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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906130/human-movement-responses-to-the-rorschach-and-mirroring-activity-an-fmri-study
#1
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Jaime A Pineda, Piero Porcelli, David Hubbard, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
It has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#2
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900188/decoding-finger-movement-in-humans-using-synergy-of-eeg-cortical-current-signals
#3
Natsue Yoshimura, Hayato Tsuda, Toshihiro Kawase, Hiroyuki Kambara, Yasuharu Koike
The synchronized activity of neuronal populations across multiple distant brain areas may reflect coordinated interactions of large-scale brain networks. Currently, there is no established method to investigate the temporal transitions between these large-scale networks that would allow, for example, to decode finger movements. Here we applied a matrix factorization method employing principal component and temporal independent component analyses to identify brain activity synchronizations. In accordance with previous studies investigating "muscle synergies", we refer to this activity as "brain activity synergy"...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900155/inflexible-neurobiological-signatures-precede-atypical-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#4
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao
Variability in neurobiological signatures is ubiquitous in early life but the link to adverse developmental milestones in humans is unknown. We examined how levels of signal and noise in movement signatures during the 1st year of life constrain early development in 71 healthy typically developing infants, either at High or Low familial Risk (HR or LR, respectively) for developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Delays in early learning developmental trajectories in HR infants (validated in an analysis of 1,445 infants from representative infant-sibling studies) were predicted by worse stochastic patterns in their spontaneous head movements as early as 1-2 months after birth, relative to HR infants who showed more rapid developmental progress, as well as relative to all LR infants...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895128/transitional-justice-as-social-control-political-transitions-human-rights-norms-and-the-reclassification-of-the-past
#5
Ron Dudai
This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895021/k-band-doppler-radar-for-contact-less-overnight-sleep-marker-assessment-a-pilot-validation-study
#6
Rakesh Vasireddy, Corinne Roth, Johannes Mathis, Josef Goette, Marcel Jacomet, Andreas Vogt
An estimated 45 million persons in Europe are annually subjected to sleep-wake disorders. State-of-the-art polysomnography provides sophisticated insights into sleep (patho)physiology. A drawback of the method, however, is the obtrusive setting dependent on a clinical-based sleep laboratory with high operational costs. A contact-less prototype was developed to monitor limb movements and vital signs during sleep. A dual channel K-band Doppler radar transceiver captured limb movements and periodic chest wall motion due to respiration and heart activity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894859/changes-in-dynamics-of-%C3%AE-chymotrypsin-due-to-covalent-inhibitors-investigated-by-elastic-incoherent-neutron-scattering
#7
C D Andersson, N Martinez, D Zeller, S H Rondahl, M M Koza, B Frick, F Ekström, J Peters, A Linusson
An essential role of enzymes is to catalyze various chemical reactions in the human body and inhibition of the enzymatic activity by small molecules is the mechanism of action of many drugs or tool compounds used to study biological processes. Here, we investigate the effect on the dynamics of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin when in complex with two different covalently bound inhibitors using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The results show that the inhibited enzyme displays enhanced dynamics compared to the free form...
September 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894158/biophysical-characterisation-of-the-novel-zinc-binding-property-in-suppressor-of-fused
#8
Amira Jabrani, Staëlle Makamte, Emilie Moreau, Yasmine Gharbi, Anne Plessis, Lucia Bruzzone, Matthieu Sanial, Valérie Biou
Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) is a highly conserved protein that acts as a negative regulator of the Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway, a major determinant of cell differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, SUFU deletion in mammals has devastating effects on embryo development. SUFU is part of a multi-protein cytoplasmic signal-transducing complex. Its partners include the Gli family of transcription factors that function either as repressors, or as transcription activators according to the HH activation state...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884021/genomic-epidemiology-of-a-national-outbreak-of-post-surgical-mycobacterium-abscessus-wound-infections-in-brazil
#9
Izzy Everall, Christiane Lourenço Nogueira, Josephine M Bryant, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Erica Chimara, Rafael da Silva Duarte, Jesus Pais Ramos, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Maria Luíza Lopes, Moises Palaci, Andre Kipnis, Fernanda Monego, R Andres Floto, Julian Parkhill, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Simon R Harris
An epidemic of post-surgical wound infections, caused by a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been on-going in Brazil. It has been unclear whether one or multiple lineages are responsible and whether their wide geographical distribution across Brazil is due to spread from a single point source or is the result of human-mediated transmission. 188 isolates, collected from nine Brazilian states, were whole genome sequenced and analysed using phylogenetic and comparative genomic approaches. The isolates from Brazil formed a single clade, which was estimated to have emerged in 2003...
May 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882707/functional-connectivity-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-an-observational-study
#10
Michael Peer, Harald Prüss, Inbal Ben-Dayan, Friedemann Paul, Shahar Arzy, Carsten Finke
BACKGROUND: In anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, antibody-mediated dysfunction of NMDARs causes severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, including psychosis, memory deficits, and movement disorders. However, it remains elusive how antibody-mediated NMDAR dysfunction leads to these symptoms, and whether the symptoms arise from impairment in specific brain regions and the interactions between impaired regions. METHODS: In this observational study, we recruited 43 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis from a tertiary university hospital and 43 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls without a history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, who were recruited from the general population of Berlin...
September 4, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882509/clinical-benefits-of-joint-mobilisation-on-ankle-sprains-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Ishanka Weerasekara, Peter Osmotherly, Suzanne Snodgrass, Jodie Marquez, Rutger de Zoete, Darren A Rivett
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical benefits of joint mobilisation on ankle sprains. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, Embase, AMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane library, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Dissertations and Thesis were searched from inception to June, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Studies investigating humans with a grade I or II lateral or medial sprains of the ankle in any pathological state from acute to chronic, who had been treated with joint mobilisation were considered for inclusion...
September 4, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878126/endothelium-derived-extracellular-vesicles-promote-splenic-monocyte-mobilization-in-myocardial-infarction
#12
Naveed Akbar, Janet E Digby, Thomas J Cahill, Abhijeet N Tavare, Alastair L Corbin, Sushant Saluja, Sam Dawkins, Laurienne Edgar, Nadiia Rawlings, Klemen Ziberna, Eileen McNeill, Errin Johnson, Alaa A Aljabali, Rebecca A Dragovic, Mala Rohling, T Grant Belgard, Irina A Udalova, David R Greaves, Keith M Channon, Paul R Riley, Daniel C Anthony, Robin P Choudhury
Transcriptionally activated monocytes are recruited to the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After AMI in mice and humans, the number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) increased acutely. In humans, EV number correlated closely with the extent of myocardial injury. We hypothesized that EVs mediate splenic monocyte mobilization and program transcription following AMI. Some plasma EVs bear endothelial cell (EC) integrins, and both proinflammatory stimulation of ECs and AMI significantly increased VCAM-1-positive EV release...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874673/comparison-of-musculoskeletal-networks-of-the-primate-forelimb
#13
Julia Molnar, Borja Esteve-Altava, Campbell Rolian, Rui Diogo
Anatomical network analysis is a framework for quantitatively characterizing the topological organization of anatomical structures, thus providing a way to compare structural integration and modularity among species. Here we apply this approach to study the macroevolution of the forelimb in primates, a structure whose proportions and functions vary widely within this group. We analyzed musculoskeletal network models in 22 genera, including members of all major extant primate groups and three outgroup taxa, after an extensive literature survey and dissections...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873876/inertial-measurement-techniques-for-human-joints-movement-analysis
#14
Harriet Nwaizu, Reza Saatchi, Derek Burke
Development and assessment of techniques that allow inertia measurement units consisting of an accelerometer and a gyroscope to be used for monitoring human joints' movements are presented. A new wavelet packet decomposition technique was developed that denoised the accelerometer signals. Investigations on the use of accelerometers to analyse legs' movements are described.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869631/the-upper-limb-motion-deviation-index-a-new-comprehensive-index-of-upper-limb-motion-pathology
#15
Jacek Jurkojć, Piotr Wodarski, Robert Michnik, Katarzyna Nowakowska, Andrzej Bieniek, Marek Gzik
PURPOSE: The aim of the research was to formulate a new index enabling assessment of the overall pathology of the upper limb movement. It defines the difference between the pathological movement and a normal movement pattern. METHODS: Methodology of determining the index is based on a mathematical algorithm for calculating the Gait Deviation Index which is based on advanced methods of image comparison. To calculate the ULMDI index, one must divide the analyzed movement into cycles appropriate to the nature of the movement (similarly in gait it is the gait cycle) and then determine kinematic quantities (courses of joint angles)...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868616/kinematic-evaluation-of-penetration-and-aspiration-in-laryngeal-elevating-and-descending-periods
#16
Hideyuki Kiyohara, Kazuo Adachi, Yoshikazu Kikuchi, Ryutaro Uchi, Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Takashi Nakagawa
OBJECTIVES: It is important to evaluate swallowing movements by dividing them into periods of laryngeal closure and release. The purpose of this study was to evaluate penetration-aspiration (PA) according to human pathophysiology and to identify the factors for predicting PA. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with complaints of dysphagia caused by various etiologies were enrolled in this study. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were conducted, and the spatial and temporal factors were analyzed by computer-assisted motion analysis...
September 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858614/closed-loop-real-time-imaging-enables-fully-automated-cell-targeted-patch-clamp-neural-recording-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Ho-Jun Suk, Ingrid van Welie, Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Brian Allen, Craig R Forest, Edward S Boyden
Targeted patch-clamp recording is a powerful method for characterizing visually identified cells in intact neural circuits, but it requires skill to perform. We previously developed an algorithm that automates "blind" patching in vivo, but full automation of visually guided, targeted in vivo patching has not been demonstrated, with currently available approaches requiring human intervention to compensate for cell movement as a patch pipette approaches a targeted neuron. Here we present a closed-loop real-time imaging strategy that automatically compensates for cell movement by tracking cell position and adjusting pipette motion while approaching a target...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858313/human-ips-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-function-in-a-primate-parkinson-s-disease-model
#18
Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Asuka Morizane, Daisuke Doi, Hiroaki Magotani, Hirotaka Onoe, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Mizuma, Sayuki Takara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue, Satoshi Morita, Michio Yamamoto, Keisuke Okita, Masato Nakagawa, Malin Parmar, Jun Takahashi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are a promising source for a cell-based therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons progressively degenerate. However, long-term analysis of human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in primate PD models has never been performed to our knowledge. Here we show that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells survived and functioned as midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a primate model of PD (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the neurotoxin MPTP...
August 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857454/anatomy-education-in-occupational-therapy-curricula-perspectives-of-practitioners-in-the-united-states
#19
Katherine A Schofield
The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice...
August 30, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854585/sperm-chemorepulsion-a-supplementary-mechanism-to-regulate-fertilization
#20
H A Guidobaldi, M Cubilla, A Moreno, M V Molino, L Bahamondes, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? SUMMARY ANSWER: Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
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