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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782624/the-underlying-mechanisms-involved-in-the-protective-effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning
#1
Rong Xie, Jinquan Li, Heng Zhao
Cerebral ischemic postconditioning (PostC) refers to a series of brief ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) cycles applied at the onset of reperfusion following an ischemic event. PostC has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, and represents a promising clinical strategy against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Many studies have indicated that cerebral PostC can effectively reduce neural cell death, cerebral edema and infarct size, improve cerebral circulation, and relieve inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress...
2018: Conditioning medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782286/-ngal-as-a-marker-for-some-extrarenal-complications-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#2
M A Shalenkova, Z D Mikhailova, P F Klimkin
AIM: To study the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a marker for extrarenal complications in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 110 patients with ACS on days 1-3 of hospitalization, concentrations of NGAL, serum (s-NGAL) and urinary (u-NGAL) NGAL, and N-terminal fragment of pro-B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Incidence of cardiovascular complications was determined during the stay in the hospital; hemodynamic parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) were measured on admission...
2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780723/cerebral-perfusion-issues-in-type-a-aortic-dissection
#3
REVIEW
Davide Pacini, Giacomo Murana, Luca Di Marco, Marianna Berardi, Carlo Mariani, Giuditta Coppola, Mariafrancesca Fiorentino, Alessandro Leone, Roberto Di Bartolomeo
Stroke events are very common in acute type A aortic dissection. Cerebral malperfusion could manifest at presentation due to prolonged arch vessels hypoperfusion or develop after surgery for inadequate cerebral protection during arch repair. To reduce this detrimental complication there are several adjuncts that can be adopted for cerebral protection such as direct antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) and use period of deep to moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest time; however, they are often insufficient as preoperative malperfusion already caused irreversible ischemic damages...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780654/penile-and-scrotal-strangulation-due-to-metal-rings-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
Neel H Patel, Ariel Schulman, Jonathan Bloom, Nikil Uppaluri, Michael Iorga, Suraj Parikh, John Phillips, Muhammad Choudhury
Penile and scrotal entrapment from a metal ring placed at the base of the penis is a rare, but important clinical dilemma encountered in urology. Emergent presentation to the urologist, after ring placement far longer than safely practiced, risks ischemic and permanent injury to penile, scrotal, and intrascrotal structures. Treating urologists should be aware of the prevalence of metal ring use, their potential complications, and the surgical approach to their safe removal. We present two patients who were identified at our institution with strangulating injuries of retained penile rings...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#5
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778748/protein-kinases-are-involved-in-the-cardioprotective-effects-activated-by-platelet-glycoprotein-iib-iiia-inhibitor-tirofiban-at-reperfusion-in-rats-in-vivo
#6
Shih-Tai Chang, Ya-Ting Yang, Chi-Ming Chu, Kuo-Li Pan, Jen-Te Hsu, Ju-Feng Hsiao, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chang-Min Chung
The thrombolytic effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors) in myocardial infarction has been well established. Nevertheless, data on the mechanism of the cardioprotective effect of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in ischemic-reperfusion injury (IR) are lacking. Sprague-Dawley rats received 120min of coronary ischemia and 180min of reperfusion. A GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was given via continuous intravenous infusion at a rate of 2 ug/kg/min 30min prior to reperfusion with/without inhibitors of PKCε (chelerythrine), PI3 kinase and Akt (wortmannin), p38 MAPK (SB203582), p42/44 MAPK (PD98059) and ERK1/2 (u0126) 15min prior to the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778695/corticosteroids-and-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Katherine R Concepcion, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is the major cause of neonatal mortality and severe long-term neurological morbidity. Yet, the effective therapeutic interventions currently available are extremely limited. Corticosteroids act on both mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors and modulate inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Neuroinflammatory response to acute cerebral HI is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury. Here, we give an overview of current knowledge of corticosteroid-mediated modulations of inflammation and apoptosis in the neonatal brain, focusing on key regulatory cells of the innate and adaptive immune response...
May 17, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778453/mitral-valve-repair-complicated-by-left-circumflex-coronary-artery-occlusion-an-under-recognized-but-potentially-deadly-complication
#8
Tariq A Ahmad, Matthew Nudy, Dirk Pabst, Mark Kozak
Mitral valve repair is becoming an increasingly frequent surgery for patients with mitral valve regurgitation. Iatrogenic coronary artery injury and ischemic myocardial compromise have been previously reported in the literature as a rare but serious complication of surgical mitral valve repair. This potentially life-threatening complication should be considered and quickly recognized during perioperative mitral valve repair or replacement to prevent morbidity and mortality. To increase awareness and to prevent this complication from being missed in the future, we present a case report of iatrogenic left circumflex artery dynamic occlusion and subsequent myocardial infarction from mitral valve annuloplasty resulting in severe peri-operative heart failure and death...
April 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777902/chemical-characterization-and-cerebroprotective-effect-of-methanolic-root-extract-of-colebrookea-oppositifolia-in-rats
#9
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Shylaja Hanumanthappa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith is one of the extensively used plants to treat neurological conditions such as epilepsy by the various ethnic communities in sub-Himalayan regions of India such as Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of C. oppositifolia methanolic root (MeCO) extract in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MeCO was characterized for total phenolic content and later subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777774/mir-125b-5p-is-involved-in-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-injury-in-pc-12-cells-via-cbs-h-2-s-pathway
#10
Yaqi Shen, Zhuqing Shen, Lingyan Guo, Qiuyan Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Lei Miao, Minjun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yizhun Zhu
AIMS: Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be implicated in cerebral hypoxia injury and could serve as a therapeutic target. As the third gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays a critical role in hypoxia-induced injury in the central nervous system. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the main enzyme catalyzing the production of H2 S in brain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-125b-5p on protecting against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) injury in PC-12 cells by regulating CBS and H2 S generation...
May 16, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776812/preservation-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-improves-primary-graft-function-of-murine-lung-transplants
#11
Jessica Götzfried, Natalia F Smirnova, Carmela Morrone, Brice Korkmaz, Ali Önder Yildirim, Oliver Eickelberg, Dieter E Jenne
BACKGROUND: Vascular damage and primary graft dysfunction increase with prolonged preservation times of transplanted donor lungs. Hence, storage and conservation of donated lungs in protein-free, dextran-containing electrolyte solutions, like Perfadex, is limited to about 6 hours. We hypothesized that transplanted lungs are protected against neutrophil-mediated proteolytic damage by adding α1 -anti-trypsin (AAT), a highly abundant human plasma proteinase inhibitor, to Perfadex. METHODS: A realistic clinically oriented murine model of lung transplantation was used to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion process...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776790/-modern-treatment-of-mesenteric-ischemia
#12
Alexandre Nuzzo, Audrey Huguet, Olivier Corcos
Acute mesenteric ischemia is a highly morbid affliction which requires urgent care. Acute mesenteric ischemia consists in an ischemia injury of the small bowel, secondary to vascular insufficiency, either occlusive (thrombosis, embolism, arterial, venous) or non-occlusive (low flow or vasospasm). Given that the superior mesenteric artery supplies the small bowel as well as the right part of the colon, any ischemic process involving the right colon should be considered an acute mesenteric ischemia until proven otherwise...
May 15, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776451/myeloid-specific-tak1-deletion-results-in-reduced-brain-monocyte-infiltration-and-improved-outcomes-after-stroke
#13
Anjali Chauhan, Jacob Hudobenko, Abdullah Al Mamun, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anthony Patrizz, Rodney M Ritzel, Bhanu P Ganesh, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) occurs after stroke and leads to an exacerbation of brain injury. TAK1 is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but it has divergent inflammatory effects that are dependent on the cell type in which it is activated. There is a robust infiltration of myeloid cells after stroke; however, the contribution of myeloid TAK1 to cerebral ischemia is currently unknown. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deletion of TAK1 would protect against ischemic brain injury...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776439/concurrence-of-symmetrical-peripheral-gangrene-and-venous-limb-gangrene-following-polytrauma-a-case-report
#14
Jih Huei Tan, Yuzaidi Mohamad, Chor Lip Henry Tan, Mahazir Kassim, Theodore E Warkentin
BACKGROUND: Symmetrical peripheral gangrene is characterized as acral (distal extremity) ischemic limb injury affecting two or more extremities, without large vessel obstruction, typically in a symmetrical fashion. Risk factors include hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute ischemic hepatitis ("shock liver"). In contrast, venous limb gangrene is characterized by acral ischemic injury occurring in a limb with deep vein thrombosis. Both symmetrical peripheral gangrene and venous limb gangrene present as acral limb ischemic necrosis despite presence of arterial pulses...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#15
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775963/brain-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-ischemic-injury-and-preserves-the-blood-brain-barrier-via-oxidative-signaling-and-nrf2-activation
#16
Tuo Yang, Yang Sun, Leilei Mao, Meijuan Zhang, Qianqian Li, Lili Zhang, Yejie Shi, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen, Feng Zhang
Brain ischemic preconditioning (IPC) with mild ischemic episodes is well known to protect the brain against subsequent ischemic challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate the critical role of the master redox transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), in IPC-mediated neuroprotection and blood-brain barrier (BBB) preservation. We report that IPC causes generation of endogenous lipid electrophiles, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which release Nrf2 from inhibition by Keap1 (via Keap1-C288) and inhibition by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (via GSK3β-C199)...
May 6, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775142/aspirin-for-primary-prevention-of-stroke-in-traumatic-cerebrovascular-injury-association-with-increased-risk-of-transfusion
#17
Russell L Griffin, Stephanie R Falatko, Stella Aslibekyan, Virginia Strickland, Mark R Harrigan
OBJECTIVE Blunt traumatic extracranial carotid or vertebral artery injury (i.e., traumatic cerebrovascular injury [TCVI]) occurs in 1%-2% of all blunt trauma admissions, carries a 10% risk of thromboembolic ischemic stroke, and accounts for up to 9600 strokes annually in the US. Screening CT angiograms (CTAs) of patients with trauma has become ubiquitous in recent years, and patients with initially asymptomatic TCVI are commonly treated with antiplatelet agents to prevent stroke. Prophylaxis with antiplatelets is thought to be safer than anticoagulation, which carries a significant risk of hemorrhage in patients with trauma...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773952/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-myocardial-protection-in-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Marcelo R Bacci, Livia Y Vasconcelos, Neif Murad, Antonio Carlos P Chagas, Ana Carolina Capuano, Beatriz Ca Alves, Edimar C Pereira, Ligia A Azzalis, Virginia Bc Junqueira, Fernando LA Fonseca
Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a procedure that generates a brief period of ischemia followed by reperfusion. The role of RIPC in protecting myocardial ischemia during hemodialysis is not yet established. The aim of the study was to evaluate RIPC myocardial protection as evaluated by ultrasensitive I troponin in hemodialysis outpatients. Patients and methods: A double-blind randomized trial with two groups: intervention submitted to RIPC and control group without RIPC...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773712/acute-kidney-injury-and-risk-of-heart-failure-and-atherosclerotic-events
#20
Alan S Go, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Jingrong Yang, Thida C Tan, Sijie Zheng, Juan D Ordonez, Kathleen D Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI in the hospital is common and is associated with excess mortality. We examined whether AKI is also independently associated with a higher risk of different cardiovascular events in the first year after discharge. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort between 2006 and 2013 with follow-up through 2014, within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We identified all adults admitted to 21 hospitals who had one or more in-hospital serum creatinine test result and survived to discharge...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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