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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223513/study-of-first-electronic-transition-and-hydrogen-bonding-state-of-ultra-thin-water-layer-of-nanometer-thickness-on-an-%C3%AE-alumina-surface-by-far-ultraviolet-spectroscopy
#1
Takeyoshi Goto, Tomoya Kinugasa
The first electronic transition (A˜←X˜) and the hydrogen bonding state of an ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness between two α-alumina surfaces (0.5-20nm) were studied using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy in the wavelength range 140-180nm. The ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness was prepared by squeezing a water droplet (~1μL) between a highly polished α-alumina prism and an α-alumina plate using a high pressure clamp (~4.7MPa), and the FUV spectra of the water layer at different thicknesses were measured using the attenuated total reflection method...
December 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222607/static-and-fatigue-strength-of-a-novel-anatomically-contoured-implant-compared-to-five-current-open-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-plates
#2
Arnaud Diffo Kaze, Stefan Maas, James Belsey, Alexander Hoffmann, Dietrich Pape
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate "Activmotion" with the following five other common implants for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis: the TomoFix small stature, the TomoFix standard, the Contour Lock, the iBalance and the second generation PEEKPower. METHODS: Six fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), according to standard techniques, using size 2 Activmotion osteotomy plates...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219187/integrated-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-assessment-unravels-key-extraction-method-mediated-influences-on-rat-neonatal-cardiomyocytes
#3
Leonardo Jensen, Elida Neri, Vinicius Bassaneze, Nathalia Corrêa De Almeida Oliveira, Rafael Dariolli, Thiago Lauro Turaça, Débora Levy, Douglas Veronez, Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Adriano Mesquita Alencar, Sérgio Paulo Bydlowski, Idágene Aparecida Cestari, José Eduardo Krieger
Neonatal cardiomyocytes are instrumental for disease modeling, but the effects of different cell extraction methods on basic cell biological processes remain poorly understood. We assessed the influence of two popular methods to extract rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, Pre-plating (PP) and Percoll (PC) on cell structure, metabolism, and function. Cardiomyocytes obtained from PP showed higher gene expression for troponins, titin, and potassium and sodium channels compared to PC. Also, PP cells displayed higher levels of troponin I protein...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214919/effect-of-total-contact-orthosis-on-medial-longitudinal-arch-and-lower-extremities-in-flexible-flatfoot-subjects-during-walking
#4
Tulaya Prachgosin, Wipawan Leelasamran, Pruittikorn Smithmaitrie, Surapong Chatpun
BACKGROUND: Total-contact orthosis (TCO) is one kind of foot orthosis (FO) that is used to adjust biomechanics in flexible flatfoot. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a TCO on the MLA moment, MLA deformation angle and lower limb biomechanics. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seven-flatfoot and thirteen-normal foot subjects were recruited by footprint and radiographs. The biomechanics of subjects with normal foot (NF), flatfoot with shoe only (FWOT) and flatfoot with TCO (FWT) were collected in a 3D motion analysis laboratory and force plates...
December 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214613/antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-lower-back-pain-associated-with-modic-changes-a-case-series
#5
Gaurav Gupta, Peter Jarzem, Sean Meredith, Mohan Radhakrishna, Markus Besemann, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Roshanak Charghi, Jeffrey Chankowsky
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment for patients with low back pain and Modic 1 changes. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of patients treated at the Canadian Forces Health Services Centre in Ottawa and the McGill University Health Centre. Where available, pain, functional, and imaging outcomes in 11 patients treated between 2013 and 2015 were analyzed to determine effect of antibiotic treatment for patients with low back pain and associated Modic 1 changes on magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209083/maintenance-of-carbohydrate-transport-in-tall-trees
#6
Jessica A Savage, Sierra D Beecher, Laura Clerx, Jessica T Gersony, Jan Knoblauch, Juan M Losada, Kaare H Jensen, Michael Knoblauch, N Michele Holbrook
Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism to move carbohydrates from their leaves to their roots. Although species that actively load sugars into their phloem, such as vines and herbs, can increase the driving force for transport as they elongate, it is possible that many trees cannot generate high turgor pressures because they do not use transporters to load sugar into the phloem...
December 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208824/terminal-chop-new-technique-for-full-thickness-nuclear-segmentation-in-mature-hard-cataract
#7
Rajendra Prasad, Anurag Badhani, Geetika Badhani Dogra
We describe an efficient technique, "Terminal Chop," for full thickness nuclear segmentation in mature hard cataracts. Terminal chop utilizes the principle of secondary rock breakage system with stress concentration to break these hard nuclei. In this technique consonant to drag picks, a specially designed chopper "Terminator" is used to initiate a unique dispersive mechanical force to create a full thickness nuclear crack (crack formation) at the weakest soft and thin equator, which automatically traverses through the center and to the equator on the other side...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207289/accuracy-evaluation-of-a-method-to-partition-ground-reaction-force-and-center-of-pressure-in-cane-assisted-gait-using-an-instrumented-cane-with-a-triaxial-force-sensor
#8
Arinori Kamono, Mizuki Kato, Naomichi Ogihara
Clarifying the biomechanics of cane-assisted gait in elderly individuals and patients with gait disorders is important for developing better therapeutic interventions in the fields of rehabilitation and orthopedics. However, if the foot and the cane in the ipsilateral hand are placed on the same force plate simultaneously, the force plate cannot separate the forces as it records the sum of the forces. To overcome this indeterminacy problem of the ground reaction force (GRF) and the center of pressure (COP) in cane-assisted gait analysis, a method to partition the GRF and COP using an instrumented cane with a force transducer has been proposed...
November 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205214/biomechanics-of-the-shoulder-girdle-a-case-study-on-the-effects-of-union-rugby-tackles
#9
Luís Faria, Bárbara Campos, Renato Natal Jorge
PURPOSE: The shoulder girdle is a complex system, comprised by a kinematic chain and stabilizers. Due to the delicate equilibrium and synchronism between mobility and stability, high external loads may compromise its physiology, increasing the risk of injuries. Thus, this study intends to fully characterize the effects of a rugby tackle on the shoulder's anatomy and physiology. METHODS: For the experimental procedures, a matrix of pressure sensors was used, based on the Teckscan® pressure in-soles, force plates, an isokinetic dynamometer and sEMG (surface electromyography)...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205209/foot-mechanics-in-young-women-are-altered-after-walking-in-high-heeled-shoes
#10
Sławomir Winiarski, Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska, Paweł Zostawa, Natalia Uścinowicz-Zostawa, Sebastian Klich
PURPOSE: Nowadays, fashion has caused that many young women are wearing high-heeled shoes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term walking in high-heeled shoes on the foot mechanics during barefoot gait. METHODS: Forty-three young women (22 ± 2.1 years) divided into two groups participated in this retrospective cohort study. The first group was composed of women who frequently wear high-heeled footwear. The second, infrequent wearers group, consisted of women who preferred flat-heeled shoes...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202986/arthrodesis-of-the-first-metatarsophalangeal-joint-a-biomechanical-comparison-of-four-fixation-techniques
#11
Ella Harris, Paul Moroney, Yves Tourné
BACKGROUND: Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a commonly performed orthopaedic procedure. The optimum method of fixation and joint surface preparation has yet to be determined. METHODS: This study compared four fixation techniques: Biomechanical grade sawbones were used. The dorsal plate used was a titanium, anatomically contoured locked plate. Testing was performed using an Instron machine applying force from the plantar aspect of the fused joint...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201305/biomechanical-comparison-study-of-three-fixation-methods-for-proximal-chevron-osteotomy-of-the-first-metatarsal-in-hallux-valgus
#12
Jin Su Kim, Hun Ki Cho, Ki Won Young, Ji Soo Kim, Kyung Tai Lee
Background: Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Methods: Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques...
December 2017: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199897/upper-and-lower-limb-loading-during-weight-bearing-activity-in-children-reaction-forces-and-influence-of-body-weight
#13
M C Erlandson, S Hounjet, T Treen, J L Lanovaz
Weight bearing (WB) activity is important for healthy skeletal development. The magnitude of loading during WB activities, especially upper limb impacts, has yet to be quantified in children. This study quantifies ground reaction forces (GRF) experienced by children performing WB activities and examines the contribution of body weight (BW) to GRF. Fifty children, aged 8-12 were recruited (34 males). GRF were measured using force plates during 20 upper and lower limb activities (such as landing on the feet and hands)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195419/finite-difference-time-domain-modelling-of-a-point-excited-elastic-plate-radiating-into-an-acoustic-cavity
#14
Nuno Ferreira, Carl Hopkins
Finite difference time domain (FDTD) models are developed to solve the vibroacoustic problem of a thin elastic plate undergoing point force excitation and radiating into an acoustic cavity. Vibroacoustic modelling using FDTD can be computationally expensive because structure-borne sound wavespeeds are relatively high and a fine spatial resolution is often required. In this paper a scaling approach is proposed and validated to overcome this problem through modifications to the geometry and physical properties...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189218/adjacent-level-degeneration-bryan-total-disc-arthroplasty-versus-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion
#15
Justin Miller, Rick Sasso, Paul Anderson, K Daniel Riew, Austin McPhilamy, Thomas Gianaris
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized, 2-center, clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare adjacent level degeneration between the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), and assess the reliability of our measurements utilizing a method not previously described. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF is a reliable and proven procedure for the treatment of radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Despite a successful track record several limitations including adjacent segment degeneration/disease, loss of viscoelastic disc properties, perioperative immobilization, graft site morbidity, pseudarthrosis, and plating complications have been identified...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186136/development-of-a-shear-force-measurement-dummy-for-seat-comfort
#16
Seong Guk Kim, Chang-Yong Ko, Dong Hyun Kim, Ye Eun Song, Tae Uk Kang, Sungwoo Ahn, Dohyung Lim, Han Sung Kim
Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185778/extent-of-surface-force-additivity-on-chemically-heterogeneous-substrates-at-varied-orientations
#17
B Shadrack Jabes, Dusan Bratko, Alenka Luzar
Surface interactions between chemically-mixed surfaces, as well as those among dissolved biomolecules, comprise distinct contributions from polar and hydrophobic moieties. These contributions are often context dependent. Approximate compliance to the Cassie's additivity equation for the wetting free energies on mixed surfaces in water is, however, indicative of similarly additive forces between individual surface elements, suggesting a quadratic interpolation model for total force from the forces between pure surfaces...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184290/kinematic-analysis-of-head-trunk-and-pelvic-motion-during-mirror-therapy-for-stroke-patients
#18
Jinmin Kim, Jaehoon Yi, Chang-Ho Song
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate mirror therapy (MT) condition by analyzing kinematic parameters according to mirror size and angle. [Subjects and Methods] Three hemiparesis stroke patients and five healthy adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Kinematic parameters during the MT were collected over a total of 5 trials for each subject (3 mirror angles × 3 mirror sizes). Center of pressure (COP) excursion data was collected by force plate, and other kinematic parameters by infra-red cameras...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176947/cortical-contribution-to-linear-non-linear-and-frequency-components-of-motor-variability-control-during-standing
#19
Niklas König Ignasiak, Lars Habermacher, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176038/the-effect-of-age-on-balancing-behavior-complexity-analysis-of-mediolateral-force-trajectories
#20
Allison Leich Hilbun, Istvan Karsai
We quantified, via complexity analysis, the postural stability of healthy people from a wide age range. Thirty-five healthy people aged 18-72 performed three tasks while balancing on one foot on a force plate: standard balancing task, mental task (balancing while answering basic arithmetic questions), and knot-tying task (balancing while tying two knots in a piece of ribbon). Mediolateral force trajectories were analyzed to determine control strategy via Hurst exponents, Lyapunov exponents, Root Mean Square, and Kolmogorov complexity, and phase-space plots...
November 26, 2017: Physiological Measurement
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