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Renata Kurtyka, Wojciech Pokora, Zbigniew Tukaj, Waldemar Karcz
Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling, or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA)...
October 19, 2016: AoB Plants
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Y C Wang, R L Han, Z J Li, J Geng, Y D Tian, R R Jiang, J P Wu, X T Kang
Research on the identity of genes and their relationship with traits of economic importance in chickens could assist in the selection of poultry. In this study, an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers was used to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the flanking region of the ASB15 gene by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). One SNP of -1271 C>T in 5' flanking region of the chicken ASB15 gene and two SNPs of the 10618 A>G and 10716 G>A in 3' flanking region were identified...
October 13, 2016: Animal Biotechnology
Ying Gao, Mojtaba Asadirad, Yao Yao, Pavel Dutta, Eduard Galstyan, Shahab Shervin, Keon-Hwa Lee, Sara Pouladi, Sicong Sun, Yongkuan Li, Monika Rathi, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Venkat Selvamanickam
Single-crystal-like semiconductor thin films on flexible inexpensive substrates by direct deposition are a promising candidate for high-performance and low-cost devices of flexible electronics. However, device operation of the transistors has been challenging. We report the demonstration of high-performance flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) using single-crystal-like Si thin film with on/off ratio of ~10(6), a field-effect mobility of ~200 cm(2)/V-s, and saturation current levels of I/LW >50 μA/µm, which are significantly higher than performance characteristics of other state-of-the-art flexible TFTs based on amorphous, organic, and oxide semiconductors...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Ventura-Cordero, P G González-Pech, P R Jaimez-Rodriguez, G I Ortíz-Ocampo, C A Sandoval-Castro, J F J Torres-Acosta
It is important to determine whether gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) affect foliage choice of goats leading to confirm the expression of a self-medication behavior. This study investigated the effect of GIN infection on tropical foliage selection by goats. During experimental stage 1 (10 days), goats had a natural mixed GIN infection, and at stage 2 (10 days), goats were treated with effective anthelmintics to maintain them free of GIN infection. During stage 1 the twelve adult goats (32 ± 2.3 kg live weight [LW]) were assigned to three groups (n = 4) according to their initial GIN infection status: HI group, with fecal egg count (FEC) between 1450 and 2150 eggs per g/feces (EPG); MI group, medium FEC (592-1167 EPG); and the NI group, free from GIN infection...
October 9, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Ehsan Maghsoudi, Nathalie Fortin, Charles Greer, Christine Maynard, Antoine Pagé, Sung Vo Duy, Sébastien Sauvé, Michèle Prévost, Sarah Dorner
A bacterium capable of degrading five microcystin (MC) variants, microcystin-LR, YR, LY, LW and LF at an initial total concentration of 50 μg l(-1) in less than 16 hours was isolated from Missisquoi Bay, in the south of Quebec, Canada. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium as Sphingopyxis sp., designated strain MB-E. It was shown that microcystin biodegradation activity was reduced at acidic and basic pH values. Even though no biodegradation occurred at pH values of 5...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Yihui Zhou, Qiaofeng Chen, Xinyu Du, Ge Yin, Yanling Qiu, Lu Ye, Zhiliang Zhu, Jianfu Zhao
In this study, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were analyzed in eleven freshwater fish species from Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China. The highest concentrations of PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were found in snakehead, with mean values of 38 ng g(-1) lw and 4.2 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. BDE-47 was the predominant congener of PBDEs, followed by BDE-154. Congener pattern variation of PBDEs was observed among different fish species, implying differences in biotransformation potential among fish...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Anthony J Zera, Rebecca Clark, Spence Behmer
The influence of variable nutritional input on life history adaptation is a central, but incompletely understood aspect of life history physiology. The wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, has been extensively studied with respect to the biochemical basis of life history adaptation, in particular, modification of lipid metabolism that underlies the enhanced accumulation of lipid flight fuel in the dispersing morph [LW(f)=long wings with functional flight muscles] relative to the flightless (SW=short-winged) morph...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
P A Auler, G H F A Moreira, C O Hogg, C J Ashworth, F P Bortolozzo, H Chiarini-Garcia, F R C L Almeida
The present study investigated the effect of birthweight on testicular development and spermatogenesis in boars. Twenty-four pairs of littermate boars were selected: one piglet with the highest birthweight (HW) and the other with the lowest birthweight (LW) within the litter. Two subsets of 12 pairs of male littermates from each birthweight group were obtained after selection: one subset was orchiectomised at 8 days and the other at 8 months of age. HW boars had higher body and testicular weights at both ages (P<0...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jingxiang Cui, Wei Chen, Jie Liu, Tao Xu, Yongqing Zeng
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (intramuscular fat, IMF) is one of the important traits of pork quality. How to reasonably improve the intramuscular fat content is the most focus researchers. Some possible regulation of intramuscular fat deposition of candidate genes to cause the attention of people. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) mRNA expression and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in the muscle tissue of three breeds of pig: Laiwu (LW), Lulai Black (LL), and Large White (LY)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Fabian Löw, François Waldner, Alexandre Latchininsky, Chandrashekhar Biradar, Maximilian Bolkart, René R Colditz
The Asian Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria L.) is a pest that continuously threatens crops in the Amudarya River delta near the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Its development coincides with the growing period of its main food plant, a tall reed grass (Phragmites australis), which represents the predominant vegetation in the delta and which cover vast areas of the former Aral Sea, which is desiccating since the 1960s. Current locust survey methods and control practices would tremendously benefit from accurate and timely spatially explicit information on the potential locust habitat distribution...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhixiong Shi, Lei Zhang, Jingguang Li, Yunfeng Zhao, Zhiwei Sun, Xianqing Zhou, Yongning Wu
On the basis of the fifth Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2011, the dietary exposure of the Chinese population to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) was assessed. Six NBFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal origin food groups and 29 pooled human milk samples. Based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) analysis, the levels of the total NBFRs ranged from <LOD to 70.2ng/g lipid weight (lw) in food composites and from 2.48 to 23...
September 9, 2016: Environment International
Lorena A Vargas, Oscar A Pinilla, Romina G Díaz, Diana E Sepúlveda, Erik R Swenson, Néstor G Pérez, Bernardo V Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Two potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors with widely differing membrane permeability, poorly diffusible benzolamide (BZ), and highly diffusible ethoxzolamide (ETZ) were assessed to determine whether they can reduce cardiac dysfunction in rats subjected to coronary artery ligation (CAL)-induced myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats with evidence of heart failure (HF) at 32 weeks following a permanent left anterior coronary artery occlusion were treated with placebo, BZ, or ETZ (4 mg kgday(-1)) for 4 weeks at which time left ventricular function and structure were evaluated...
August 21, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
P Hietala, J Juga
Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems...
September 9, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Javier Jiménez-Lamana, Vera I Slaveykova
The present study examines the stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of three different coatings - citrate (CIT), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and lipoic acid (LIP) and two sizes - 20 and 50nm in lake water (LW) over time. Using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS), the influence of size, surface coating, exposure time, as well as the presence and nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transformation of AgNPs at low environmental concentrations was thoroughly investigated...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alex Muntz, Kevin van Doorn, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon W Jones
Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J Eppleston, B Watt, R van de Ven
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether (i) the drenching practices of beef producers in the Central Tablelands of NSW utilising short-acting anthelmintics limit the post-weaning growth of heifers and (ii) a single weaning treatment of a long-acting anthelmintic improves post-weaning growth. METHODS: Commencing at weaning, 20/100 heifers in each of five herds were injected four times at 90-day intervals with long-acting moxidectin to suppress gastrointestinal nematodes...
September 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Xiaodan Yu, Limei Chen, Caifeng Wang, Xin Yang, Yu Gao, Ying Tian
This study aimed to examine the potential association between low-level prenatal manganese (Mn) exposure and 1-year-old children's neurodevelopment quotient (DQ) by using the Gesell Developmental Inventory (GDI) (motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Mn-induced cognitive impairments. A total of 377 mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China. Cord serum concentrations of Mn and BDNF were measured and children's DQ was evaluated...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Lixin Yang, Yang Lu, Liying Wang, Fengqi Chang, Jianbo Zhang, Yinping Liu
Eight PBDE congeners, BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209, were measured using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The concentrations of Σ8PBDEs ranged from 0.04 to 19.93 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), with median and mean value of 1.21 and 2.72 ng g(-1) lw. PBDE congeners were detected in approximately 90 % of samples with BDE-209 as the dominant one. No significant correlations were found between the mothers' age, body mass index and PBDEs concentrations. We estimated the infant's dietary intake of the studied PBDEs via human milk during different nursing durations, and found that babies younger than 1 month might take a relatively higher body burden of PBDEs...
October 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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