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Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Mika Hatada, Noya Loew, Yuka Inose-Takahashi, Junko Okuda-Shimazaki, Wakako Tsugawa, Ashok Mulchandani, Koji Sode
Enzyme based electrochemical biosensors are divided into three generations according to their type of electron transfer from the cofactors of the enzymes to the electrodes. Although the 3rd generation sensors using direct electron transfer (DET) type enzymes are ideal, the number of enzyme types which possess DET ability is limited. In this study, we report of a glucose sensor using mediator-modified glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), that was fabricated by a new quick-and-easy method using the pre-functionalized amine reactive phenazine ethosulfate (arPES)...
February 9, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Yanbin Feng, Yunxiu Zhang, Yayue Wang, Jiao Liu, Yinghui Liu, Xupeng Cao, Song Xue
Medium-chain fatty acids have attracted significant attention as sources of biofuels in recent years. Acyl-ACP thioesterase, which is considered as the key enzyme to determine the carbon chain length, catalyzes the termination of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Although recombinant medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) affects the fatty acid profile in heterologous cells, tailoring of the fatty acid composition merely by engineering a specific TE is still intractable. In this study, the activity of a C8-C10-specific thioesterase FatB2 from Cuphea hookeriana on C10-ACP was quantified twice as high as that on C8-ACP based on a synthetic C8-C16 acyl-ACP pool in vitro...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jesse Whitehead, Matt Roskruge, Colin Tan, Alistair Smith, Grant Christey
AIM: Pre-hospital triage strategies aim to identify the type and extent of patient injuries and ensure that they are transferred to the most appropriate trauma centres. Despite the importance of appropriate pre-hospital transport, there is little evidence base to assist medical staff on optimal destination policy for emergent pre-hospital transport. This paper explores the spatial relationship of patient transfers prior to the implementation of the Midland Pre-Hospital Trauma Destination Matrix in New Zealand, and is a retrospective view of practice against a destination policy that was applied after the study period...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Jenny H Conviser, Sheehan D Fisher, Susanna A McColley
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Z A Awan
The scattering characteristics of an electric line source radiating in the presence of a bi-isotropic coated circular cylindrical reflector have been investigated using numerical calculations. The analytic expressions of the electric and magnetic fields in the bi-isotropic coating and the background medium have been found using the wave-field decomposition approach. It is studied that a bi-isotropic coating enhances the gain in the forward direction as compared to chiral, Tellegen, and dielectric coatings. It is found that for a thin coating layer, the scattering gains in the forward direction for chiral and bi-isotropic coatings are almost the same...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Eliza Notaro, Nicole Fett, Michi M Shinohara
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to even physiologic doses of glucocorticoids can reduce one's bone mass and increase risk for osteoporotic fracture. There currently exists a wide variation in clinician approach to the assessment and management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Our objectives were to characterize Pacific Northwest dermatology providers' general practices, assessment of risk for GIO, and preferred GIO prophylaxis measures by way of survey. To identify whether knowledge deficits exist with respect to preventing and managing GIO in dermatology patients...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Nicole Kunkle
Subjective perceptions and self-administration of cigarettes are each influenced by nicotine. Yet, differences specifically due to menthol in perceptions and choice of cigarettes varying in nicotine, and the association between these responses, have not been directly tested. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, acute responses to each of two menthol or non-menthol Spectrum research cigarettes, moderate (16-17 mg/g) versus very low (0.4 mg/g) in nicotine contents, were compared following brief abstinence in adult smokers preferring menthol ( n=44) or non-menthol ( n=29) brands...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Rebecca Guest, Yvonne Tran, Bamini Gopinath, Ian D Cameron, Ashley Craig
BACKGROUND: Physical injury and psychological disorder following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is a public health concern. The objective of this research was to determine rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation, and to determine the capacity (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of two psychometric scales for estimating the presence of MDD and PTSD. METHODS: Participants included 109 adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation during 2015 to 2017, in Sydney, Australia...
February 21, 2018: BMC Psychology
Adriana Goyette, Jeff Crukley, Jason Galster
Purpose: Directional microphone systems are typically used to improve hearing aid users' understanding of speech in noise. However, directional microphones also increase internal hearing aid noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate how varying directional microphone bandwidth affected listening preference and speech-in-noise performance. Method: Ten participants with normal hearing and 10 participants with hearing impairment compared internal noise levels between hearing aid memories with 4 different microphone modes: omnidirectional, full directional, high-frequency directionality with directional processing above 900 Hz, and high-frequency directionality with directional processing above 2000 Hz...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Xiaoguang Tian, Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are systematically modulated by peripheral spatial cues, and these eye movements have been implicated in perceptual and motor performance changes in cueing tasks. However, an additional oculomotor factor that may also influence performance in these tasks, fixational eye position itself, has been largely neglected so far. Using precise eye tracking and real-time retinal-image stabilization, we carefully analyzed fixational eye position dynamics and related them to microsaccade generation during spatial cueing...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
A B Ozer, E Bolat, O L Erhan, M Kilinc, I Demirel, G Caglar Toprak
Context: Sugammadex has steroid-encapsulating effect. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess whether the clinical efficacy of sugammadex was altered by the administration of steroids. Setting and Design: Sixty patients between 18 and 60 years of age with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-IV and undergoing elective direct laryngoscopy/biopsy were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Patients were assigned to two groups based on the intraoperative steroid use: those who received steroid (Group S) and who did not (Group C)...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Theo G M Sandfort, Henny Bos, Vasu Reddy
Unlike studies conducted in Western countries, two studies among Black South African men who have sex with men (MSM) found no support for the association between gender nonconformity and mental distress, even though gender-nonconforming men experienced more discrimination and discrimination was associated with mental distress (Cook, Sandfort, Nel, & Rich, 2013; Sandfort, Bos, Knox, & Reddy, 2016). In Sandfort et al., gender nonconformity was assessed as a continuous variable, validated by comparing scores between a categorical assessment of gender presentation (masculine, feminine, no preference)...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Hironobu Ikehata, Toshio Mori, Thierry Douki, Jean Cadet, Masayuki Yamamoto
The amount of photolesions produced in DNA after exposure to physiological doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can be estimated with high sensitivity and at low cost through an immunological assay, ELISA, which, however, provides only a relative estimate that cannot be used for comparisons between different photolesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct (64PP) or for analysis of the genotoxicity of photolesions on a molecular basis. To solve this drawback of ELISA, we introduced a set of UVR-exposed, calibration DNA whose photolesion amounts were predetermined and estimated the absolute molecular amounts of CPDs and 64PPs produced in mouse skin exposed to UVC and UVB...
February 21, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Andrea Stojakovic, Magdalena Walczak, Przemysław E Cieślak, Aleksandra Trenk, Johan Sköld, Joanna Zajdel, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Camilla Karlsson, Annika Thorsell, Markus Heilig, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Tomasz Błasiak, David Engblom
The risk factors for developing alcohol addiction include impulsivity, high sensitivity to the rewarding action of ethanol, and low sensitivity to its sedative and intoxicating effects. Genetic variation in GABAA receptor subunits, including the ɣ2 subunit (Gabrg2), affects the risk for developing alcoholism. Alcohol directly potentiates GABAA receptors and activates the mesolimbic dopamine system. Here, we deleted Gabrg2 selectively in dopamine cells of adult mice. The deletion resulted in elevated firing of dopamine neurons and made them less sensitive to drugs acting at GABAA receptors...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jochen Menz, Tim Range, Johannes Trini, Uwe Ludewig, Benjamin Neuhäuser
Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana differ in their growth and development, but also vary dramatically in their nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE). The molecular basis for these differences has not been addressed yet. Experiments with five contrasting accessions grown in hydroponics at different levels of inorganic nitrogen confirmed low NUE of Col-0 and higher NUE in Tsu-0. At constant external nitrogen supply, higher NUE was based on nitrogen capture, rather than utilization of nitrogen for shoot biomass...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanfei Liu, Tonghu Xiao, Chenghuan Bao, Jifei Zhang, Xing Yang
This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD) as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF) process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS) method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties...
February 16, 2018: Membranes
Ashley M Sherp, Corey S Westfall, Sophie Alvarez, Joseph M Jez
Various phytohormones control plant growth and development and mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases are plant enzymes that typically conjugate amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or jasmonic acid (JA) to inactivate or activate these phytohormones, respectively; however, the physiological and biological roles of many of these enzymes remain unclear. Using a biochemical approach, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.15 (AtGH3.15) preferentially uses the acyl acid and auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the amino acid glutamine as substrates...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vincent Mirabet, Pawel Krupinski, Olivier Hamant, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson, Arezki Boudaoud
Many cell functions rely on the ability of microtubules to self-organize as complex networks. In plants, cortical microtubules are essential to determine cell shape as they guide the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, and thus control mechanical anisotropy of the cell wall. Here we analyze how, in turn, cell shape may influence microtubule behavior. Buidling upon previous models that confined microtubules to the cell surface, we introduce an agent model of microtubules enclosed in a three-dimensional volume...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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