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Min Sik Kim, Hye-Jin Lee, Ki-Myeong Lee, Jiwon Seo, Changha Lee
Oxidative degradation of six representative microcystins (MCs) (MC-RR, -LR, -YR, -LF, -LW and -LA) by potassium permanganate (KMnO4; Mn(VII)) was investigated, focusing on the temperature- and pH-dependent reaction kinetics, the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the oxidation mechanisms. Second-order rate constants for the reactions of the six MCs with Mn(VII) (kMn(VII),MC) were determined to be 160.4-520.1 M-1 s-1 (MC-RR > -LR  -YR > -LF  -LW > -LA) at pH 7.2 and 21°C. The kMn(VII),MC values exhibited activation energies ranging from 15...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhang Xu, Weiqi Jin, Li Li, Xia Wang, Ji Chen, YuChao Jia
Current methane gas leak detection technology uses infrared imaging in the medium wave (MW) or long wave (LW) bands, essentially applying cooled infrared detectors. In this study, a simplified three-layer radiative transfer model is adopted based on methane gas detection theory, considering background radiation, atmospheric infrared absorption, gas absorption, and emission characteristics to analyze the contrast of methane gas thermography in different infrared bands. The analysis results suggest that under certain conditions, the 6...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Waleed M Alghamdi, Maria Markoulli, Eric B Papas
SIGNIFICANCE: This cross-sectional study presented a link between contact lens wear and changes on the cellular morphology characteristics of the lid wiper (LW) epithelium, which was not visible by LW staining. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish if the duration of contact lens (CL) wear affects the cellular morphology of the LW epithelium. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 individuals with different exposures to CL wear: short, moderate, and long experience of CL wear; previous CL wearers; and nonwearers (NWs) as controls...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Muthulakshmi Thangswamy, Priya Maheshwari, Dhanadeep Dutta, Vinayak G Rane, Pradeep Kumar Pujari
Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidences. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly-frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, upto the eutectic point...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Oguzhan Yavuz, Handan Hilal Arslan, Cagatay Esin, Yavuz Kursad Das, Abdurrahman Aksoy
The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Elaine Bronzatto, Cássio Luis Zanettini Riccetto
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Polypropylene meshes have been increasingly adopted for correction of pelvic organ prolapse due to its lower recurrence rate when compared to surgeries without meshes. The study of the interaction of these materials with the host tissue may contribute to the development of materials with best biocompatibility and, consequently, less complication rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study compares the inflammatory reaction of standard-weight (SW) and lightweight (LW) meshes (72 g/m216g/m2 respectively), implanted in the abdomen of 20 adult rats, which were euthanized in four or 30 days...
April 30, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
(no author information available yet)
Chen LW, Gregg A, Palm D. Longitudinal evaluation of quality improvement and public health accreditation readiness in Nebraska local health departments, 2011-2016. Public Health Rep. 2018;133(3):250-256. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0033354918754542) There was an error with respect to Figures 2 and 3 in the original published version of this article. The article has been corrected online and in print.
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Meng Li, Xiaohong Guo, Pengfei Gao, Guoqing Cao, Zhimin Cheng, Wanfeng Zhang, Jianfeng Liu, Xiaojun Liu, Bugao Li
Objective: The aim of this study was to clone alternative splicing isoforms of pig MYNN, predict the structure and function of coding protein, and study temporal and spatial expression characteristics of each transcript. Methods: Alternative splice isoforms of MYNN were identified using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and cloning techniques. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed to detect expression patterns in 11 tissues of Large White (LW) and Mashen (MS) pigs, and to study developmental expression patterns in cerebellum (CE), stomach (ST) and longissimus dorsi (LD)...
April 25, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Guanyong Su, Daryl McGoldrick, Mandi G Clark, Marlene Evans, Melissa Gledhill, Christine Garron, Alain Armellin, Sean Backus, Robert J Letcher
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a high concern environmental pollutant due to its persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. The spatial distribution of HBCDD was investigated in top predator fish (Lake Trout, Walleye or Brook Trout) collected in 2013 (n=165) from nineteen sampling sites and in 2015 (n=145) from twenty sites across Canada. HBCDD was measurable in at least one sample at each sampling site regardless of sampling year with the exception of Walleye from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg (2013)...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
K Karimi, M Sargolzaei, G S Plastow, Z Wang, Y Miar
The economic efficiency of mink production is greatly influenced by reproductive performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for reproduction traits including total number of kits born (TB), number of live kits at birth (LB), number of live kits at weaning (LW), survival rate at birth (SB), survival rate at weaning (SW), gestation length (GL), average kit weight per litter at birth (AWB), average kit weight per litter at week three (AW3) and average kit weight per litter at weaning (AWW) in American mink...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Orsolya Balogh, Rupert Bruckmaier, Stefanie Keller, Iris Margaret Reichler
The progressive adaptations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during canine pregnancy are reflected in the concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The levels of these metabolites in the bitch likely affect fetal concentrations and the composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids (AMF and ALF, respectively). We studied 31 canine parturitions (Cesarean sections) and found that glucose, NEFA and BHB concentrations were significantly higher in maternal serum than in AMF or ALF...
April 20, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Pankaj Kumar, Su Yeon Oh, Vijay K Baliyan, Sudarshan Kundu, Seung Hee Lee, Shin-Woong Kang
The surface of multilayered opal crystals resulted in homeotropic alignment of liquid crystal (LC), originated from the surface topography of opal crystals rather than a chemical nature of the nanoparticles. The polar anchoring energy (5.51 × 10-5 J/m2 ) of the crystal surface for nematic LC molecules was in a similar range to the conventional polyimide alignment layer (2.11 × 10-5 J/m2 ) used for commercial applications. The critical length scale for anchoring transition was approximately Lw = ~1 μm. If a diameter of particle d < 1 μm for opal crystals, LC molecules preferred to anchor vertically to the surface to minimize elastic free energy of bulk LCs...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
A Zaccaroni, R Andreini, S Franzellitti, D Barceló, E Eljarrat
In recent years, decline of marine mammals' populations and increased frequency of strandings have arised the interest on the role that pollution may have in these events. The present work aimed at quantifying levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and dechloranes (DECs) in tissues of 3 adult females and one foetus of sperm whales stranded in the Southern Adriatic Sea coasts (Italy). Results proved the presence of different flame retardants (FRs) in tissues of sperm whales, including various polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners (47, 99, 100, 154, entering the composition of PentaBDE mixture), hexabromocyclodecanes (HBCDs), Dec 602 and methoxylated polibrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs)...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Arevik Minasyan, Christophoros Christophoridis, Alan E Wilson, Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Anastasia Hiskia
This paper presents the first report of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from the South Caucasus region, in particular from Lake Yerevan (Armenia). Microcystis, Dolichospermum, and Planktothrix were the key genera identified during the growing season. A trend of a remarkable increase in cyanobacterial densities was observed from 2012 to 2013 exhibiting bloom formation in June (by Nostoc linckia) with the highest values in June and August 2013, reaching up to 695.9*103  cells mL-1 . Higher seasonal dependence of cyanobacterial density on temperature, and temperature as a driver for cyanobacterial cells growth and development were suggested...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hyo Jin Lee, Hae Jin Jeong, Yu Lee Jang, Gi Beum Kim
We investigated the effect of sewage treatment plant effluent on the distribution and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the marine environment. PBDEs concentrations in seawater and surface sediments were within the ranges 1.58-6.94 ng/L and 2.18-307 ng/g dw, respectively. PBDE concentrations in sediments gradually decreased with increasing distance from inner bay including the sewage outfall. The contribution of effluent to PBDE distributions was very limited. The concentrations of PBDEs in sediment core decreased exponentially with increasing depth...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Andrés Díez-Herrero, Juan Antonio García, Alfredo Ollero, Hervé Piégay, Markus Stoffel
Instream large wood (LW) is widely perceived as a source of hazard that should be avoided. This is also the case of Spain, where wood has been systematically removed from rivers for decades. Consequently, people are accustomed to rivers with minimal or no LW at all. However, the presence and transport of wood is natural and has positive ecological effects. Previous studies reported that the general negative perception towards LW in rivers is related to the lack of background knowledge about stream ecology or fluvial dynamics...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xianzhi Peng, Ke Zheng, Jun Liu, Yujuan Fan, Caiming Tang, Songsong Xiong
Parabens, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are recognized endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs) and their occurrence in the environment has attracted increasing concerns. Body-size dependent bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, trophic magnification, and maternal transfer of methy-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens, 2-phenylphenol (PHP), BPA, TCS, and TCC were investigated in freshwater fish of the Pearl River catchment, China. Most of the EDCs were detected in more than half of the biota samples, ranging from not detected to 6750 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw), with median concentrations of 5-72 ng g-1 lw...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Weiping Tang, Naling Zhu, Haiying Wang, Youwen Gao, Zhengwei Wan, Qundi Cai, Shouyi Yu, Shixing Tang
In 2013, two new viruses, equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV), both belonging to the genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae, were identified. To investigate the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of these two viruses in China, we screened EPgV and TDAV infection in imported race horses and Chinese work horses by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPgV was detected in 10.8 % (8/74) of the total horses tested, with a prevalence of 5...
April 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yanhong Zeng, Chenchen Huang, Xiaojun Luo, Yine Liu, Zihe Ren, Bixian Mai
The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and short/median-chain chlorinated paraffins (S/MCCPs) in 68 home-produced eggs collected in 2013 and 2016 from an electronic-waste (e-waste) site in South China were measured and the human dietary exposure to these two classes of contaminants via egg consumption was calculated. The levels of PCBs, SCCPs, and MCCPs varied from 236 to 8870 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 477 to 111,000 ng/g lw, and 125 to 91,100 ng/g lw, respectively. There are no significant differences in the levels of PCBs, SCCPs, and MCCPs between 2013 and 2016 (p > 0...
April 10, 2018: Environment International
Yan-Jun Liu, Shuo Yan, Zhong-Jian Shen, Zhen Li, Xin-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Qing-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Xia Liu
Phototaxis in nocturnal moths is widely utilized to control pest populations in practical production. However, as an elusive behavior, phototactic behavior is still not well understood. Determination of whether the opsin gene plays a key role in phototaxis is an interesting topic. This study was conducted to analyze expression levels and biological importance of three opsin genes (Se-uv, Se-bl, and Se-lw) and phototactic behavior of Spodoptera exigua. The three opsin genes exhibited higher expression levels during daytime, excluding Se-bl in females, whose expression tended to increase at night...
April 3, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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