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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#1
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#2
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902415/inversion-of-correia-repeat-enclosed-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#3
Firat Elbeyioglu, Sabrina B Roberts, Russell Spencer-Smith, Madhuri Pulijala, Marta A Zelewska, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Lori As Snyder
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Within the gonococcal genome are over 100 copies of the IS-like Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the neisserial genomes. Although there is evidence of ancestral movement of these elements, no previous study has provided evidence for current mobilisation. The Correia Repeat Enclosed Element has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in many ways: by insertional mutagenesis; by introducing promoter elements; by generating mRNA processing sites, and by association with ncRNAs...
November 16, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895590/brain-functional-connectivity-is-different-during-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-contraction
#4
Wan X Yao, Zhiguo Jiang, Jinqi Li, Changhao Jiang, Crystal G Franlin, Jack L Lancaster, Yufei Huang, Guang H Yue
Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC) than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1) and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893770/network-analysis-shows-asymmetrical-flows-within-a-bird-metapopulation
#5
Emilio R Rojas, Cédric Sueur, Pierre-Yves Henry, Blandine Doligez, Gérard Wey, Olivier Dehorter, Sylvie Massemin
How the spatial expansion of a species changes at a human time scale is a process difficult to determine. We studied the dispersal pattern of the French white stork population, using a 21-year ringing/resighting dataset. We used the graph-theory to investigate the strength of links between 5 populations (North-East, North-West, Centre, West, and South) and to determine factors important for the birds' movements. Two clusters of populations were identified within the metapopulation, with most frequent movements of individuals between North-Eastern and Centre populations, and between North-Western and Western populations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890536/estimation-of-the-center-of-rotation-using-wearable-magneto-inertial-sensors
#6
M Crabolu, D Pani, L Raffo, A Cereatti
Determining the center of rotation (CoR) of joints is fundamental to the field of human movement analysis. CoR can be determined using a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) using a functional approach requiring a calibration exercise. We systematically investigated the influence of different experimental conditions that can affect precision and accuracy while estimating the CoR, such as (a) angular joint velocity, (b) distance between the MIMU and the CoR, (c) type of the joint motion implemented, (d) amplitude of the angular range of motion, (e) model of the MIMU used for data recording, (f) amplitude of additive noise on inertial signals, and (g) amplitude of the errors in the MIMU orientation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880866/tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulates-movement-of-renal-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-a-three-dimensional-cell-culture-via-an-autocrine-tgf-%C3%AE-2-production
#7
Deyi Luo, Qiunong Guan, Kunjie Wang, Christopher Y C Nguan, Caigan Du
TGF-βs are multifunctional cytokines, but their roles in human renal homeostasis are not fully understood. This study investigated the role of TGF-β1 in the movement of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) in a three-dimensional (3D) model. HKC-8 cells, a human PTEC line, were grown in a 3D collagen culture system. Cell movement was observed under a microscope. The gene expression was examined using PCR Arrays or qRT-PCR, and protein levels by Western blot. Here, we showed that the tight junction structure formed between adjacent cells of a HKC-8 cell colony in 3D cultures, and TGF-β1 stimulated their movement, evidenced by the appearance of fingerlike pseudopodia in the leader cells at the edge of the colonies...
November 20, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879201/visual-attention-is-available-at-a-task-relevant-location-rapidly-after-a-saccade
#8
Tao Yao, Madhura Ketkar, Stefan Treue, B Suresh Krishna
Maintaining attention at a task-relevant spatial location while making eye-movements necessitates a rapid, saccade-synchronized shift of attentional modulation from the neuronal population representing the task-relevant location before the saccade to the one representing it after the saccade. Currently, the precise time at which spatial attention becomes fully allocated to the task-relevant location after the saccade remains unclear. Using a fine-grained temporal analysis of human peri-saccadic detection performance in an attention task, we show that spatial attention is fully available at the task-relevant location within 30 milliseconds after the saccade...
November 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875993/a-transcriptome-based-model-of-central-memory-cd4-t-cell-death-in-hiv-infection
#9
Gustavo Olvera-García, Tania Aguilar-García, Fany Gutiérrez-Jasso, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Lorena Orozco, Irma Aguilar-Delfín, Joel A Vázquez-Pérez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Santiago Pérez-Patrigeon, Enrique Espinosa
BACKGROUND: Human central memory CD4 T cells are characterized by their capacity of proliferation and differentiation into effector memory CD4 T cells. Homeostasis of central memory CD4 T cells is considered a key factor sustaining the asymptomatic stage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is imputed to central memory CD4 T cells homeostatic failure. We investigated if central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection have a gene expression profile impeding proliferation and survival, despite their activated state...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874013/crystal-structure-of-fabz-acp-complex-reveals-a-dynamic-seesaw-like-catalytic-mechanism-of-dehydratase-in-fatty-acid-biosynthesis
#10
Lin Zhang, Jianfeng Xiao, Jianrong Xu, Tianran Fu, Zhiwei Cao, Liang Zhu, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Xu Shen, Hualiang Jiang, Liang Zhang
Fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) is a vital process in cells. Fatty acids are essential for cell assembly and cellular metabolism. Abnormal FAS directly correlates with cell growth delay and human diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and various cancers. The FAS system utilizes an acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a transporter to stabilize and shuttle the growing fatty acid chain throughout enzymatic modules for stepwise catalysis. Studying the interactions between enzymatic modules and ACP is, therefore, critical for understanding the biological function of the FAS system...
December 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859842/movement-reveals-scale-dependence-in-habitat-selection-of-a-large-ungulate
#11
Joseph M Northrup, Charles R Anderson, Mevin B Hooten, George Wittemyer
Ecological processes operate across temporal and spatial scales. Anthropogenic disturbances impact these processes, but examinations of scale dependence in impacts are infrequent. Such examinations can provide important insight to wildlife-human interactions and guide management efforts to reduce impacts. We assessed spatiotemporal scale dependence in habitat selection of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Piceance Basin of Colorado, USA, an area of ongoing natural gas development. We employed a newly developed animal movement method to assess habitat selection across scales defined using animal-centric spatiotemporal definitions ranging from the local (defined from five hour movements) to the broad (defined from weekly movements)...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859602/integrating-archaeology-and-ancient-dna-to-address-invasive-species-colonization-in-the-gulf-of-alaska
#12
Catherine West, Courtney A Hofman, Steve Ebbert, John Martin, Sabrina Shirazi, Samantha Dunning, Jesus E Maldonado
The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed landscapes, particularly in island environments. In the Gulf of Alaska, there is considerable interest in the history of mammal introductions and rehabilitating Gulf of Alaska island environments by eradicating those mammals classified as invasive species. The Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) is of concern because of its effect on vegetation and seabirds on Gulf of Alaska islands...
November 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855678/augmentation-and-repair-of-tendons-using-demineralised-cortical-bone
#13
Sherif Elnikety, Catherine J Pendegrass, Roberta Ferro de Godoy, Charles Holden, Gordon W Blunn
BACKGROUND: In severe injuries with loss of tendon substance a tendon graft or a synthetic substitute is usually used to restore functional length. This is usually associated with donor site morbidity, host tissue reactions and lack of remodelling of the synthetic substitutes, which may result in suboptimal outcome. A biocompatible graft with mechanical and structural properties that replicate those of normal tendon and ligament has so far not been identified. The use of demineralised bone for tendon reattachment onto bone has been shown to be effective in promoting the regeneration of a normal enthesis...
November 17, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#14
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852786/electrophysiological-evidence-for-alternative-motor-networks-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#15
Marc Hackius, Esther Werth, Oguzkan Sürücü, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show mostly unimpaired motor behavior during REM sleep, which contrasts strongly to coexistent nocturnal bradykinesia. The reason for this sudden amelioration of motor control in REM sleep is unknown, however. We set out to determine whether movements during REM sleep are processed by different motor networks than movements in the waking state. We recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and scalp EEG (modified 10/20 montage) during sleep in humans with PD and RBD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852733/on-identifying-kinematic-and-muscle-synergies-a-comparison-of-matrix-factorization-methods-using-experimental-data-from-the-healthy-population
#16
Navid Lambert-Shirzad, H F Machiel Van der Loos
Human motor behaviour is highly goal-directed, requiring the central nervous system to coordinate different aspects of motion generation in order to achieve the motion goals. The concept of motor synergies provides an approach to quantify the covariation of joint motions and of muscle activations, i.e., elemental variables, during a task. To analyse goal-directed movements, factorization methods can be used reduce the high dimensionality of these variables while accounting for much of the variance in large datasets...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835672/the-expression-of-water-and-ion-channels-in-diffuse-alveolar-damage-is-not-dependent-on-dad-etiology
#17
Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto, Fabiola Del Carlo Bernardi, Priscila Alves de Araujo, Thais Mauad, Marisa Dolhnikoff
INTRODUCTION: Aquaporins and ion channels are membrane proteins that facilitate the rapid movement of water and solutes across biological membranes. Experimental and in vitro studies reported that the function of these channels and pulmonary edema resolution are impaired in acute lung injury (ALI). Although current evidence indicates that alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in patients with ALI/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), few human studies have addressed the alterations in pulmonary channels in this clinical condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833536/patterns-of-activity-in-the-human-frontal-and-parietal-cortex-differentiate-large-and-small-saccades
#18
Marie-Hélène Grosbras
A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well-established that in monkeys' main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they performed saccades toward targets at either short (4°) or large (30°) eccentricity...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833002/a-mathematical-model-characterising-achilles-tendon-dynamics-in-flexion
#19
N Chatzistefani, M J Chappell, C Hutchinson, S Kletzenbauer, N D Evans
The purpose of this study is to acquire mechanistic knowledge of the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex behaviour during specific movements in humans through mathematical modelling. Analysis of this muscle-tendon complex was performed to see if already existing muscle-tendon models of other parts of the body could be applied to the leg muscles, especially the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex, and whether they could adequately characterise its behaviour. Five healthy volunteers were asked to take part in experiments where dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot were studied...
November 8, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832395/mitoluhmes-an-engineered-neuronal-cell-line-for-the-analysis-of-the-motility-of-mitochondria
#20
Tomasz M Stępkowski, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Marcin Kruszewski
Perturbations in the transport of mitochondria and their quality control in neuronal cells underlie many types of neurological pathologies, whereas systems enabling convenient analysis of mitochondria behavior in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases are limited. In this study, we present a modified version of lund human mesencephalic cells, mitoLUHMES, expressing GFP and mitochondrially targeted DsRed2 fluorescent proteins, intended for in vitro analysis of mitochondria trafficking by real-time fluorescence microscopy...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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