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Guo-Yang Li, Qiong He, Lin Jia, Ping He, Jianwen Luo, Yanping Cao
Many cardiovascular diseases can alter arterial stiffness; therefore, measurement of arterial wall stiffness can provide valuable information for both diagnosis of such diseases in the clinic and evaluation of the effectiveness of relevant drugs. However, quantitative assessment of the in vivo elastic properties of arterial walls in a non-invasive manner remains a great challenge. In this study, we found that the elastic modulus of the arterial wall can be extracted from the dispersion curve of the guided axial wave (GAW) measured using the ultrasound elastography method...
November 28, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
J A Félix-Bernal, A Estrada-Angulo, M A Angulo-Escalante, B I Castro-Pérez, H Landeros-López, M A López-Soto, A Barreras, R A Zinn, A Plascencia
The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
P Silalahi, T Tribout, A Prunier, Y Billon, J Gogué, J P Bidanel
Genetic trends for male and female sexual development and components of litter size and weight at birth (LB) as well as traits related to sow lifetime productivity were estimated in a French Large White (LW) pig population using frozen semen. Two experimental groups (EXP = L77 and L98) were produced by inseminating LW sows with either stored frozen semen from 17 LW boars born in 1977 (EXP = L77) or with semen from 23 LW boars born in 1998 (EXP = L98). In each group, about 100 males were measured for testicular development and bulbo-urethral gland development, and 90 gilts were checked for puberty, among which about 50 gilts were measured for their first ovulation rate at puberty (ORP)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
D L Robinson, M Cameron, A J Donaldson, S Dominik, V H Oddy
Feed intake (FI), live weight (LW), and ADG were recorded over 31 d in ninety-six 12-month-old ewes (progeny of 4 sires) given ad libitum access to chaffed lucerne/cereal hay. Methane (CH) and CO emissions of each ewe were measured for 40 to 60 min in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) and in respiration chambers (RC) over 22 h. Testing in RC increased the variability of FI on the test day and depressed the amount eaten from an average of 1,384 to 1,062 g/d; FI depression increased by 0.63 ± 0.24 percentage points for every kilogram of additional LW...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
C F Chia, W H Chan, K W Yau, Cko Chan
PURPOSE AND METHODS: Femoral hernia repairs have been done classically with three different open approaches, namely the Lockwood's (LW), Lotheissen's (LT) and McEvedy's (ME) approaches. Current literature has yet provided any definite conclusion over the best approach in emergency situations. This study aims to evaluate and compare the operative outcomes of these three approaches in emergency situations by retrospectively analyzing 190 cases (76 ME, 33 LT, 81 LW) in 13 years at a regional surgical center...
November 28, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
A Zastepa, Z E Taranu, L E Kimpe, J M Blais, I Gregory-Eaves, R W Zurawell, F R Pick
Based on an analysis of sediment cores from Baptiste Lake (Alberta, Canada), we quantified century-scale trends in cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and identified possible drivers of toxigenic cyanobacteria. We measured concentrations of microcystins and pigments preserved in the sediment as proxies of toxigenic cyanobacteria and phytoplankton communities, respectively, while fossil diatom assemblages were used to infer past nutrient concentrations. Microcystins were detected in older sediments (ca. 1800s), pre-dating any significant alteration to the watershed...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Krishna Das, Govindan Malarvannan, Alin Dirtu, Violaine Dulau, Magali Dumont, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jeremy T Howard, Francesco Tiezzi, Yijian Huang, Kent A Gray, Christian Maltecca
BACKGROUND: In nucleus populations, regions of the genome that have a high frequency of runs of homozygosity (ROH) occur and are associated with a reduction in genetic diversity, as well as adverse effects on fitness. It is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, ROH stretches persist in the crossbred genome and how genomic management in the nucleus population might impact low diversity regions and its implications on the crossbred genome. METHODS: We calculated a ROH statistic based on lengths of 5 (ROH5) or 10 (ROH10) Mb across the genome for genotyped Landrace (LA), Large White (LW) and Duroc (DU) dams...
November 24, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Yang Shin Park, Chang Hee Lee, Jongmee Lee, Jae Woong Choi, Kyeong Ah Kim, Cheol Min Park
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of body habitus factors on image quality of low-tube voltage computed tomography (CT) during the hepatic arterial phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven patients (66 men, 31 women; age range, 26-78 years) who underwent clinically indicated liver dynamic CT examination were enrolled in the study. Analysis with 80-kVp CT and intermediate tube current (277-337 mA) was performed in the late hepatic arterial phase using a 320-detector row scanner with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3-dimensional reconstruction...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
N Shetty, P Løvendahl, M S Lund, A J Buitenhuis
The present study explored the effectiveness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI). The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models. The models were validated using different external test sets, one randomly leaving out 20% of the records (validation A), the second randomly leaving out 20% of cows (validation B), and a third (for DMI prediction models) randomly leaving out one cow (validation C)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Klara Bulc Rozman, Damijana Mojca Jurič, Dušan Šuput
Microcystins (MCs) comprise a group of cyanobacterial toxins with hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and, possibly, neurotoxic activity in mammals. In order to understand the development of their neurotoxicity we investigated the toxic effects of MC variants, MC-LR, MC-LW and MC-LF, in astrocytes that play a central role in maintaining brain homeostasis. 24h exposure of cultured rat cortical astrocytes to MCs revealed dose-dependent toxicity of MC-LF and MC-LW, but not of MC-LR, observed by significant reduction in cell number, declined viability monitored by MTT test and an increased percentage of apoptotic cells, confirmed by Annexin-V labelling...
November 15, 2016: Toxicology Letters
N Bissonnette, X R Jiang, J J Matte, F Guay, G Talbot, V Bontempo, J Gong, Q Wang, M Lessard
This study evaluated the potential of a weanling diet supplemented with trace minerals, vitamins, prebiotics, essential oils, antioxidants and bovine colostrum (BC) to modulate the inflammatory response of low-weight (LW) and high-weight (HW) piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At weaning (20±1 d), litters from 32 sows were assigned to four groups: control diet (CTL), CTL plus dietary supplements (DS) or the antibiotic chlortetracycline (ATB), or DS plus BC in place of plasma proteins in the weanling diet (DS+BC)...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
M A Bouwhuis, T Sweeney, A Mukhopadhya, K Thornton, P O McAlpine, J V O'Doherty
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between zinc methionine (ZnM) and laminarin (LAM) on piglet growth performance and intestinal health post-weaning. Experiment 1 was designed as 2 × 2 factorial with four treatments [n = 8, weaning age (WA) 24 days, live weight (LW) 7.15 kg]: (i) basal diet (BD); (ii) BD + 500 mg/kg ZnM; (iii) BD + 300 mg/kg LAM; and (iv) BD + 500 mg/kg ZnM + 300 mg/kg LAM. There was an interaction (p < 0.05) between LAM and ZnM. Pigs that were offered the LAM diet had a similar performance to the BD...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Steven A Groene, Tanushree Prasad, Amy E Lincourt, Vedra A Augenstein, Ronald Sing, Brant Todd Heniford
BACKGROUND: Mesh choice in open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) remains controversial. Our aim was to analyze prospective outcomes among heavyweight, midweight, and lightweight (LW) mesh. METHODS: A study of the International Hernia Mesh Registry was performed for OVHR. Operative details, complications, recurrence, and quality of life (QOL) at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 549 OVHRs, 99 using heavyweight, 262 midweight, and 188 LW mesh...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Lorna Watson, Cathryn Broderick, Matthew P Armon
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for deep vein thrombosis aims to reduce immediate complications. Use of thrombolysis or clot dissolving drugs could reduce the long-term complications of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) including pain, swelling, skin discolouration, or venous ulceration in the affected leg. This is the third update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of thrombolytic therapy and anticoagulation compared to anticoagulation alone for the management of people with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limb as determined by the effects on pulmonary embolism, recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, post-thrombotic complications, venous patency and venous function...
November 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura Khurana, Ellen M Durand, Sarah T Gary, Antonio V Otero, Millie C Gerzon, Jamie Beck, Chris Hall, Susan M Dallabrida
OBJECTIVES: Electronic data capture is increasingly used to improve collection of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical trials and care. The validation of electronic patient-reported outcome devices requires information on patient preference and ease of use. This study conducted usability testing for a General Symptom Questionnaire and Medication Module™ on a handheld device for subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether subjects can report on their symptoms and medication use using an electronic diary...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Monica Giulivo, Ettore Capri, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló
A fast on-line analytical method based on turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) has been applied for the analysis of fourteen organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in sediment and fish samples. Applying this technique, time-consuming sample preparation steps were eliminated. The extraction was performed by ultrasound liquid extraction for biota and by pressurized liquid extraction for sediments. After extraction, environmental and biotic extracts were directly injected to the chromatographic system and analytes were concentrated into the cleanup loading column...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Leihong Zhao, Fangyuan Wang, Xuexiang Weng, Renjie Li, Xiaoling Zhou, Hongjun Lin, Haiying Yu, Bao-Qiang Liao
This study focused on developing indicators to predict adhesive membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Thermodynamic interactions between membrane surface and foulants in various interaction scenes were comprehensively evaluated. It was revealed that, the total interaction energy in contact could be considered as a critical value affecting adhesion of foulants. Surface hydrophilicity cannot be simply represented by water contact angle. Statistical analysis showed that membrane acid-based (AB) surface tension, Lifshitz-Van der waals (LW) surface tension, total tension, zeta potential and water contact angle had no apparent correlation with adhesive fouling, suggesting the infeasibility of these parameters as fouling predictors...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Renata Kurtyka, Wojciech Pokora, Zbigniew Tukaj, Waldemar Karcz
Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling, or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA)...
October 19, 2016: AoB Plants
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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