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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641159/a-model-to-calculate-the-progression-of-the-centre-of-pressure-under-the-foot-during-gait-analysis
#1
Melissa Gar Yee Louey, Anita Mudge, Elizabeth Wojciechowski, Morgan Sangeux
Pedobarography and the centre of pressure (COP) progression is useful to understand foot function. Pedobarography is often unavailable in gait laboratories or completed asynchronously to kinematic and kinetic data collection. This paper presents a model that allows calculation of COP progression synchronously using force plate data. The model is an adjunct to Plug-In-Gait and was applied to 49 typically developing children to create reference COP data. COP progressions were noted to spend 8% of stance behind the ankle joint centre, traverse lateral of the longitudinal axis of the foot through the midfoot for 76% of stance and finishing past the second metatarsal head on the medial side for 16% of stance...
June 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640896/beneficial-effects-of-a-gait-used-while-wearing-a-kimono-to-decrease-the-knee-adduction-moment-in-healthy-adults
#2
Susumu Ota, Yukari Ogawa, Hiroki Ota, Tomoya Fujiwara, Tadashi Sugiyama, Akira Ochi
The knee adduction moment (KAM) relates to medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Several gait modifications to reduce the KAM for the prevention of knee OA have been studied. Most of the modifications, however, involve voluntary changes in leg alignment. Here we investigated the biomechanical effects for reducing the KAM of a walking style with a small trunk rotation and arm swing gait, which is a natural walking style used while wearing a kimono (Nanba walk) that shifts the ground reaction force toward the stance leg (reduced lever arm)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636055/effect-of-headless-compression-screw-on-construct-stability-for-centre-of-rotation-and-angulation-based-levelling-osteotomy-biomechanical-testing-in-flexion-and-torsion
#3
Michelle R Meyer, Mireya A Perez, Mohammad S Hossain, Edward B Silverman, Randall B Fitch, Ryan B Wicker
OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of bone and implant constructs when used for the centre of rotation and angulation (CORA) based levelling osteotomy, with and without implantation of a trans-osteotomy headless compression screw tested under three-point flexural and torsional forces; thereby determining the contribution of a trans-osteotomy headless compression screw with regards to stability of the construct. METHODS: Experimental biomechanical study utilizing 12 pairs of cadaveric canine tibias...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632660/clinical-experience-with-the-use-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-lipus-in-the-treatment-of-atypical-femoral-fractures
#4
Sang Yang Lee, Takahiro Niikura, Takashi Iwakura, Tomoaki Fukui, Ryosuke Kuroda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the clinical results of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data on AFFs that were surgically treated in our hospital from 2010 to 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. AFF was diagnosed based on the criteria defined by the second report of an ASBMR task force. RESULTS: Seven fractures in 6 cases were included in this study...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632060/the-collision-forces-and-lower-extremity-inter-joint-coordination-during-running
#5
Li-I Wang, Chin-Yi Gu, I-Lin Wang, Sheng-Wun Siao, Szu-Ting Chen
The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity inter-joint coordination of different collision forces runners during running braking phase. A dynamical system approach was used to analyse the inter-joint coordination parameters. Data were collected with six infra-red cameras and two force plates. According to the impact peak of the vertical ground reaction force, twenty habitually rearfoot-strike runners were categorised into three groups: high collision forces runners (HF group, n = 8), medium collision forces runners (MF group, n = 5), and low collision forces runners (LF group, n = 7)...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632047/reliability-and-magnitude-of-mechanical-variables-assessed-from-unconstrained-and-constrained-loaded-countermovement-jumps
#6
Amador García-Ramos, Slobodan Jaric, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paulino Padial, Belén Feriche
This study aimed to (1) assess the reliability of the force, velocity, and power output variables measured by a force plate and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) for both the unconstrained and constrained loaded countermovement jump (CMJ), and (2) examine the effect of both the CMJ type and the measurement method on the magnitudes of the same variables. Twenty-three men were tested on the free CMJ and the CMJ constrained by a Smith machine. Maximum values of force, velocity, and power were recorded by a force plate and by a LVT attached to a bar loaded by 17, 30, 45, 60, and 75 kg...
February 24, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631616/on-the-dynamics-of-perching-manoeuvres-with-low-aspect-ratio-planforms
#7
J N Fernando, D E Rival
The dynamics of a simple perching manoeuvre are investigated using circular and aspect-ratio-two elliptical flat plates, as abstractions of low-aspect-ratio planforms observed in highly-manoeuvrable birds. The perching kinematic investigated in this study involves a pitch-up motion from an angle of attack of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], while simultaneously decelerating. This motion is defined by the shape change number, [Formula: see text], which acts as a measure of the relative contributions of added-mass and circulatory effects...
June 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629601/a-custom-made-temporomandibular-joint-prosthesis-for-fabrication-by-selective-laser-melting-finite-element-analysis
#8
Xiangliang Xu, Danmei Luo, Chuanbin Guo, Qiguo Rong
A novel and custom-made selective laser melting (SLM) 3D-printed alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthesis is proposed. The titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) condyle component and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fossa component comprised the total alloplastic TMJ replacement prosthesis. For the condyle component, an optimized tetrahedral open-porous scaffold with combined connection structures, i.e. an inlay rod and an onlay plate, between the prosthesis and remaining mandible was designed...
June 16, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626920/experimental-verification-of-egsnrc-monte-carlo-calculated-depth-doses-within-a-realistic-parallel-magnetic-field-in-a-polystyrene-phantom
#9
Andrei Ghila, Stephen Steciw, B Gino Fallone, Satyapal Rathee
PURPOSE: Integrating a linac with a magnetic resonance imager (MRI) will revolutionize the accuracy of external beam radiation treatments. Irradiating in the presence of a strong magnetic field, however, will modify the dose distribution. These dose modifications have been investigated previously, mainly using Monte Carlo simulations. The purpose of this work is to experimentally verify the use of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package for calculating percent depth doses (PDDs) in a homogeneous phantom, in the presence of a realistic parallel magnetic field...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625567/dose-postural-control-improve-following-application-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathic-patients-a-randomized-placebo-control-trial
#10
Z Saadat, Z Rojhani-Shirazi, L Abbasi
BACKGROUND: peripheral neuropathy is the most common problem of diabetes. Neuropathy leads to lower extremity somatosensory deficits and postural instability in these patients. However, there are not sufficient evidences for improving postural control in these patients. AIM: To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on postural control in patients with diabetic neuropathy. METHODS: Twenty eighth patients with diabetic neuropathy (40-55 Y/O) participated in this RCT study...
June 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624711/does-the-powers%C3%A2-strap-influence-the-lower-limb-biomechanics-during-running
#11
Henrike Greuel, Lee Herrington, Anmin Liu, Richard K Jones
Previous research has reported a prevalence of running related injuries in 25.9% to 72% of all runners. A greater hip internal rotation and adduction during the stance phase in running has been associated with many running related injuries, such as patellofemoral pain. Researchers in the USA designed a treatment device 'the Powers™ strap' to facilitate an external rotation of the femur and to thereby control abnormal hip and knee motion during leisure and sport activities. However, to date no literature exists to demonstrate whether the Powers™ strap is able to reduce hip internal rotation during running...
June 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#12
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620384/measuring-leukocyte-adhesion-to-primary-endothelial-cells-after-photon-and-charged-particle-exposure-with-a-dedicated-laminar-flow-chamber
#13
Nadine Erbeldinger, Felicitas Rapp, Svetlana Ktitareva, Philipp Wendel, Anna S Bothe, Till Dettmering, Marco Durante, Thomas Friedrich, Bianca Bertulat, Stephanie Meyer, M C Cardoso, Stephanie Hehlgans, Franz Rödel, Claudia Fournier
The vascular endothelium interacts with all types of blood cells and is a key modulator of local and systemic inflammatory processes, for example, in the adhesion of blood leukocytes to endothelial cells (EC) and the following extravasation into the injured tissue. The endothelium is constantly exposed to mechanical forces caused by blood flow, and the resulting shear stress is essential for the maintenance of endothelial function. Changes in local hemodynamics are sensed by EC, leading to acute or persistent changes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618830/acoustic-levitation-of-an-object-larger-than-the-acoustic-wavelength
#14
Marco A B Andrade, Fábio T A Okina, Anne L Bernassau, Julio C Adamowski
Levitation and manipulation of objects by sound waves have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, material sciences, and engineering. However, the current acoustic levitation techniques are mainly restricted to particles that are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. In this work, it is shown that acoustic standing waves can be employed to stably levitate an object much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The levitation of a large slightly curved object weighting 2.3 g is demonstrated by using a device formed by two 25 kHz ultrasonic Langevin transducers connected to an aluminum plate...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610582/behavioral-and-neural-adaptations-in-response-to-five-weeks-of-balance-training-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Wälchli, Wolfgang Taube
BACKGROUND: While the positive effect of balance training on age-related impairments in postural stability is well-documented, the neural correlates of such training adaptations in older adults remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to shed more light on neural adaptations in response to balance training in older adults. METHODS: Postural stability as well as spinal reflex and cortical excitability was measured in older adults (65-80 years) before and after 5 weeks of balance training (n = 15) or habitual activity (n = 13)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606433/plate-osteosynthesis-of-proximal-ulna%C3%A2-fractures-a-biomechanical-micromotion-analysis
#16
Michael Hackl, Katharina Mayer, Mareike Weber, Manfred Staat, Roger van Riet, Klaus Josef Burkhart, Lars Peter Müller, Kilian Wegmann
PURPOSE: Double plating has been promoted, in recent years, as an alternative treatment method for proximal ulna fractures. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical properties of double-plate osteosynthesis with posterior plate fixation using a novel investigational design utilizing a 3-dimensional camera system to analyze fracture micromotion. METHODS: Fourteen fresh-frozen specimens were available for this study. Mayo type IIA fractures of the olecranon were created and internal fixation was performed with either an angular stable posterior plate or angular stable double plates...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606334/an-investigation-into-the-cause-of-the-inner-dark-areas-and-outer-lighter-areas-ghosting-seen-in-dynamically-created-two-dimensional-bare-footprints
#17
Wesley Vernon Obe, Neil Simmonite, Sarah Reel, Selina Reidy
Dynamic bare footprints differ from static bare footprints through the presence of additional, lighter markings around the rear of the heel print and apices of the toe print areas. These images can appropriately be described as inner dark and outer ghosting features. To date, the functional cause of both features has not been understood. To gain such an understanding could potentially allow the further development and use of these features in forensic identification. The aim of this project was to investigate the causes of the inner dark and outer ghosting features seen in dynamic bare footprints through an observational, practice-based action research approach within a gait laboratory...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605368/murine-short-axis-ventricular-heart-slices-for-electrophysiological-studies
#18
Gabriel Peinkofer, Juergen Hescheler, Marcel Halbach
Murine cardiomyocytes have been extensively used for in vitro studies of cardiac physiology and new therapeutic strategies. However, multicellular preparations of dissociated cardiomyocytes are not representative of the complex in vivo structure of cardiomyocytes, non-myocytes and extracellular matrix, which influences both mechanical and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Here we describe a technique to prepare viable ventricular slices of adult mouse hearts with a preserved in vivo like tissue structure, and demonstrate their suitability for electrophysiological recordings...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#19
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40 m of runway...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605220/age-stratification-and-sample-entropy-analysis-enhance-the-limits-of-stability-test-for-older-adults
#20
Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Kimberly Bigelow
The objective of this study was to determine if a foam testing condition and/or non-linear analysis methods can be used to identify differences between age stratified sub groups of older adults when conducting the Limits of Stability assessment. Ninety older adults participated in this study. A force plate was used to record center of pressure data during Limits of Stability testing on a firm and foam surface. Participants were grouped into three age-stratified sub-groups: young-old (60-69 years), middle-old (70-79 years), and old-old (80+ years)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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