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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340364/cervical-facet-force-analysis-after-disc-replacement-versus-fusion
#1
Vikas V Patel, Zachary R Wuthrich, Kirk C McGilvray, Matthew C Lafleur, Emily M Lindley, Derrick Sun, Christian M Puttlitz
BACKGROUND: Cervical total disc replacement was developed to preserve motion and reduce adjacent-level degeneration relative to fusion, yet concerns remain that total disc replacement will lead to altered facet joint loading and long-term facet joint arthrosis. This study is intended to evaluate changes in facet contact force, pressure and surface area at the treated and superior adjacent levels before and after discectomy, disc replacement, and fusion. METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines were potted from C2 to C7 with pressure sensors placed into the facet joints of C3-C4 and C4-C5 via slits in the facet capsules...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338618/real-time-gait-event-detection-based-on-kinematic-data-coupled-to-a-biomechanical-model-%C3%A2
#2
Stefan Lambrecht, Anna Harutyunyan, Kevin Tanghe, Maarten Afschrift, Joris De Schutter, Ilse Jonkers
Real-time detection of multiple stance events, more specifically initial contact (IC), foot flat (FF), heel off (HO), and toe off (TO), could greatly benefit neurorobotic (NR) and neuroprosthetic (NP) control. Three real-time threshold-based algorithms have been developed, detecting the aforementioned events based on kinematic data in combination with a biomechanical model. Data from seven subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill were used to validate the presented algorithms, accumulating to a total of 558 steps...
March 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338382/does-foot-anthropometry-predict-metabolic-cost-during-running
#3
Herman van Werkhoven, Stephen J Piazza
Several recent investigations have linked running economy to heel length, with shorter heels being associated with less metabolic energy consumption. It has been hypothesized that shorter heels require larger plantarflexor muscle forces, thus increasing tendon energy storage and reducing metabolic cost. The goal of this study was to investigate this possible mechanism for metabolic cost reduction. Fifteen male subjects ran at 16 km·h(-1) on a treadmill and subsequently on a force-plate instrumented runway...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336328/bone-healing-is-achievable-despite-extensive-wound-dehiscence-and-wide-plate-and-screws-exposure-in-children
#4
Elias Melhem, Wael Bayoud, Ismat Ghanem
BACKGROUD: Extensive wound dehiscence and wide plate and screw exposure in the early weeks following orthopaedic surgery in children is usually managed either by extensive debridement, lavage and secondary closure or hardware removal and external fixation. PATIENTS: Three children with LCP plate and screws exposure were managed by simple repetitive debridement and local wound care without any IV antibiotics, nor secondary closure or hardware removal. All three cases occurred in the tibia, one following tibial osteotomy in lateral hemimelia with a long history of previous surgeries, one following wide excision of a tibial Ewing sarcoma with chemo and radiotherapy, and the third following wide excision of a 12cm necrotic tibial segment due to chronic osteomyelitis...
March 20, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336150/effects-of-foot-rotation-positions-on-knee-valgus-during-single-leg-drop-landing-implications-for-acl-injury-risk-reduction
#5
P S P Teng, P W Kong, K F Leong
BACKGROUND: Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. METHODS: Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact...
March 20, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333619/the-effect-of-vibrotactile-cuing-on-recovery-strategies-from-a-treadmill-induced-trip
#6
Beom-Chan Lee, Bernard J Martin, Timothy A Thrasher, Charles S Layne
Effective fall prevention technologies need to detect and transmit the key information that will alert an individual in advance about a potential fall. This study investigated advanced vibrotactile cuing that may facilitate trip recovery for balance-impaired individuals who are prone to falling. A split-belt treadmill that simulated unpredictable trip perturbations was developed to compare balance recovery without and with cuing. Kinetic and kinematic measures from force plates and full body motion capture system were used to characterize the recovery responses...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328070/modeling-and-simulation-of-dielectrophoretic-collective-dynamics-in-a-suspension-of-polarizable-particles-under-the-action-of-a-gradient-ac-electric-field
#7
Shigeru Tada, Yan Shen, Zhiyong Qiu
When a suspension of polarizable particles is subjected to a gradient AC electric field, the particles exhibit collective motion due to an interaction between the dipole induced in the particles and the spatial gradient of the electric field; this is known as dielectrophoresis. In the present study, the collective dynamics of suspended particles in a parallel-plate electric chamber was investigated by simulating numerically the trajectories of individual particles under the action of combined dielectrophoretic and dipole-dipole interparticle forces...
March 22, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325640/computed-tomography-based-3-dimensional-finite-element-analyses-of-various-types-of-plates-placed-for-a-virtually-reduced-unilateral-condylar-fracture-of-the-mandible-of-a-patient
#8
Kazuhiro Murakami, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Tsutomu Sugiura, Satoshi Horita, Yumiko Matsusue, Tadaaki Kirita
PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate stresses in various types of plates placed for a virtually reduced unilateral condylar fracture of the mandible using computed tomography-based 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a patient to select the optimal plate system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computed tomography-based FE model of the mandible of a patient with a unilateral condylar fracture was constructed. The fracture was virtually reduced and fixed with 1 straight titanium plate; 2 straight titanium plates; 2 straight poly-L-lactic acid plates; and 4-hole (box), 5-hole (strut), and 7-hole (lambda) condylar plates...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318918/comparison-of-functional-outcomes-and-patient-reported-satisfaction-between-titanium-and-absorbable-plates-and-screws-for-fixation-of-mandibular-fractures-a-one-year-prospective-study
#9
Maria Belén Leno, Stanley Yung Liu, Chien-Tzung Chen, Han-Tsung Liao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the 1-year functional outcomes and patient-reported satisfaction in treating mandibular fractures between resorbable and titanium fixation devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 1-year prospective study was conducted; 41 consecutive patients presenting with mandibular fractures were included. A resorbable system was used in 21 patients, while in 20 patients a titanium fixation device was used. Functional outcome was evaluated objectively at several time points (2, 4 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year after surgery)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316257/acute-kinematic-and-kinetic-adaptations-to-wearable-resistance-during-vertical-jumping
#10
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Grace Couture, Chloe Evison
One variation of vertical jump (VJ) training is resisted or weighted jump training, where wearable resistance (WR) enables jumping to be overloaded in a movement specific manner. A two-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc contrasts was used to determine the acute changes in VJ performance with differing load magnitudes and load placements. Kinematic and kinetic data were quantified using a force plate and contact mat. Twenty sport active subjects (age: 27.8 ± 3.8 years; body mass (BM): 70...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303286/-fractures-of-the-olecranon
#11
P Gierer, A Wichelhaus, R Rotter
OBJECTIVE: Fractures of the olecranon are the most common fractures of the elbow in adults. Due to the dislocating force of the triceps muscle, internal fixation is the treatment of choice. INDICATIONS: All fractures of the olecranon without contraindications. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Infection and severe soft tissue damage. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Dorsal approach to the olecranon with the patient in a prone position. Open reduction and internal fixation with tension band wiring or plate fixation according to fracture pattern...
March 16, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299698/piezoelectric-plate-sensor-peps-for-analysis-of-specific-kras-point-mutations-at-low-copy-number-in-urine-without-dna-isolation-or-amplification
#12
Ceyhun E Kirimli, Wei-Heng Shih, Wan Y Shih
We have examined in situ detection of single-nucleotide KRAS mutations in urine using a (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65(PbTiO3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) coated with a 17-nucleotide (nt) locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe DNA complementary to the KRAS mutation without DNA isolation and amplification. In situ mutant (MT) DNA in urine in a wild type (WT) background was carried out at a flow rate of 4 mL/min and at 63 °C with the PEPS vertically situated at the center of the flow. Both the temperature and the impingement flow force discriminated the wild type...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294119/low-cost-and-durable-bipolar-plates-for-proton-exchange-membrane-electrolyzers
#13
P Lettenmeier, R Wang, R Abouatallah, B Saruhan, O Freitag, P Gazdzicki, T Morawietz, R Hiesgen, A S Gago, K A Friedrich
Cost reduction and high efficiency are the mayor challenges for sustainable H2 production via proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. Titanium-based components such as bipolar plates (BPP) have the largest contribution to the capital cost. This work proposes the use of stainless steel BPPs coated with Nb and Ti by magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition (PVD) and vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), respectively. The physical properties of the coatings are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron, atomic force microscopies (SEM, AFM); and X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopies (XRD, XPS)...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291321/nanoengineered-superhydrophobic-surfaces-of-aluminum-with-extremely-low-bacterial-adhesivity
#14
Ferdi Hizal, Natthakan Rungraeng, Junghoon Lee, Soojin Jun, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Chang-Hwan Choi
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces are troublesome in many industrial processes. Here, nanoporous and nanopillared aluminum surfaces were engineered by anodizing and postetching processes and made hydrophilic (using the inherent oxide layer) or hydrophobic (applying a Teflon coating) with the aim of discouraging bacterial adhesion. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 (Gram-positive, spherically shaped) and Escherichia coli K-12 (Gram-negative, rod-shaped) was evaluated to the nanoengineered surfaces under both static and flow conditions (fluid shear rate of 37 s(-1))...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288519/evaluation-of-fibular-fracture-type-vs-location-of-tibial-fixation-of-pilon-fractures
#15
Gennadiy A Busel, J Tracy Watson, Heidi Israel
BACKGROUND: Comminuted fibular fractures can occur with pilon fractures as a result of valgus stress. Transverse fibular fractures can occur with varus deformation. No definitive guide for determining the proper location of tibial fixation exists. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal plate location for fixation of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular fracture. METHODS: One hundred two patients with 103 pilon fractures were identified who were definitively treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013...
March 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284567/the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-ground-reaction-forces-during-gait-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
C Z C Hasan, Rozita Jailani, N Md Tahir, Suryani Ilias
Minimal information is known about the three-dimensional (3D) ground reaction forces (GRF) on the gait patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the 3D GRF components differ significantly between children with ASD and the peer controls. 15 children with ASD and 25 typically developing (TD) children had participated in the study. Two force plates were used to measure the 3D GRF data during walking. Time-series parameterization techniques were employed to extract 17 discrete features from the 3D GRF waveforms...
March 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284217/use-of-nintendo-wii-balance-board-for-posturographic-analysis-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-minimal-balance-impairment
#17
Giacomo Severini, Sofia Straudi, Claudia Pavarelli, Marco Da Roit, Carlotta Martinuzzi, Laura Di Marco Pizzongolo, Nino Basaglia
BACKGROUND: The Wii Balance Board (WBB) has been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to laboratory-grade Force Plates (FP) for the instrumented assessment of balance. Previous studies have reported a good validity and reliability of the WBB for estimating the path length of the Center of Pressure. Here we extend this analysis to 18 balance related features extracted from healthy subjects (HS) and individuals affected by Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with minimal balance impairment. METHODS: Eighteen MS patients with minimal balance impairment (Berg Balance Scale 53...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283077/ground-reaction-forces-of-elite-dressage-horses-in-collected-trot-and-passage
#18
H M Clayton, H C Schamhardt, S J Hobbs
In this study, sagittal plane ground reaction forces (GRFs) in ridden elite dressage horses performing 'collected trot' and in 'passage' over ground were determined. In-ground force plates captured GRF data from four Dutch Warmblood and four Lusitano horses ridden by their trainers. At least three stance phases were analysed for forelimbs and hind limbs per horse. The variables extracted were vertical and longitudinal (braking, propulsive) force maxima, their times of occurrence and the respective impulses for forelimbs and hind limbs...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283074/vertical-force-distribution-in-the-paws-of-sound-labrador-retrievers-during-walking
#19
N Schwarz, A Tichy, C Peham, B Bockstahler
In contrast to gait analysis in humans, where pedobarography is an integral part of biomechanical studies, veterinary researchers have rarely investigated vertical force distribution (VFD) in the paws of dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the VFD of peak of vertical force (PFz), vertical impulse (IFz) and time of occurrence of PFz during stance phase (TPFz) in 20 sound, adult Labrador retrievers walking normally on a pressure plate. A technique was used that divided the canine paw prints into quadrants...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282797/relief-of-knee-flexion-contracture-and-gait-improvement-following-adaptive-training-for-an-assist-device-in-a-transtibial-amputee-a-case-study
#20
Sol-Bi Kim, Chang-Yong Ko, Jinho Son, Sungjae Kang, Jeicheong Ryu, Museong Mun
BACKGROUND: Management of a knee contracture is important for regaining gait ability in transtibial amputees. However, there has been little study of prosthesis training for enhancing mobility and improving range of motion in cases of restricted knee extension. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adaptive training for an assist device (ATAD) for a transtibial amputee with a knee flexion contracture (KFC). A male transtibial amputee with KFC performed 4 months of ATAD with a multidisciplinary team...
2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
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