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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822943/sound-side-joint-contact-forces-in-below-knee-amputee-gait-with-an-esar-prosthetic-foot
#1
Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Firooz Salami, Amir Esrafilian, Daniel W W Heitzmann, Merkur Alimusaj, Cornelia Putz, Sebastian I Wolf
The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments...
August 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821242/methodological-factors-affecting-joint-moments-estimation-in-clinical-gait-analysis-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Valentina Camomilla, Andrea Cereatti, Andrea Giovanni Cutti, Silvia Fantozzi, Rita Stagni, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Quantitative gait analysis can provide a description of joint kinematics and dynamics, and it is recognized as a clinically useful tool for functional assessment, diagnosis and intervention planning. Clinically interpretable parameters are estimated from quantitative measures (i.e. ground reaction forces, skin marker trajectories, etc.) through biomechanical modelling. In particular, the estimation of joint moments during motion is grounded on several modelling assumptions: (1) body segmental and joint kinematics is derived from the trajectories of markers and by modelling the human body as a kinematic chain; (2) joint resultant (net) loads are, usually, derived from force plate measurements through a model of segmental dynamics...
August 18, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813979/towards-low-back-support-with-a-passive-biomimetic-exo-spine
#3
Matthias B Naf, Laura De Rijcke, Carlos Rodriguez Guerrero, Matthew Millard, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
Low-Back Pain (LBP) affects a large portion of the working population. Preventive exoskeletons have been proposed to reduce the moments on the lower back, specifically around the lumbosacral (L5/S1) joint. High correlation has been shown, between reducing the moments around the L5/S1 joint and intervertebral compression forces, which in turn have been identified as a risk factor for developing LBP. However, most passive back support exoskeletons use rigid plates or stiff beams to support the spine that limit the range of motion of the wearer...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#4
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808261/atomic-force-microscopy-micro-rheology-reveals-large-structural-inhomogeneities-in-single-cell-nuclei
#5
Michael Lherbette, Ália Dos Santos, Yukti Hari-Gupta, Natalia Fili, Christopher P Toseland, Iwan A T Schaap
During growth, differentiation and migration of cells, the nucleus changes size and shape, while encountering forces generated by the cell itself and its environment. Although there is increasing evidence that such mechanical signals are employed to control gene expression, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced through the nucleus. To this end, we have measured the compliance of nuclei by applying oscillatory strains between 1 and 700 Hz to individual nuclei of multiple mammalian cell-lines that were compressed between two plates...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802368/study-of-the-effects-of-hearing-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-function-in-children-using-cochlear-implants
#6
Malihah Mazaheryazdi, Abdollah Moossavi, Javad Sarrafzadah, Saeed Talebian, Shohreh Jalaie
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the postural control perturbations by the center of pressure parameters in two main approaches, cochlear implant turned "on" and "off". METHODS: We included 25 children aged 8-10 years with unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral vestibular hypofunction deficit. To evaluate the postural function, each children was asked to stand on the force plate under 3 different conditions and cochlear implant turned "on" and "off": Condition (A) double stance from open eyes to closed eyes, Condition (B) double stance with open eyes engaging in the dual task and Condition (C) From double leg stance to one leg stance with open eyes for assessment of dynamic postural control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793213/critical-influence-of-cosolutes-and-surfaces-on-the-assembly-of-serpin-derived-amyloid-fibrils
#7
Michael W Risør, Dennis W Juhl, Morten Bjerring, Joachim Mathiesen, Jan J Enghild, Niels C Nielsen, Daniel E Otzen
Many proteins and peptides self-associate into highly ordered and structurally similar amyloid cross-β aggregates. This fibrillation is critically dependent on properties of the protein and the surrounding environment that alter kinetic and thermodynamic equilibria. Here, we report on dominating surface and solution effects on the fibrillogenic behavior and amyloid assembly of the C-36 peptide, a circulating bioactive peptide from the α1-antitrypsin serine protease inhibitor. C-36 converts from an unstructured peptide to mature amyloid twisted-ribbon fibrils over a few hours when incubated on polystyrene plates under physiological conditions through a pathway dominated by surface-enhanced nucleation...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783052/influence-of-thermal-contact-resistance-of-aluminum-foams-in-forced-convection-experimental-analysis
#8
Stefano Guarino, Giovanni Di Ilio, Simone Venettacci
In this paper, the heat transfer performances of aluminum metal foams, placed on horizontal plane surface, was evaluated in forced convection conditions. Three different types of contacts between the sample and the heated base plate have been investigated: simple contact, brazed contact and grease paste contact. First, in order to perform the study, an ad hoc experimental set-up was built. Second, the value of thermal contact resistance was estimated. The results show that both the use of a conductive paste and the brazing contact, realized by means of a copper electro-deposition, allows a great reduction of the global thermal resistance, increasing de facto the global heat transfer coefficient of almost 80%, compared to the simple contact case...
August 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780886/reliability-of-unipodal-and-bipodal-counter-movement-jump-landings-in-a-recreational-male-population
#9
Cédric Schwartz, Bénédicte Forthomme, Julien Paulus, Jean-François Kaux, Olivier Brüls, Vincent Denoël, Jean-Louis Croisier
Movement patterns during landing have been suggested to be related to injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-session reliability of kinematic variables and ground reaction forces during landing in a population of male recreational athletes after a counter movement jump. Both unipodal and bipodal landings were evaluated. Furthermore, the possibility to improve landing reliability with a verbal instruction was also studied. Twenty-four male volunteers with no history of lower extremity trauma were randomly assigned to two groups (with and without verbal landing instruction)...
August 6, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780458/influence-of-an-external-electric-field-on-removal-of-protein-fouling-on-a-stainless-steel-surface-by-proteolytic-enzymes
#10
Ei Ei Htwe, Yuhi Nakama, Hiroyuki Imanaka, Naoyuki Ishida, Koreyoshi Imamura
Enzymatic cleaning is a potentially useful method for removing proteinaceous fouling from solid surfaces under mild conditions. Herein, the influence of an external electric field on the enzymatic cleaning of a metal surface fouled with a protein was investigated. The model fouling protein (BSA; lysozyme) was prepared on a stainless steel (St) surface, and the resulting surface subjected to enzymatic cleaning with an electric potential being applied to the St plate. Trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, and thermolysin were used as model proteases...
July 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780187/validation-of-a-smart-shoe-for-estimating-foot-progression-angle-during-walking-gait
#11
Haisheng Xia, Junkai Xu, Jianren Wang, Michael A Hunt, Peter B Shull
The foot progression angle is an important measurement related to knee loading, pain, and function for individuals with knee osteoarthritis, however current measurement methods require camera-based motion capture or floor-embedded force plates confining foot progression angle assessment to facilities with specialized equipment. This paper presents the validation of a customized smart shoe for estimating foot progression angle during walking. The smart shoe is composed of an electronic module with inertial and magnetometer sensing inserted into the sole of a standard walking shoe...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773895/investigation-on-the-effect-of-drill-geometry-and-pilot-holes-on-thrust-force-and-burr-height-when-drilling-an-aluminium-pe-sandwich-material
#12
Bruna Aparecida Rezende, Michele L Silveira, Luciano M G Vieira, Alexandre M Abrão, Paulo Eustáquio de Faria, Juan C Campos Rubio
Composite materials are widely employed in the naval, aerospace and transportation industries owing to the combination of being lightweight and having a high modulus of elasticity, strength and stiffness. Drilling is an operation generally used in composite materials to assemble the final product. Damages such as the burr at the drill entrance and exit, geometric deviations and delamination are typically found in composites subjected to drilling. Drills with special geometries and pilot holes are alternatives used to improve hole quality as well as to increase tool life...
September 13, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773810/thermo-mechanical-characterization-of-friction-stir-spot-welded-aa7050-sheets-by-means-of-experimental-and-fem-analyses
#13
Gianluca D'Urso, Claudio Giardini
The present study was carried out to evaluate how the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process parameters affect the temperature distribution in the welding region, the welding forces and the mechanical properties of the joints. The experimental study was performed by means of a CNC machine tool obtaining FSSW lap joints on AA7050 aluminum alloy plates. Three thermocouples were inserted into the samples to measure the temperatures at different distance from the joint axis during the whole FSSW process. Experiments was repeated varying the process parameters, namely rotational speed, axial feed rate and plunging depth...
August 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773126/biomechanical-loading-evaluation-of-unsintered-hydroxyapatite-poly-l-lactide-plate-system-in-bilateral-sagittal-split-ramus-osteotomy
#14
Shintaro Sukegawa, Takahiro Kanno, Yoshiki Manabe, Kenichi Matsumoto, Yuka Sukegawa-Takahashi, Masanori Masui, Yoshihiko Furuki
OSTEOTRANS MX(®) (Takiron Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) is a bioactive resorbable maxillofacial osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composite, and its effective osteoconductive capacity has been previously documented. However, the mechanical strength of this plate system is unclear. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess its tensile and shear strength and evaluate the biomechanical intensity of different osteosynthesis plate designs after sagittal split ramus osteotomy by simulating masticatory forces in a clinical setting...
July 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764434/underwater-sound-radiation-from-an-elastically-coated-infinite-plate-with-periodic-inhomogeneities-of-finite-width
#15
Yanni Zhang, Hai Huang, Jie Pan
The underwater sound radiation from a line-force-driven coated infinite plate with periodically attached distributed inhomogeneities is investigated. A typical example of a distributed inhomogeneity is a signal conditioning plate (SCP), which can be inserted between the coating and a hydrophone to increase the strength of the incoming signal. Using the wavenumber transform approach, the surface normal velocity and radiated sound power of the plate are determined by solving the indexed equations of the wavenumber components...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763716/in-situ-force-plate-calibration-12-years-experience-with-an-approach-for-correcting-the-point-of-force-application
#16
Renate List, Marina Hitz, Michael Angst, William R Taylor, Silvio Lorenzetti
Force plates are common assessment tools used in biomechanics to measure ground reaction forces during motion capture or strength exercises. While the accuracy of the resulting kinetic data is critical for accurate gait analysis, factors such as plate mounting are thought to influence the measured point of force application (PFA) of the ground reaction forces. The aim of this study was therefore to present an accurate in-situ PFA calibration method. In addition, the approach was evaluated by examining the required PFA corrections over a period of ten years, which included plate remounting and a change of foundation...
July 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763714/muscle-contributions-to-knee-extension-in-the-early-stance-phase-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Shinya Ogaya, Ryo Kubota, Yuta Chujo, Eiko Hirooka, Kim Kwang-Ho, Kimitaka Hase
The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom...
July 23, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763712/crossover-study-of-amputee-stair-ascent-and-descent-biomechanics-using-genium-and-c-leg-prostheses-with-comparison-to-non-amputee-control
#18
Derek J Lura, Matthew W Wernke, Stephanie L Carey, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, M Jason Highsmith
This study was a randomized crossover of stair ambulation of Transfemoral Amputees (TFAs) using the Genium and C-Leg prosthetic knees. TFAs typically have difficulty ascending and descending stairs, limiting community mobility. The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of the Genium and C-Leg prostheses for stair ascent and descent, and their absolute efficacy relative to non-amputees. Twenty TFAs, and five non-amputees participated in the study. TFAs were randomized to begin the study with the Genium or C-Leg prosthesis...
July 25, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761792/plantar-pressure-distribution-of-ostrich-during-locomotion-on-loose-sand-and-solid-ground
#19
Rui Zhang, Dianlei Han, Songsong Ma, Gang Luo, Qiaoli Ji, Shuliang Xue, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
BACKGROUND: The ostrich is a cursorial bird with extraordinary speed and endurance, especially in the desert, and thus is an ideal large-scale animal model for mechanic study of locomotion on granular substrate. METHODS: The plantar pressure distributions of ostriches walking/running on loose sand/solid ground were recorded using a dynamic pressure plate. RESULTS: The center of pressure (COP) on loose sand mostly originated from the middle of the 3rd toe, which differed from the J-shaped COP trajectory on solid ground...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761719/effect-of-a-gluteal-activation-warm-up-on-explosive-exercise-performance
#20
Matt Parr, Phil Db Price, Daniel J Cleather
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a gluteal activation warm-up on the performance of an explosive exercise (the high hang pull (HHP)). METHODS: Seventeen professional rugby union players performed one set of three HHPs (with 80% of their one repetition maximum load) following both a control and activation warm-up. Peak electrical activity of the gluteus maximus and medius was quantified using electromyography (EMG). In addition, the kinematics and kinetics of nine players was also recorded using force plate and motion capture technology...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
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