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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914310/electrical-potentials-measured-on-the-surface-of-the-knee-reflect-the-changes-of-the-contact-force-in-the-knee-joint-produced-by-postural-sway
#1
Lin Zhu, Martin Garon, Éric Quenneville, Michael D Buschmann, Pierre Savard
Electroarthrography (EAG) is a novel technique for recording potentials on the knee surface that are generated by the compression of articular cartilage and that reflect both compression force and cartilage quality. The mechanical loading of the knee is achieved by transferring the subject's body weight from a bipedal stance to a unipedal stance. We hypothesized that EAG potentials change with postural sway. The study was performed on 20 normal subjects (10 male, 10 female; age 29±10.5 yrs.; mass 68.8±14...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910419/design-and-fabrication-of-a-window-for-the-gas-cherenkov-detector-3
#2
V E Fatherley, D A Bingham, M D Cartelli, R A DiDomizio, J R Griego, H W Herrmann, F E Lopez, J A Oertel, M J Pollack
The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908499/a-strategy-to-modulate-the-electrophoretic-behavior-in-plastic-microchips-using-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#3
Jinxiu Guo, Yu Chen, Lizhi Zhao, Ping Sun, Hongli Li, Lei Zhou, Xiayan Wang, Qiaosheng Pu
Plastic microchips have been broadly used as disposable microfluidic devices, but the poorly defined surface properties limit their application. Herein, we proved that an anionic polymer could be used as the background electrolyte (BGE) to provide a strong and stable cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) and modulate the electrophoretic behavior for efficient separation in relative thicker microchannels (∼75μm id). A cathodic EOF of ∼3.3×10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) was maintained using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) with a molecular weight of 5×10(5) as the BGE, which ensured fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled biogenic amines (BAs) appeared ahead of other components in the electropherograms obtained with microchips of cyclic olefin copolymer...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900198/do-rocker-sole-shoes-influence-postural-stability-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomised-trial
#4
C Sian MacRae, Duncan Critchley, Matthew Morrissey, Adam Shortland, Jeremy S Lewis
BACKGROUND: People with chronic low back pain (CLBP) demonstrate greater postural instability compared with asymptomatic individuals. Rocker-sole shoes are inherently unstable and may serve as an effective balance training device. This study hypothesised that wearing rocker-sole shoes would result in long-term improvement in barefoot postural stability in people with CLBP. METHODS: 20 participants with CLBP were randomised to wear rocker-sole or flat-sole shoes for a minimum of 2 hours each day...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900192/vertical-stiffness-is-not-related-to-anterior-cruciate-ligament-elongation-in-professional-rugby-union-players
#5
Benjamin G Serpell, Jennie M Scarvell, Mark R Pickering, Nick B Ball, Diana Perriman, John Warmenhoven, Paul N Smith
BACKGROUND: Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898743/the-effects-of-either-a-mirror-internal-or-external-focus-instructions-on-single-and-multi-joint-tasks
#6
Israel Halperin, Steven Hughes, Derek Panchuk, Chris Abbiss, Dale W Chapman
Training in front of mirrors is common, yet little is known about how the use of mirrors effects muscle force production. Accordingly, we investigated how performing in front of a mirror influences performance in single and multi-joint tasks, and compared the mirror condition to the established performance effects of internal focus (IF) and external focus (EF) instructions in a two part experiment. In the single-joint experiment 28 resistance-trained participants (14 males and 14 females) completed two elbow flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions under four conditions: mirror, IF, EF and neutral instructions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898300/a-new-topological-structure-for-the-langevin-type-ultrasonic-transducer
#7
Xiaolong Lu, Junhui Hu, Hanmin Peng, Yuan Wang
In this paper, a new topological structure for the Langevin-type ultrasonic transducer is proposed and investigated. The two cylindrical terminal blocks are conically shaped with four supporting plates each, and two cooling fins are disposed at the bottom of terminal blocks, adjacent to the piezoelectric rings. Experimental results show that it has larger vibration velocity, lower temperature rise and higher electroacoustic energy efficiency than the conventional Langevin transducer. The reasons for the phenomena can be well explained by the change of mass, heat dissipation surface and force factor of the transducer...
November 16, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896682/methods-of-power-force-velocity-profiling-during-sprint-running-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin
The ability of the human body to generate maximal power is linked to a host of performance outcomes and sporting success. Power-force-velocity relationships characterize limits of the neuromuscular system to produce power, and their measurement has been a common topic in research for the past century. Unfortunately, the narrative of the available literature is complex, with development occurring across a variety of methods and technology. This review focuses on the different equipment and methods used to determine mechanical characteristics of maximal exertion human sprinting...
November 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895923/concurrent-validity-of-the-gyko-inertial-sensor-system-for-the-assessment-of-vertical-jump-height-in-female-sub-elite-youth-soccer-players
#9
Melanie Lesinski, Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to verify concurrent validity of the Gyko inertial sensor system for the assessment of vertical jump height. METHODS: Nineteen female sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age: 14.7 ± 0.6 years) performed three trials of countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ), respectively. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously quantified with the Gyko system, a Kistler force-plate (i.e., gold standard), and another criterion device that is frequently used in the field, the Optojump system...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893566/validity-and-reliability-of-a-portable-balance-tracking-system-btracks-in-older-adults
#10
Susan S Levy, Katie J Thralls, Shiloah A Kviatkovsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls are the leading cause of disability, injury, hospital admission, and injury-related death among older adults. Balance limitations have consistently been identified as predictors of falls and increased fall risk. Field measures of balance are limited by issues of subjectivity, ceiling effects, and low sensitivity to change. The gold standard for measuring balance is the force plate; however, its field use is untenable due to high cost and lack of portability...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893564/instrumented-test-of-sensory-integration-for-balance-a-validation-study
#11
Lynn Freeman, Geetanjali Gera, Fay B Horak, Mary T Blackinton, Mark Besch, Laurie King
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal postural sway is associated with an increase in risk of falls but is difficult for clinicians to accurately quantify without access to laboratory equipment. Instrumenting clinical outcome measures using body-worn movement monitors is a low-cost alternative. This is the first study to compare the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (i-mCTSIB) to the laboratory test of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) with dynamic posturography in a group of participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and subtle balance limitations...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893561/finite-element-evaluation-of-different-osteosynthesis-variations-that-used-after-segmental-mandibular-resection
#12
Koray Onur Şanal, Bora Özden, Burcu Baş
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different reconstruction plates and screw combinations on stress distribution of segmental resected mandibles using finite element analysis. METHODS: Lateral (L) and lateral-central (LC) defects were simulated by a computer aided design modeling. The straight (s) and angular (a) titanium locking reconstruction plates of 2.5 mm (12 holes for L defects and 16 holes for LC defects) were modeled. Each screw was 2...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891668/systematic-mapping-of-the-subchondral-bone-3d-microarchitecture-in-the-human-tibial-plateau-variations-with-joint-alignment
#13
Bryant C Roberts, Dominic Thewlis, Lucian B Solomon, Graham Mercer, Karen J Reynolds, Egon Perilli
Tibial subchondral bone plays an important role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Microarchitectural characterization of subchondral bone plate (SBP), underlying subchondral trabecular bone (STB) and relationships between these compartments, however, is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of SBP thickness, SBP porosity and STB microarchitecture, and relationships among them, in OA tibiae of varying joint alignment. Twenty-five tibial plateaus from end-stage knee-OA patients, with varus (n = 17) or non-varus (n = 8) alignment were micro-CT scanned (17 μm/voxel)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888697/whole-body-organization-during-a-symmetric-bimanual-pick-up-task-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#14
Ya-Ching Hung, Melissa Mangiafreno, Simone V Gill
Information on the effects of obesity on the biomechanics of whole body movement control in children is limited. The purpose of the current study is to test the hypothesis that during a simple pick up task, overweight and obese children will organize their whole body movements differently than those in normal weight children. Twelve children who were overweight or obese (5-13 years old) and twelve age matched normal weight children participated in the study. Children picked up an empty box to waist height at a self-selected pace while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed using a VICON system and two AMTI force plates...
November 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888695/automatic-identification-of-gait-events-during-walking-on-uneven-surfaces
#15
Nils Eckardt, Armin Kibele
The accurate detection of gait events is essential for clinical gait analysis. Aside from speed, surface characteristics like planarity and compliance can affect gait kinematics. Therefore detection of kinematic gait events on uneven surfaces may be inaccurate. To date, no study has investigated the possible influence of surface characteristics on gait event detection. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare the performance of four kinematic-based gait event detection algorithms (horizontal heel-heel displacement, foot velocity, heel/toe-PSIS displacement, peak hip extension) during walking on three surfaces with different degrees of planarity...
November 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886563/nanomechanical-properties-wear-resistance-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-ta2o5-nanotubes-coating-on-biomedical-grade-ti-6al-4v
#16
Masoud Sarraf, Bushroa Abdul Razak, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Eshamsul Bin Sulaiman
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5 NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5 NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin(-)(1)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886050/design-of-fresnel-lens-type-multi-trapping-acoustic-tweezers
#17
You-Lin Tu, Shih-Jui Chen, Yean-Ren Hwang
In this paper, acoustic tweezers which use beam forming performed by a Fresnel zone plate are proposed. The performance has been demonstrated by finite element analysis, including the acoustic intensity, acoustic pressure, acoustic potential energy, gradient force, and particle distribution. The acoustic tweezers use an ultrasound beam produced by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer operating at 2.4 MHz and 100 Vpeak-to-peak in a water medium. The design of the Fresnel lens (zone plate) is based on air reflection, acoustic impedance matching, and the Fresnel half-wave band (FHWB) theory...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876280/validity-and-intra-rater-reliability-of-myjump-app-on-iphone-6s-in-jump-performance
#18
Robert Stanton, Sally-Anne Wintour, Crystal O Kean
OBJECTIVES: Smartphone applications are increasingly used by researchers, coaches, athletes and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability of the smartphone-based application, MyJump, against laboratory-based force plate measurements. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. METHODS: Participants completed counter-movement jumps (CMJ) (n=29) and 30cm drop jumps (DJ) (n=27) on a force plate which were simultaneously recorded using MyJump...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872123/effect-of-external-ankle-support-on-ankle-and-knee-biomechanics-during-the-cutting-maneuver-in-basketball-players
#19
Nardia-Rose Klem, Catherine Y Wild, Sian A Williams, Leo Ng
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of lower extremity injuries in female basketball players as well as a high proportion of athletes who wear ankle braces, there is a paucity of research pertaining to the effects of ankle bracing on ankle and knee biomechanics during basketball-specific tasks. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a lace-up brace (ASO), a hinged brace (Active T2), and no ankle bracing (control) on ankle and knee joint kinematics and joint reaction forces in female basketball athletes during a cutting maneuver...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871667/transport-of-soil-aged-silver-nanoparticles-in-unsaturated-sand
#20
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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