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human movement analysis

Firas Chakroun, Vera Colombo, Dave Lie Sam Foek, Luigi Maria Gallo, Albert Feilzer, Mutlu Özcan
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior tooth movement without and with bonded fixed orthodontic retainers under incremental loading conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six extracted mandibular anterior human teeth were embedded in acrylic resin in True Form I Arch type and 3D reconstruction of Digital Volume Tomography (DVT) images (0.4 mm3 voxels) were obtained. The anatomy of each tooth was segmented and digitally reconstructed using 3D visualization software for medical images (AMIRA, FEI SVG)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ângela Carvalho, Tiago Esteves, Pedro Quelhas, Fernando Jorge Monteiro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Surface topography of biomaterials has been shown to have an effect on cells behaviour. Cell-material interactions can be visually characterized by assessing both cell shape and spreading at initial time-points and, its migration patterns, as a response to the underlying topography. Whilst many have reported the study of cell migration and shape with fluorescence labelling, the focus on evaluating cells response to surface topography is to observe, under real-time conditions, interactions between cells and surfaces...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Atsushi Shiozaki, Shoichiro Hikami, Daisuke Ichikawa, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Hiroki Shimizu, Michihiro Kudou, Yuzo Yamazato, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Katsutoshi Shoda, Tomohiro Arita, Hirotaka Konishi, Shuhei Komatsu, Takeshi Kubota, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Kazuma Okamoto, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Eiichi Konishi, Yoshinori Marunaka, Eigo Otsuji
Background: Recent studies have reported essential roles for various intracellular pH regulators in epithelial carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The aims of the present study were to investigate the role of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) in the regulation of tumor progression-related genes and the prognostic value of its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results: AE2 was strongly expressed in KYSE170 and TE13 cells. The depletion of AE2 in these cells increased cell migration and inhibited the induction of apoptosis...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Michelle Sinclair, Clive Julian Christie Phillips
Animal welfare is an increasingly global initiative, which makes the intricate business of operating across borders of particular relevance to the movement. There is, however, a distinct absence of literature dedicated to investigating operational strategies that are more likely to result in the success of international animal welfare initiatives. In addition to this, opportunities exist to investigate the human aspects of animal welfare, parallel to the growing field of animal-based science. This study aimed to begin addressing these gaps by conducting semi structured interviews with 15 leaders of some of the largest international animal welfare charities...
June 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Giuseppina Rizzo, Demetrio Milardi, Salvatore Bertino, Gianpaolo Antonio Basile, Debora Di Mauro, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Giuseppe Silvestri, Giuseppe Anastasi, Alessia Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola
The amygdala plays a key role in gathering social cues to context-appropriate responses that require refined motor behaviour, involving either direct or indirect connections with sensorimotor-related areas. Although, several studies investigated the structural and functional limbic connectivity of the amygdala both in animals and in humans, less is known about the limbic modulation on sensorimotor-related areas. However, recent evidences suggest the amygdala as a possible cornerstone in the limbic-motor interface...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Vishwesh Nath, Kurt G Schilling, Allison E Hainline, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Justin A Blaber, Ilwoo Lyu, Adam W Anderson, Hakmook Kang, Allen T Newton, Baxter P Rogers, Bennett A Landman
High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) models are used to capture complex intra-voxel microarchitectures. The magnetic resonance imaging sequences that are sensitized to diffusion are often highly accelerated and prone to motion, physiologic, and imaging artifacts. In diffusion tensor imaging, robust statistical approaches have been shown to greatly reduce these adverse factors without human intervention. Similar approaches would be possible with HARDI methods, but robust versions of each distinct HARDI approach would be necessary...
March 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Jaehoon Kim, John E A Bertram
BACKGROUND: Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. RESEARCH QUESTION: To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases...
May 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Oleg O Sherstiuk, Volodymyr H Hryn, Nataliia I Vynnyk, Andriy V Piliuhin, Mykhailo M Koptev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The human prostate gland contains numerous tubular masses of different calibers in its parenchyma. They form the tubuloalveolar prostate glandules, constituting from numerous prostatic excretory ductules as well as major excretory ducts. The aim: The study was aimed at 3D visualization of individual microelements of the tubuloalveolar aggregations, localized within the peripheral area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To meet the objectives of the study a series of paraffin plane-parallel 4 μm sections has been obtained in the peripheral prostate area...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Gustavo Balbinot, Clarissa Pedrini Schuch, Matthew S Jeffers, Matthew W McDonald, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Dale Corbett
A coordinated pattern of multi-muscle activation is essential to produce efficient reaching trajectories. Disruption of these coordinated activation patterns, termed synergies, is evident following stroke and results in reaching deficits; however, preclinical investigation of this phenomenon has been largely ignored. Furthermore, traditional outcome measures of post-stroke performance seldom distinguish between impairment restitution and compensatory movement strategies. We sought to address this by using kinematic analysis to characterize reaching movements and kinematic synergies of rats performing the Montoya staircase task, before and after ischemic stroke...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
As the increasing body of scientific information about the experiences of other species and their ability to suffer becomes available to those working within the field of animal welfare, the amount of potential issues to address also increases. Carefully choosing issues to address, and indeed leaders to drive the cause forward, has the potential to significantly increase the efficacy of the international animal welfare movement. Within this study 15 leaders of major international animal welfare organizations were interviewed about their experiences, thoughts and strategies, which have been primarily acquired through long-term exposure to the movement, and endeavors of trial and error...
June 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Lisa Nonaka, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Fumito Maruyama, Yuu Hirose, Yuki Onishi, Takeshi Kobayashi, Satoru Suzuki, Nobuhiko Nomura, Michiaki Masuda, Hirokazu Yano
The capture of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) plays a critical role in resistance acquisition for human-associated bacteria. Although aquaculture environments are recognized as important reservoirs of ARGs, intra- and intercellular mobility of MGEs discovered in marine organisms is poorly characterized. Here, we show a new pattern of interspecies ARGs transfer involving a 'non-conjugative' integrative element. To identify active MGEs in a Vibrio ponticus isolate, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of a transconjugant obtained by mating between Escherichia coli and Vibrio ponticus...
2018: PloS One
Lukas Anschuetz, Livio Presutti, Daniel Schneider, Abraam Yacoub, Wilhelm Wimmer, Juergen Beck, Stefan Weber, Marco Caversaccio
HYPOTHESIS: We aim to provide objective data regarding the area of exposure (AOE) and the surgical freedom (SF) offered by the transcanal approaches to the lateral skull base. BACKGROUND: Minimal-invasive transcanal lateral skull base procedures have been recently developed and their clinical feasibility demonstrated. The reduced access size requires careful analysis and selection of suitable cases, qualifying for a minimal-invasive approach. METHODS: We performed the mentioned approaches in standardized dissection using human whole heads...
June 6, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Marco Mercuri, Yao-Hong Liu, Ilde Lorato, Tom Torfs, Fokko Wieringa, Andre Bourdoux, Chris Van Hoof
A continuous wave Doppler radar, operating as a phase-locked-loop in phase demodulator configuration, is proposed and in vivo demonstrated for noncontact vital signs monitoring. The radar architecture exhibits a unique precision in tracking the phase modulation caused by human cardiopulmonary activity from which heartbeat and respiration can simultaneously be extracted. The single mixer architecture is immune to the null point and does not require small-angle approximation conditions, which distinguishes it from pre-existing other approaches...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jeffy Ann Jose, Sanju Somaiah, Sunil Muddaiah, Balakrishna Shetty, Goutham Reddy, S Roopa
Background and Objectives: Orthodontic forces are known to produce mechanical damage and inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins (PGs) and interleukin (IL)-1, in the periodontium and dental pulp. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a stimulator of the on-going biological process in tissue and found to be effective in modulating cell activity, which is involved in orthodontic tooth movement. Here, a humble effort has been made to study two such cytokines, namely IL-1 β and PG E2 (PGE2) which are partially responsible for bone turnover...
April 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Michal Izrael, Shalom Guy Slutsky, Tamar Admoni, Louisa Cohen, Avital Granit, Arik Hasson, Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, Lena Krush Paker, Graciela Kuperstein, Neta Lavon, Shiran Yehezkel Ionescu, Leonardo Javier Solmesky, Rachel Zaguri, Alina Zhuravlev, Ella Volman, Judith Chebath, Michel Revel
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron (MN) disease characterized by the loss of MNs in the central nervous system. As MNs die, patients progressively lose their ability to control voluntary movements, become paralyzed and eventually die from respiratory/deglutition failure. Despite the selective MN death in ALS, there is growing evidence that malfunctional astrocytes play a crucial role in disease progression. Thus, transplantation of healthy astrocytes may compensate for the diseased astrocytes...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Barak Hermesh, Anat Rosenthal, Nadav Davidovitch
One Health, as an international movement and as a research methodology, aspires to cross boundaries between disciplines. However, One Health has also been viewed as "reductionist" due to its overemphasize on physicians-veterinarians cooperation and surveillance capacity enhancement, while limiting the involvement with socio-political preconditioning factors that shape the impact of diseases, and the ethical questions that eventually structure interventions. The current article draws on a qualitative study of Brucellosis control in Israel, to address the benefits of broadening the One Health perspective to include ethical considerations and the socio-political aspects of health...
June 5, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Steffi L Colyer, Murray Evans, Darren P Cosker, Aki I T Salo
BACKGROUND: The study of human movement within sports biomechanics and rehabilitation settings has made considerable progress over recent decades. However, developing a motion analysis system that collects accurate kinematic data in a timely, unobtrusive and externally valid manner remains an open challenge. MAIN BODY: This narrative review considers the evolution of methods for extracting kinematic information from images, observing how technology has progressed from laborious manual approaches to optoelectronic marker-based systems...
June 5, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, John R Hutchinson
Mice are often used as animal models of various human neuromuscular diseases, and analysis of these models often requires detailed gait analysis. However, little is known of the dynamics of the mouse musculoskeletal system during locomotion. In this study, we used computer optimization procedures to create a simulation of trotting in a mouse, using a previously developed mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model in conjunction with new experimental data, allowing muscle forces, activation patterns, and levels of mechanical work to be estimated...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
The investigation of the human oculomotor system by eye movement recordings provides an approach to behavior and its alterations in disease. The neurodegenerative process underlying parkinsonian syndromes, including Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multisystem atrophy (MSA) changes structural and functional brain organization, and thus affects eye movement control in a characteristic manner. Video-oculography has been established as a non-invasive recording device for eye movements, and systematic investigations of eye movement control in a clinical framework have emerged as a functional diagnostic tool in neurodegenerative parkinsonism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
F A Jure, F G Arguissain, J A Biurrun Manresa, O K Andersen
Aims Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a paradigm employed to assess descending control of spinal nociception. Previous studies have shown that CPM affects the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) threshold (RTh), typically assessed in one muscle. However, the NWR activates not one but a group of synergistic muscles, which are recruited by common neural commands to achieve the limb withdrawal. In this regard, synergy analysis can provide the minimum coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation balances that describe a movement...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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