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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434862/consequences-of-the-oculomotor-cycle-for-the-dynamics-of-perception
#1
Marco Boi, Martina Poletti, Jonathan D Victor, Michele Rucci
Much evidence indicates that humans and other species process large-scale visual information before fine spatial detail. Neurophysiological data obtained with paralyzed eyes suggest that this coarse-to-fine sequence results from spatiotemporal filtering by neurons in the early visual pathway. However, the eyes are normally never stationary: rapid gaze shifts (saccades) incessantly alternate with slow fixational movements. To investigate the consequences of this oculomotor cycle on the dynamics of perception, we combined spectral analysis of visual input signals, neural modeling, and gaze-contingent control of retinal stimulation in humans...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#2
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416669/coding-of-navigational-affordances-in-the-human-visual-system
#3
Michael F Bonner, Russell A Epstein
A central component of spatial navigation is determining where one can and cannot go in the immediate environment. We used fMRI to test the hypothesis that the human visual system solves this problem by automatically identifying the navigational affordances of the local scene. Multivoxel pattern analyses showed that a scene-selective region of dorsal occipitoparietal cortex, known as the occipital place area, represents pathways for movement in scenes in a manner that is tolerant to variability in other visual features...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412692/review-research-on-the-physical-training-model-of-human-body-based-on-hq
#4
Liu Junjie
Health quotient (HQ) is the newest health culture and concept in the 21st century, and the analysis of the human body sports model is not enough mature at present, what's more, the purpose of this paper is to study the integration of the two subjects the health quotient and the sport model. This paper draws the conclusion that physical training and education in colleges and universities can improve the health quotient, and it will make students possess a more healthy body and mind. Then through a new rigid body model of sports to simulate the human physical exercise...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412556/synchronized-movement-experience-enhances-peer-cooperation-in-preschool-children
#5
Tal-Chen Rabinowitch, Andrew N Meltzoff
Cooperating with other people is a key achievement in child development and is essential for human culture. We examined whether we could induce 4-year-old children to increase their cooperation with an unfamiliar peer by providing the peers with synchronized motion experience prior to the tasks. Children were randomly assigned to independent treatment and control groups. The treatment of synchronous motion caused children to enhance their cooperation, as measured by the speed of joint task completion, compared with control groups that underwent asynchronous motion or no motion at all...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411657/-suicide-in-france-a-situational-analysis
#6
Françoise Facy
The fall in the number of suicides in France in no way diminishes the urgent need to act and reinforce the efforts, initiatives and resources to fight against this human tragedy. Public policies are starting to show results. The action of the French national suicide watch, associations, health professionals as well as the perspectives of the French national mental health council should amplify this movement.
April 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410388/tiger-on-the-prowl-invasion-history-and-spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-in-the-indo-pacific
#7
Andrew J Maynard, Luke Ambrose, Robert D Cooper, Weng K Chow, Joseph B Davis, Mutizwa O Muzari, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jeomhee M Hasty, Thomas R Burkot, Michael J Bangs, Lisa J Reimer, Charles Butafa, Neil F Lobo, Din Syafruddin, Yan Naung Maung Maung, Rohani Ahmad, Nigel W Beebe
BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409730/chronic-multisite-brain-recordings-from-a-totally-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-experience-in-5-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Salman Qasim, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Sarah S Wang, Nathan Ziman, Robin Taylor, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE Dysfunction of distributed neural networks underlies many brain disorders. The development of neuromodulation therapies depends on a better understanding of these networks. Invasive human brain recordings have a favorable temporal and spatial resolution for the analysis of network phenomena but have generally been limited to acute intraoperative recording or short-term recording through temporarily externalized leads. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with an investigational, first-generation, totally implantable, bidirectional neural interface that allows both continuous therapeutic stimulation and recording of field potentials at multiple sites in a neural network...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407867/the-relationship-between-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-stallion-sperm-function
#9
Christa R Darr, Luis E Moraes, Richard E Connon, Charles C Love, Sheila Teague, Dickson D Varner, Stuart A Meyers
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been utilized as a measure of sperm quality in several species including mice, dogs, and humans, and has been suggested as a potential biomarker of fertility in stallion sperm. The results of the present study extend this recent discovery using sperm samples from American Quarter Horse stallions of varying age. By determining copy number of three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4), instead of a single gene, we demonstrate an improved understanding of mtDNA fate in stallion sperm mitochondria following spermatogenesis...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406741/bridging-the-dynamics-and-organization-of-chromatin-domains-by-mathematical-modeling
#10
Soya Shinkai, Tadasu Nozaki, Kazuhiro Maeshima, Yuichi Togashi
The genome is three-dimensionally organized in the cell, and the mammalian genome DNA is partitioned into submegabase-sized chromatin domains. Genome functions are regulated within and across the domains according to their organization, whereas the chromatin itself is highly dynamic. However, the details of such dynamic organization of chromatin domains in living cells remain unclear. To unify chromatin dynamics and organization, we recently demonstrated that structural information of chromatin domains in living human cells can be extracted from analyses of the subdiffusive nucleosome movement using mathematical modeling...
April 13, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403977/new-approaches-for-assessing-childbirth-positions
#11
D Desseauve, F Pierre, B Gachon, A Decatoire, P Lacouture, L Fradet
BACKGROUND: An overview of labor based only on epidemiological data cannot identify or explain the mechanisms involved in childbirth. Data about the position that women should take in giving birth are discordant. None of the studies of birth positions adequately define or describe them or their biomechanical impact (pelvic orientation, position of the back). The measurement of the effect of one position relative to that of another requires precise definitions of each position and of their maternal biomechanical consequences, as well as safe measurement methods...
February 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403860/the-social-accountability-of-doctors-a-relationship-based-framework-for-understanding-emergent-community-concepts-of-caring
#12
Lionel P Green-Thompson, Patricia McInerney, Bob Woollard
BACKGROUND: Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. METHODS: In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors...
April 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403280/electropalatography-and-its-correlation-to-tongue-movement-ultrasonography-in-speech-analysis
#13
Luciana da Silva Barberena, Caroline Rodrigues Portalete, Simone Nicolini de Simoni, Ana Cristina Melo Prates, Márcia Keske-Soares, Renata Mancopes
Purpose: To analyze the use of electropalatography and ultrasonography regarding speech therapy through literature narrative review. Research strategies: A literature review was conducted at PubMed and Scielo databases, using descriptors as electropalatography, electropalatography AND evaluation, electropalatography AND therapy, electropalatography AND ultrasonography, electropalatography AND speech. Selection criteria: The research criteria selected in the database were: studies in the past five years and studies in humans...
April 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400725/cortical-mechanisms-of-tongue-sensorimotor-functions-in-humans-a-review-of-the-magnetoencephalography-approach
#14
REVIEW
Hitoshi Maezawa
The tongue plays important roles in a variety of critical human oral functions, including speech production, swallowing, mastication and respiration. These sophisticated tongue movements are in part finely regulated by cortical entrainment. Many studies have examined sensorimotor processing in the limbs using magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has high spatiotemporal resolution. Such studies have employed multiple methods of analysis, including somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs), movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs), event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) associated with somatosensory stimulation or movement and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) during sustained movement...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398948/angiopoietin-like-4-enhances-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-tendon-fibroblasts
#15
Sarwat Jamil, Rouhollah Mousavizadeh, Mani Roshan-Moniri, Scott J Tebbutt, Robert G McCormack, Vincent Duronio, Alex Scott
PURPOSE: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to play a variety of roles in the response to exercise, and more recently has been shown to enhance the healing of tendon, a fibrous load-bearing tissue required for efficient movement. The objective of the current study was to further explore the mechanisms of ANGPTL4's impact on tendon cells using a gene array approach. METHODS: Human tendon fibroblasts were treated with recANGPTL4 and their global transcriptome response analyzed after 4 and 24 hours...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393366/orthodontic-tensile-strain-induces-angiogenesis-via-type-iv-collagen-degradation-by-matrix-metalloproteinase-12
#16
T Narimiya, S Wada, H Kanzaki, M Ishikawa, A Tsuge, Y Yamaguchi, Y Nakamura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), periodontal ligament (PDL) is remodeled dynamically, which requires sufficient blood supply for the regeneration of PDL. However, little is known about the remodeling of blood vessels during OTM. In this study, we hypothesized that the orthodontic tensile strain upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) expression in the tension zone and induces angiogenesis via degradation of type IV collagen (Col-IV) in vascular endothelial basement membrane during the early stage of OTM...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391368/effects-of-auditory-distraction-on-voluntary-movements-exploring-the-underlying-mechanisms-associated-with-parallel-processing
#17
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Alexander V Nowicky, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs
Highly demanding cognitive-motor tasks can be negatively influenced by the presence of auditory stimuli. The human brain attempts to partially suppress the processing of potential distractors in order that motor tasks can be completed successfully. The present study sought to further understand the attentional neural systems that activate in response to potential distractors during the execution of movements. Nineteen participants (9 women and 10 men) were administered isometric ankle-dorsiflexion tasks for 10 s at a light intensity...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391199/automatic-human-movement-assessment-with-switching-linear-dynamic-system-motion-segmentation-and-motor-performance
#18
Roberto de Souza Baptista, Antonio Padilha Lanari Bo, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements...
July 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385623/how-can-a-recurrent-neurodynamic-predictive-coding-model-cope-with-fluctuation-in-temporal-patterns-robotic-experiments-on-imitative-interaction
#19
Ahmadreza Ahmadi, Jun Tani
The current paper examines how a recurrent neural network (RNN) model using a dynamic predictive coding scheme can cope with fluctuations in temporal patterns through generalization in learning. The conjecture driving this present inquiry is that a RNN model with multiple timescales (MTRNN) learns by extracting patterns of change from observed temporal patterns, developing an internal dynamic structure such that variance in initial internal states account for modulations in corresponding observed patterns. We trained a MTRNN with low-dimensional temporal patterns, and assessed performance on an imitation task employing these patterns...
March 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383466/relative-device-stability-of-anterior-vs-axillary-needle-decompression-for-tension-pneumothorax-during-casualty-movement-preliminary-analysis-of-a-human-cadaver-model
#20
Matthew L Leatherman, Jenny M Held, Laura M Fluke, Christian S McEvoy, Kenji Inaba, Daniel Grabo, Matthew J Martin, Angela S Earley, Robert L Ricca, Travis M Polk
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) remains a significant cause of potentially preventable death in military and civilian settings. The current pre-hospital standard of care for tPTX is immediate decompression with a 14 gauge 8cm angiocatheter (14G AC); however, failure rates may be as high as 17-60%. Alternative devices, such as 10G AC, modified Veress needle (mVN) and laparoscopic trocar (LT), have shown to be potentially more effective in animal models; however, little is known about the relative insertional safety or mechanical stability during casualty movement...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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