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO and Google Scholar databases up to 2017...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Tiago Marques, Julia Nguyen, Gabriela Fioreze, Leopoldo Petreanu
Cortical feedback is thought to mediate cognitive processes like attention, prediction, and awareness. Understanding its function requires identifying the organizational logic of feedback axons relaying different signals. We measured retinotopic specificity in inputs from the lateromedial visual area in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) by mapping receptive fields in feedback boutons and relating them to those of neurons in their vicinity. Lateromedial visual area inputs in layer 1 targeted, on average, retinotopically matched locations in V1, but many of them relayed distal visual information...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
David J Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Reza Shadmehr
The primary output cells of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells, make kinematic predictions about ongoing movements via high-frequency simple spikes, but receive sensory error information about that movement via low-frequency complex spikes (CS). How is the vector space of sensory errors encoded by this low-frequency signal? Here we measured Purkinje cell activity in the oculomotor vermis of animals during saccades, then followed the chain of events from experience of visual error, generation of CS, modulation of simple spikes, and ultimately change in motor output...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Shane J Caldwell, Albert M Berghuis
APH(2")-Ia aminoglycoside resistance enzyme forms the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional AAC(6')-Ie/APH(2")-Ia enzyme and confers high-level resistance to natural 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides. In addition, reports have suggested that the enzyme can phosphorylate 4,5-disubstituted compounds and aminoglycosides with substitutions at the N1-position. Previously determined structures of the enzyme with aminoglycosides bound have not indicated how these non-canonical substrates could bind and be modified by the enzyme...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Muhammad Raheel Afzal, Sanghun Pyo, Min-Kyun Oh, Young Sook Park, Jungwon Yoon
BACKGROUND: Integration of kinesthetic and tactile cues for application to post-stroke gait rehabilitation is a novel concept which needs to be explored. The combined provision of haptic cues may result in collective improvement of gait parameters such as symmetry, balance and muscle activation patterns. Our proposed integrated cue system can offer a cost-effective and voluntary gait training experience for rehabilitation of subjects with unilateral hemiparetic stroke. METHODS: Ten post-stroke ambulatory subjects participated in a 10 m walking trial while utilizing the haptic cues (either alone or integrated application), at their preferred and increased gait speeds...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Milad Azami, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Ali Khorshidi, Younes Mohammadi, Zeinab Tardeh
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder. The role of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the etiology of schizophrenia has been suggested by several studies. However, the existence of such association remained controversial. The present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate this association. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Online databases including Scopus, PubMed, Science direct, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Google scholar search engine were searched until January 15, 2017...
November 28, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Yunzhao Gu, Jun Wu, Wenxiao Yang, Chao Xia, Xinglong Shi, Hua Li, Jielin Sun, Zhifeng Shao, Ji Wu, Xiaodong Zhao
LIF-mediated STAT3 signaling is critically involved in stem cells and development. However, its function in mouse female germline cells (FGSCs) remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that LIF-induced STAT3 activation contributes to the proliferation and undifferentiation maintenance of mouse FGSCs. Characterization of the STAT3-mediated transcriptional network by intersecting ChIP-seq and RNA-seq datasets revealed 405 direct target genes of STAT3, which are primarily involved in proliferation and germline development...
April 16, 2018: Molecular omics
B A C Loomans, P Wetselaar, N J M Opdam
In 2016, a European consensus meeting was held regarding the treatment of severe tooth wear. This meeting resulted in the publication of the European statement of consensus on the treatment of severe tooth wear in 2017. In the statement, new definitions of physiological and pathological tooth wear are described, recommendations for diagnosis and taking preventive measure are presented, and advice for counseling and monitoring is offered to better elucidate the underlying aetiological factors causing tooth wear in the patient...
April 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Robert Wieduwild, Richard Wetzel, Dejan Husman, Sophie Bauer, Iman El-Sayed, Sarah Duin, Priyanka Murawala, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Manja Wobus, Martin Bornhäuser, Yixin Zhang
Combinatorial screening represents a promising strategy to discover biomaterials for tailored cell culture applications. Although libraries incorporating different biochemical cues have been investigated, few simultaneously recapitulate relevant biochemical, physical, and dynamic features of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, a noncovalent system based on liquid-liquid phase separation (coacervation) and gelation mediated by glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-peptide interactions is reported. Multiple biomaterial libraries are generated using combinations of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated peptides...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
Melissa A Clark, Sharina D Person, Anna Gosline, Atul A Gawande, Susan D Block
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on racial and ethnic differences in advance care planning other than advance directives among population-based samples of adults across the lifespan. METHODS: Using data from a statewide random-digit dial telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (n = 1851), we investigated racial and ethnic differences in (1) designation of a healthcare agent (HCA); and (2) communication of goals, values, and preferences for end-of-life care with healthcare providers, a HCA, or other family members and friends...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Christoph F Dietrich, Claudio Tana, Cosmin Caraiani, Yi Dong
Ultrasound is well accepted worldwide for imaging of the liver. Absences of radiation exposure, low cost and large diffusion are some of the advantages that make this technique the first to be used in the assessment of focal liver lesions (FLL). Areas covered: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been introduced more than twenty years ago, and its detection rate is comparable to that of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT). In this narrative review, we discuss the main CEUS features of benign liver lesions and controversies in published results including the gold standard chosen and the quality and knowledge of the preferred techniques...
April 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Patrick Jones, Grace Bennett, Alexios Dosis, Amelia Pietropaolo, Robert Geraghty, Omar Aboumarzouk, Andreas Skolarikos, Bhaskar K Somani
CONTEXT: Day case or ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has risen over the last few years with the aim of discharging patients within 24h. OBJECTIVE: We perform a systematic review of literature to evaluate the outcomes of day-case PCNL surgery. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Cochrane style search was performed and the following bibliographic databases were accessed: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. This was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
April 12, 2018: European Urology Focus
Christopher J D Wallis, Zachary Klaassen, Bimal Bhindi, Xiang Y Ye, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Ann M Farrell, Hanan Goldberg, Stephen A Boorjian, Bradley Leibovich, Girish S Kulkarni, Prakesh S Shah, Georg A Bjarnason, Daniel Heng, Raj Satkunasivam, Antonio Finelli
CONTEXT: In the last decade, there has been a proliferation of treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, direct comparative data are lacking for most of these agents. OBJECTIVE: To indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of systemic therapies used in the first-line treatment of mRCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched using the OvidSP platform for studies indexed from database inception to October 23, 2017...
April 13, 2018: European Urology
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