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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034587/open-fluidics-a-cell-culture-flow-system-developed-over-wettability-contrast-based-chips
#1
Nuno M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, João F Mano
Biological tissues are recurrently exposed to several dynamic mechanical forces that influence cell behavior. On this work, the focus is on the shear stress forces induced by fluid flow. The study of flow-induced effects on cells leads to important advances in cardiovascular, cancer, stem cell, and bone biology understanding. These studies are performed using cell culture flow (CCF) systems, mainly parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC), and microfluidic systems. Here, it is proposed an original CCF system based on the open fluidics concept...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028622/virtual-reality-balance-training-for-elderly-similar-skiing-games-elicit-different-challenges-in-balance-training
#2
Aijse W de Vries, Gert Faber, Ilse Jonkers, Jaap H Van Dieen, Sabine M P Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Virtual Reality (VR) balance training may have advantages over regular exercise training in older adults. However, results so far are conflicting potentially due to the lack of challenge imposed by the movements in those games. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess to which extent two similar skiing games challenge balance, as reflected in center of mass (COM) movements relative to their Functional Limits of Stability (FLOS). METHODS: Thirty young and elderly participants performed two skiing games, one on the Wii Balance board (Wiiski), which uses a force plate, and one with the Kinect sensor (Kinski), which performs motion tracking...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025667/adhesion-forces-of-biofilms-developed-in-vitro-from-clinical-strains-of-skin-wounds
#3
Elizabeth Alvarado-Gomez, Mario Perez-Diaz, Donato Valdez-Perez, Jaime Ruiz-Garcia, Martin Magaña-Aquino, Gabriel Martinez-Castañon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez
A biofilm is a very complex consortium formed by a mix of different microorganisms, which have become an important health problem, because its formation is a resistance mechanism used by bacteria against antibiotics or the immune system. In this work, we show differences between some physicochemical properties of biofilms in mono- and multi-species, formed by bacteria from clinical samples of infected chronic wounds. Of the most prevalent bacteria in wounds, two mono- and one multi-species biofilms were developed in vitro by Drip Flow Reactor: one biofilm was developed by S...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025605/comparison-between-carbon-peek-volar-locking-plates-and-titanium-volar-locking-plates-in-the-treatment-of-distal-radius-fractures
#4
Dario Perugia, Matteo Guzzini, Daniele Mazza, Carlo Iorio, Carolina Civitenga, Andrea Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: Unstable intra articular fractures of distal radius are frequently being managed with open reduction and internal fixation. Volar locking plate based on polyetheretherketon (PEEK) polymer has developed lately as an alternative to conventional metallic devices. The advantage of this kind of plates include the lack of metal allergies, radiolucency, low artefacts on MRI or imaging scans and the high resistance associated to loading forces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results using a new Carbon-PEEK volar locking plate compared with titanium volar locking plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023221/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-phototherapy-in-patients-with-mandibular-fracture-on-mandibular-dynamics-pain-edema-and-bite-force-a-pilot-study
#5
Leandro Lauriti, João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Alessandro Melo Deana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Larissa Costa-Santos, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phototherapy on bite force, facial swelling, mandibular movements, and pain in patients having undergone surgical treatment for mandibular fractures. BACKGROUND: These are among the predominant types of facial fractures, and treatment involving surgical fixation with titanium plates is one of the most common procedures in oral-maxillofacial surgery. Phototherapy has been used to accelerate the muscle healing process and significantly improves muscle regeneration by inducing the formation of new muscle fibers...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022942/facile-synthesis-of-gold-nanomaterials-with-unusual-crystal-structures
#6
Zhanxi Fan, Xiao Huang, Ye Chen, Wei Huang, Hua Zhang
Gold (Au) nanomaterials have attracted wide research attention, owing to their high chemical stability, promising catalytic properties, excellent biocompatibility, unique electronic structure and outstanding localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption properties; all of which are closely related to their size and shape. Recently, crystal-phase-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials has emerged as a promising strategy to tune their physicochemical properties. This protocol describes the detailed experimental procedures for the crystal-phase-controlled syntheses of Au nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures under mild conditions...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020659/3d-gait-analysis-with-and-without-an-orthopedic-walking-boot
#7
H Gulgin, K Hall, A Luzadre, E Kayfish
INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic walking boots have been widely used in place of traditional fiberglass casts for a variety of orthopedic injuries and post-surgical interventions. These walking boots create a leg length discrepancy (LLD). LLD has been shown to alter the kinematics and kinetics of gait and are associated with lumbar and lower limb conditions such as: foot over pronation, low back pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joints. Past gait analyses research with orthopedic boots is limited to findings on the ipsilateral limb...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020108/influence-of-sports-flooring-and-shoes-on-impact-forces-and-performance-during-jump-tasks
#8
Laurent Malisoux, Paul Gette, Axel Urhausen, Joao Bomfim, Daniel Theisen
We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements) and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps) on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF) conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring), SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018320/virtual-balancing-for-studying-and-training-postural-control
#9
Daniela Buettner, Daniela Dalin, Isabella K Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
Postural control during free stance has been frequently interpreted in terms of balancing an inverted pendulum. This even holds, if subjects do not balance their own, but an external body weight. We introduce here a virtual balancing apparatus, which produces torque in the ankle joint as a function of ankle angle resembling the gravity and inertial effects of free standing. As a first aim of this study, we systematically modified gravity, damping, and inertia to examine its effect on postural control beyond the physical constraints given in the real world...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017801/influence-of-increased-posterior-tibial-slope-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-knee-joint-biomechanics-a-computational-simulation-study
#10
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Yong-Gon Koh, Juhyun Son, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Jun-Sang Lee, Sae-Kwang Kwon
BACKGROUND: The reconstructed posterior tibial slope (PTS) plays a significant role in restoring knee kinematics in cruciate-retaining-total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A few studies have reported the effect of the PTS on biomechanics. METHODS: This study investigates the effect of the PTS on tibiofemoral (TF) kinematics, patellofemoral (PF) contact stress, and forces at the quadriceps, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and collateral ligament after cruciate-retaining-TKA using computer simulations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016842/comparison-of-emg-activity-and-blood-flow-during-graded-exertion-in-the-orbicularis-oris-muscle-of-adult-subjects-with-and-without-lip-incompetence-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Jun-Ichi Takada, Jun J Miyamoto, Chiemi Sato, Ayano Dei, Keiji Moriyama
Background/Objectives: The peri-oral muscles-including orbicularis oris-are critical in maintaining equilibrium in tooth position. Lip incompetence (LI) can thus be a factor in malocclusion. We therefore aimed to validate a technique to evaluate not only muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) but also muscle endurance and fatigue via blood flow (BF) for LI. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were classified into increased muscle tension/lip incompetent (experimental) and normal muscle tension/lip competent (control) groups...
August 21, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991043/kinetic-compensations-due-to-chronic-ankle-instability-during-landing-and-jumping
#12
Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscles absorb and transfer kinetic energy during landing and jumping, which are common requirements of various forms of physical activity. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with impaired neuromuscular control and dynamic stability of the lower extremity. Little is known regarding an intra-limb, lower-extremity joint coordination of kinetics during landing and jumping for CAI patients. We investigated the effect of CAI on lower-extremity joint stiffness, and kinetic and energetic patterns across the ground contact phase of landing and jumping...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986074/finite-element-analysis-of-the-stability-of-ao-ota-43-c1-type-distal-tibial-fractures-treated-with-distal-tibia-medial-anatomic-plate-versus-anterolateral-anatomic-plate
#13
O Fuad Oken, A Ozgur Yildirim, Mehmet Asilturk
BACKGROUND: The treatment of a pilon fracture type is possible from a medial, an anterolateral approach or both medial and lateral. The aim of study was compare the stability of two different plate fixation of a tibia pilon AO-43C1 type fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, three-dimensional finite element stress analysis was applied using isotropic materials and static linear analysis. Loading of 400 N force was applied to the model of a patient fixed in a standing position...
October 3, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985577/characteristics-of-clinical-measurements-between-biomechanical-responders-and-non-responders-to-a-shoe-designed-for-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Yongwook Kim, Jim Richards, Roy H Lidtke, Renato Trede
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of biomechanical and clinical measurements in relation to the knee adduction moment when wearing a standard shoe and a shoe design for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (Flex-OA). METHODS: Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy individuals (64 knees) using a ten camera motion analysis system and four force plates. Subjects performed 5 walking trials under the two conditions and the magnitude of individuals' biomechanical responses where explored in relation to the clinical assessment of the Foot Posture Index, hip rotation range, strength of hip rotators, and active ankle-foot motion, all of which have been described as possible compensation mechanisms in knee osteoarthritis...
September 29, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985263/the-effect-of-perindopril-on-postural-instability-in-older-people-with-a-history-of-falls-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Deepa Sumukadas, Rosemary Price, Marion E T McMurdo, Petra Rauchhaus, Allan Struthers, Stephen McSwiggan, Graham Arnold, Rami Abboud, Miles Witham
Design: double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Methods: we recruited people aged >65 years with at least one fall in the previous year. Participants received 4 mg perindopril or placebo daily for 15 weeks. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in force-plate measured anteroposterior (AP) sway at 15 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other measures of postural sway, limits of stability during maximal forward, right and left leaning, blood pressure, muscle strength, 6-min walk distance and falls...
July 11, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984246/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-1
#16
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
October 6, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978448/large-amplitude-oscillatory-shear-rheology-of-living-fibroblasts-path-dependent-steady-states
#17
Mathias Sander, Heike Dobicki, Albrecht Ott
Mechanical properties of biological cells play a role in cell locomotion, embryonic tissue formation, and tumor migration among many other processes. Cells exhibit a complex nonlinear response to mechanical cues that is not understood. Cells may stiffen as well as soften, depending on the exact type of stimulus. Here we apply large-amplitude oscillatory shear to a monolayer of separated fibroblast cells suspended between two plates. Although we apply identical steady-state excitations, in response we observe different typical regimes that exhibit cell softening or cell stiffening to varying degrees...
October 3, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976599/biomechanical-investigation-of-two-long-bone-growth-modulation-techniques-by-finite-element-simulations
#18
Manuel Schneider, Jan Buschbaum, Alexander Joeris, Oliver Röhrle, Jonathan Dwyer, James B Hunter, Richard A K Reynolds, Theodor F Slongo, Boyko Gueorguiev, Peter Varga
Implants used to correct pathological varus-valgus deformities (VVD) and leg length discrepancies (LLD) may not be optimized for the specific treatment, as suggested by their off-label use. Detailed analysis of this issue has been limited by the poorly understood mechanical behavior of the growing physis and ignorance of the loads acting on the implants. The aim of this study was to predict and compare the loading conditions of a growth modulation implant in VVD and LLD treatments. Idealized finite element (FE) models of the juvenile distal femur treated with the eight-Plate implant were developed for VVD and LLD...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975846/backstroke-start-performance-the-impact-of-using-the-omega-obl2-backstroke-ledge
#19
Gordon E Barkwell, James P Dickey
FINA recently approved the backstroke ledge (Omega OBL2) to improve backstroke start performance in competition, but its performance has not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanics of starts performed with and without the OBL2. Ten high-level backstroke swimmers performed three starts with, and three starts without, the OBL2. A wall-mounted force plate measured the lower limb horizontal impulse, vertical impulse, take-off velocity and take-off angle. Entry distance, time to 10 m and start of hip and knee extension were recorded using video cameras...
October 4, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971694/biomechanical-comparison-of-intramedullary-fibular-nail-versus-plate-and-screw-fixation
#20
George Smith, Samuel Peter Mackenzie, Robert James Wallace, Tom Carter, Timothy Oliver White
BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has shown that percutaneous ankle fracture fixation using an intramedullary fibular nail results in good outcomes at 1 year and reduces postoperative wound complications in patients with vulnerable soft tissues. Confirmatory biomechanical evidence of its strength when used to secure a supination external rotation (SER) IV (AO/OTA 44B-type) fracture, compared with traditional plates and screws, is currently lacking. METHODS: Twenty cadaveric lower limbs (10 cadavers) had a SER IV injury surgically created...
September 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
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