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human movement analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687240/simultaneous-assessment-of-cognitive-function-circadian-rhythm-and-spontaneous-activity-in-aging-mice
#1
Sreemathi Logan, Daniel Owen, Sixia Chen, Wei-Jen Chen, Zoltan Ungvari, Julie Farley, Anna Csiszar, Amanda Sharpe, Maarten Loos, Bastijn Koopmans, Arlan Richardson, William E Sonntag
Cognitive function declines substantially with age in both humans and animal models. In humans, this decline is associated with decreases in independence and quality of life. Although the methodology for analysis of cognitive function in human models is relatively well established, similar analyses in animal models have many technical issues (e.g., unintended experimenter bias, motivational issues, stress, and testing during the light phase of the light dark cycle) that limit interpretation of the results. These caveats, and others, potentially bias the interpretation of studies in rodents and prevent the application of current tests of learning and memory as part of an overall healthspan assessment in rodent models of aging...
April 24, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683373/gesture-segmentation-and-classification-using-affine-speed-and-energy
#2
Jenny Cifuentes, Minh Tu Pham, Pierre Boulanger, Richard Moreau, Flavio Prieto
The characterization and analysis of hand gestures are challenging tasks with an important number of applications in human-computer interaction, machine vision and control, and medical gesture recognition. Specifically, several researchers have tried to develop objective evaluation methods of surgical skills for medical training. As a result, the adequate selection and extraction of similarities and differences between experts and novices have become an important challenge in this area. In particular, some of these works have shown that human movements performed during surgery can be described as a sequence of constant affine-speed trajectories...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682095/brain-responses-underlying-anthropomorphism-agency-and-social-attribution-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Carla J Ammons, Constance F Doss, David Bala, Rajesh K Kana
Background: Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, is frequently impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and may result from altered activation of social brain regions. Conversely, Typically Developing (TD) individuals overextend ToM and show a strong tendency to anthropomorphize and interpret biological motion in the environment. Less is known about how the degree of anthropomorphism influences intentional attribution and engagement of the social brain in ASD...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678977/minimizing-icu-neurological-dysfunction-with-dexmedetomidine-induced-sleep-mindds-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-arm-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Kenneth T Shelton, Jason Qu, Federico Bilotta, Emery N Brown, Gaston Cudemus, David A D'Alessandro, Hao Deng, Alan DiBiasio, Jacob A Gitlin, Eunice Y Hahm, Lauren E Hobbs, Timothy T Houle, Reine Ibala, Marco Loggia, Kara J Pavone, Shahzad Shaefi, George Tolis, M Brandon Westover, Oluwaseun Akeju
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. However, basic science and clinical studies suggest that sleep disturbance may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of delirium. Dexmedetomidine is a α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist medication that patterns the activity of various arousal nuclei similar to sleep...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674949/effect-of-different-movement-speed-modes-on-human-action-observation-an-eeg-study
#5
Tian-Jian Luo, Jitu Lv, Fei Chao, Changle Zhou
Action observation (AO) generates event-related desynchronization (ERD) suppressions in the human brain by activating partial regions of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). The activation of the hMNS response to AO remains controversial for several reasons. Therefore, this study investigated the activation of the hMNS response to a speed factor of AO by controlling the movement speed modes of a humanoid robot's arm movements. Since hMNS activation is reflected by ERD suppressions, electroencephalography (EEG) with BCI analysis methods for ERD suppressions were used as the recording and analysis modalities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673385/risk-based-inspection-as-a-cost-effective-strategy-to-reduce-human-exposure-to-cysticerci-of-taenia-saginata-in-low-prevalence-settings
#6
Bhagyalakshmi Chengat Prakashbabu, Laura Rebecca Marshall, Matteo Crotta, William Gilbert, Jade Cherry Johnson, Lis Alban, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata cysticercus is the larval stage of the zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata, with a life-cycle involving both cattle and humans. The public health impact is considered low. The current surveillance system, based on post-mortem inspection of carcasses has low sensitivity and leads to considerable economic burden. Therefore, in the interests of public health and food production efficiency, this study aims to explore the potential of risk-based and cost-effective meat inspection activities for the detection and control of T...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671936/influence-of-human-parathyroid-hormone-during-orthodontic-tooth-movement-and-relapse-in-the-osteoporotic-rat-model-a-preliminary-study
#7
H S Lee, H A Heo, S H Park, W Lee, S W Pyo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on tooth movement in ovariectomized (OVX) rats by comparing the tooth movement distance and relapse and by examining the alveolar bone microstructure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty 8-week-old female rats were classified into 3 groups: sham-operated, OVX and ovariectomized rats injected with PTH (PTH). Eight weeks later, a closed-coil spring appliance was placed between the maxillary incisor and the first molar and then activated with 50 cN of force...
April 19, 2018: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668379/predictability-force-and-anti-resonance-in-complex-object-control
#8
Pauline Maurice, Neville Hogan, Dagmar Sternad
Manipulation of complex objects as in tool use is ubiquitous and has given humans an evolutionary advantage. This study examined the strategies humans choose when manipulating an object with underactuated internal dynamics, such as a cup of coffee. The object's dynamics renders the temporal evolution complex, possibly even chaotic, and difficult to predict. A cart-and-pendulum model, loosely mimicking coffee sloshing in a cup, was implemented in a virtual environment with a haptic interface. Participants rhythmically manipulated the virtual cup containing a rolling ball; they could choose the oscillation frequency, while the amplitude was prescribed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660716/high-time-resolution-simulation-of-e-coli-on-hands-reveals-large-variation-in-microbial-exposures-amongst-vietnamese-farmers-using-human-excreta-for-agriculture
#9
Timothy R Julian, Hasitha S K Vithanage, Min Li Chua, Matasaka Kuroda, Ana K Pitol, Pham Hong Lien Nguyen, Robert A Canales, Shigeo Fujii, Hidenori Harada
Infectious disease transmission is frequently mediated by the environment, where people's movements through and interactions with the environment dictate risks of infection and/or illness. Capturing these interactions, and quantifying their importance, offers important insights into effective interventions. In this study, we capture high time-resolution activity data for twenty-five Vietnamese farmers during collection and land application of human excreta for agriculture. Although human excreta use improves productivity, the use increases risks of enteric infections for both farmers and end users...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660652/cross-talk-connections-underlying-dorsal-and-ventral-stream-integration-during-hand-actions
#10
Sanja Budisavljevic, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Umberto Castiello
According to the dual-stream theory, the processing of visual information is divided into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway supporting visuomotor control. Increasing evidence suggests that these streams are not independent, but where this dorsal-ventral stream integration occurs remains unknown. We explored the candidate white matter pathways linking dorsal and ventral visual streams in 30 right-handed participants performing object-oriented hand movements of varying complexity (reaching, grasping and lifting), using advanced diffusion imaging tractography based on the spherical deconvolution and kinematical analysis...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#11
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651747/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-improves-motor-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Alexandra Isabel Rosa, Sara Duarte-Silva, Anabela Silva-Fernandes, Maria João Nunes, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Elsa Rodrigues, Maria João Gama, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues, Patrícia Maciel, Margarida Castro-Caldas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by severe motor symptoms, and currently there is no treatment that retards disease progression or reverses damage prior to the time of clinical diagnosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD; however, its effect in PD motor symptoms has never been addressed. In the present work, an extensive behavior analysis was performed to better characterize the MPTP model of PD and to evaluate the effects of TUDCA in the prevention/improvement of mice phenotype...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623476/transcription-and-microrna-profiling-of-cultured-human-tympanic-membrane-epidermal-keratinocytes
#13
Peder Aabel, Tor Paaske Utheim, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Helge Rask-Andersen, Rodney James Dilley, Magnus von Unge
The human tympanic membrane (TM) has a thin outer epidermal layer which plays an important role in TM homeostasis and ear health. The specialised cells of the TM epidermis have a different physiology compared to normal skin epidermal keratinocytes, displaying a dynamic and constitutive migration that maintains a clear TM surface and assists in regeneration. Here, we characterise and compare molecular phenotypes in keratinocyte cultures from TM and normal skin. TM keratinocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620406/visual-scanning-of-the-eye-region-of-human-faces-predicts-emotion-recognition-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has consistently shown that the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to examine whether people with the gene expansion for HD visually scan the most emotionally informative features of human faces less than unaffected individuals, and whether altered visual scanning predicts emotion recognition in HD beyond general disease-related decline. METHOD: We recorded eye movements of 25 participants either in the late premanifest or early stage of HD and 25 age-matched healthy control participants during a face-viewing task...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617754/effects-of-adult-feeding-and-overwintering-conditions-on-energy-reserves-and-flight-performance-of-emerald-ash-borer-coleoptera-buprestidae
#15
Dylan A Tussey, Brian H Aukema, Anthony M Charvoz, Robert C Venette
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606092/rna-seq-analysis-validates-the-use-of-culture-derived-trypanosoma-brucei-and-provides-new-markers-for-mammalian-and-insect-life-cycle-stages
#16
Arunasalam Naguleswaran, Nicholas Doiron, Isabel Roditi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the parasite causing Nagana in domestic animals, is closely related to the parasites causing sleeping sickness, but does not infect humans. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, the relative ease of genetic manipulation and an innate capacity for RNAi extend its use as a model organism in cell and infection biology. During its development in its mammalian and insect (tsetse fly) hosts, T. b. brucei passes through several different life-cycle stages...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605981/axial-movements-and-length-changes-of-the-human-lower-esophageal-sphincter-during-respiration-and-distension-induced-secondary-peristalsis-using-functional-luminal-imaging-probe
#17
Donghua Liao, Christian Lottrup, Lotte Fynne, Barry P McMahon, Klaus Krogh, Asbjørn M Drewes, Jingbo Zhao, Hans Gregersen
Background/Aims: Efficient transport through the esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) requires synchronized circular and longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus including relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). However, there is a scarcity of technology for measuring esophagus movements in the longitudinal (axial) direction. The aim of this study is to develop new analytical tools for dynamic evaluation of the length change and axial movement of the human LES based on the functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) technology and to present normal signatures for the selected parameters...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602930/stereomorphology-of-the-glandular-parenchyma-of-the-inferoposterolateral-area-of-human-prostate-gland
#18
Oleg O Sherstiuk, Volodymyr H Hryn, Nataliia I Vynnyk, Andriy V Piliuhin, Mykhailo M Koptev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The human prostate gland contains numerous tubular masses of different calibers in its parenchyma. They form the tubuloalveolar prostate glandules, constituting from numerous prostatic excretory ductules as well as major excretory ducts. The aim: The study was aimed at 3D visualization of individual microelements of the tubuloalveolar aggregations, localized within the peripheral area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To meet the objectives of the study a series of paraffin plane-parallel 4 μm sections has been obtained in the peripheral prostate area...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602475/concurrent-validation-of-an-inertial-measurement-system-to-quantify-kicking-biomechanics-in-four-football-codes
#19
Stephanie Blair, Grant Duthie, Sam Robertson, William Hopkins, Kevin Ball
Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596394/real-time-processing-library-for-open-source-hardware-biomedical-sensors
#20
Alberto J Molina-Cantero, Juan A Castro-García, Clara Lebrato-Vázquez, Isabel M Gómez-González, Manuel Merino-Monge
Applications involving data acquisition from sensors need samples at a preset frequency rate, the filtering out of noise and/or analysis of certain frequency components. We propose a novel software architecture based on open-software hardware platforms which allows programmers to create data streams from input channels and easily implement filters and frequency analysis objects. The performances of the different classes given in the size of memory allocated and execution time (number of clock cycles) were analyzed in the low-cost platform Arduino Genuino...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
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