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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748919/severe-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Evie Huang, Peck Y Ong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood leads to significant morbidity including psychosocial problems and infectious complications. There are only a few approved treatment options for these patients. These include topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment, which are associated with potential side effects. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to find better and safer treatments, further understanding of AD mechanisms is needed. Primary skin barrier defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD...
May 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649105/glyteer-soybean-tar-impairs-il-4-stat6-signaling-in-murine-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-the-basis-of-its-therapeutic-effect-on-atopic-dermatitis
#2
Masaki Takemura, Takeshi Nakahara, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Masutaka Furue, Gaku Tsuji
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of T helper (Th)2 cytokines including Interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the pathogenesis of AD. Since epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) produce CCL17 and CCL22 that chemoattract Th2 cells, interfering with CCL17 and CCL22 production from LCs and dermal myeloid DCs may be beneficial in the treatment of AD. To investigate this, we stimulated murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) with IL-4...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643980/perillaldehyde-inhibits-ahr-signaling-and-activates-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway-in-human-keratinocytes
#3
Yoko Fuyuno, Hiroshi Uchi, Mao Yasumatsu, Saori Morino-Koga, Yuka Tanaka, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
The skin covers the outer surface of the body, so the epidermal keratinocytes within it are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental pollutants such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a potent activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Antioxidant activity is generally mediated by the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) axis in human keratinocytes. Perillaldehyde is the main component of Perilla frutescens , which is a medicinal antioxidant herb traditionally consumed in East Asia...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568008/voriconazole-induced-photocarcinogenesis-is-promoted-by-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-dependent-cox-2-upregulation
#4
Shigeki Ikeya, Jun-Ichi Sakabe, Takahiro Yamada, Takafumi Naito, Yoshiki Tokura
Voriconazole (VRCZ) induces the development of UV-associated skin cancers. The mechanism underlying the VRCZ-induced carcinogenesis has been largely unknown. Here, we showed that VRCZ metabolites plus UVA generated reactive oxygen species and resultant DNA damage of the epidermis, but did not induce substantial apoptosis in human keratinocytes (KCs). Furthermore, VRCZ per se stimulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and upregulates COX-2, which is a pivotal enzyme for the promotion of UV-associated tumors, in an AhR-ARNT dependent manner of the classical (genomic) pathway...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500077/protective-role-of-6-formylindolo-3-2-b-carbazole-ficz-an-endogenous-ligand-for-arylhydrocarbon-receptor-in-chronic-mite-induced-dermatitis
#5
Mari Kiyomatsu-Oda, Hiroshi Uchi, Saori Morino-Koga, Masutaka Furue
BACKGROUND: Chronic eczema such as atopic dermatitis imposes significant socio-econo-psychologic burdens on the affected individuals. In addition to conventional topical treatments, phototherapy is recommended for patients with extensive lesions. Although immunosuppression is believed to explain its primary effectiveness, the underlying mechanisms of phototherapy remain unsolved. Ultraviolet irradiation generates various tryptophan photoproducts including 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]-carbazole (FICZ)...
June 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462476/malassezia-pachydermatis-up-regulates-ahr-related-cyp1a1-gene-and-epidermal-barrier-markers-in-human-keratinocytes
#6
Elisabetta Buommino, Adone Baroni, Chiara Papulino, Francesca Paola Nocera, Lorena Coretti, Giovanna Donnarumma, Anna De Filippis, Luisa De Martino
Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor activated by a variety of ligands among which Malassezia metabolites. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhR in human keratinocytes infected with different strains of Malassezia pachydermatis, as well as the upregulation of some genes involved in the epidermal homeostasis. We demonstrated that all the strains induced AhR activation and its nuclear translocation in HaCaT cells infected for 24 h, compared to untreated cells...
February 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298861/hypersensitive-assessment-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-transcriptional-activity-using-a-novel-truncated-cyp1a-promoter-in-zebrafish
#7
Juan-Juan Luo, Dong-Sheng Su, Shao-Lin Xie, Yi Liu, Pei Liu, Xiao-Jun Yang, De-Sheng Pei
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP), an unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, and a human carcinogen. The expression of the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1a) gene is upregulated in the presence of TCDD through activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Several essential response elements, including the 8 potential xenobiotic response elements in the cyp1a promoter region, have been identified to be the main functional parts for the response to TCDD...
January 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287765/mechanisms-of-aging-and-development-a-new-understanding-of-environmental-damage-to-the-skin-and-prevention-with-topical-antioxidants
#8
REVIEW
Karen E Burke
Recent research has given us new insights into the molecular biology of extrinsic aging of the skin. Not only does UV irradiation directly cause photoaging of the skin, but also environmental pollutants significantly damage exposed skin by several mechanisms. Exposure to the noxious gases of air pollution with simultaneous exposure to UVA can act synergistically to initiate skin cancer. Also ozone generated from pollutants reacting with UV induces oxidative stress of the skin's surface via formation of lipid peroxidation products, with cascading consequences to deeper layers...
December 26, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285309/1-8-cineole-prevents-uvb-induced-skin-carcinogenesis-by-targeting-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#9
Jangho Lee, Su Jeong Ha, Joon Park, Yong Ho Kim, Nam Hyouck Lee, Young Eon Kim, Yoonsook Kim, Kyung-Mo Song, Sung Keun Jung
1,8-cineole is a natural monoterpene cyclic ether present in Eucalyptus , and has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the preventive effect of 1,8-cineole on skin carcinogenesis and the molecular mechanism of action responsible remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1,8-cineole on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. 1,8-cineole inhibited UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) generation in HaCaT cells...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258844/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-the-crossroad-of-signalling-networks-with-therapeutic-value
#10
REVIEW
Ángel C Roman, José M Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jaime M Merino, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known for its major contributions to the cellular responses against environmental toxins and carcinogens. Notably, AhR has also emerged as a key transcription factor controlling many physiological processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis, differentiation, adhesion and migration, pluripotency and stemness. These novel functions have broadened our understanding of the signalling pathways and molecular intermediates interacting with AhR under both homeostatic and pathological conditions...
December 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231728/protective-effect-of-mulberry-morus-alba-l-extract-against-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-skin-damage-through-inhibition-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#11
Hyunju Woo, JungA Lee, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197551/allelic-variants-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-differentially-influence-uvb-mediated-skin-inflammatory-responses-in-skh1-mice
#12
Kayla J Smith, Iain A Murray, Jacob A Boyer, Gary H Perdew
The mouse strain SKH1 is widely used in skin research due to its hairless phenotype and intact immune system. Due to the complex nature of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) function in the skin, the development of additional in vivo models is necessary to study its role in cutaneous homeostasis and pathology. Variants of the Ah allele, exist among different mouse strains. The Ahb-1 and Ahd alleles express high and low affinity ligand binding forms of the AHR, respectively. The outbred SKH1 mice express the Ahb-2 and/or Ahd alleles...
February 1, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197056/current-state-of-yusho-and-prospects-for-therapeutic-strategies
#13
Chikage Mitoma, Hiroshi Uchi, Kiyomi Tsukimori, Takashi Todaka, Jumboku Kajiwara, Takayuki Shimose, Manabu Akahane, Tomoaki Imamura, Masutaka Furue
The mass food poisoning incident yusho occurred in Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Notably, PCDFs were found to contribute to approximately 65% of the total toxicity equivalent in the blood of yusho patients. Lipophilic dioxins are retained in the body for a longer period than previously estimated. Victims suffered from characteristic skin manifestations associated with non-specific systemic symptoms, neurological symptoms, and respiratory symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115465/trichosanthes-kirilowii-extract-enhances-repair-of-uvb-radiation%C3%A2-induced-dna-damage-by-regulating-bmal1-and-mir%C3%A2-142%C3%A2-3p-in-human-keratinocytes
#14
Ji-Hye Joo, In-Kee Hong, Nam Kyoung Kim, Eunmi Choi
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation, and suppresses the immune system in the skin, which collectively contribute to skin aging and carcinogenesis. The DNA damage response, including DNA repair, can be regulated by the circadian clock and microRNA (miRNA) expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reparative action of Trichosanthes kirilowii extract (TKE) against UVB irradiation‑induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. TKE demonstrated low cytotoxicity in normal HaCaT keratinocytes at low doses (up to 100 µg/ml)...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102224/an-endogenous-tryptophan-photo-product-ficz-is-potentially-involved-in-photo-aging-by-reducing-tgf-%C3%AE-regulated-collagen-homeostasis
#15
Mika Murai, Gaku Tsuji, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Yoshihito Kawakami, Masutaka Furue, Chikage Mitoma
BACKGROUND: Persistent ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the form of sunlight causes photo-aging of the skin by reducing the production of type I collagen, the major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the dermis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β transforms dermal fibroblasts into α2-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2)-expressing myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts produce a precursor form of type I collagen, type I procollagen (collagen I), consisting of pro-alpha1 (produced by the COL1A1 gene) and pro-alpha2 chains (produced by the COL1A2 gene)...
January 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973660/from-the-cover-high-susceptibility-of-lrig1-sebaceous-stem-cells-to-tcdd-in-mice
#16
Fabienne Fontao, Laurent Barnes, Guerkan Kaya, Jean-Hilaire Saurat, Olivier Sorg
We have previously shown that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) was highly induced for a long period of time in a patient who had been poisoned by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a compound known to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). During that period of time, no sebaceous glands could be observed in the skin of this patient. In this study, starting from observations in the patient exposed to TCDD, we analyzed the seboatrophy induced by dioxins in mice. We observed a very different pattern of AhR and CYP1A1 immunostaining in skin biopsies of the patient...
December 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973351/editor-s-highlight-ah-receptor-activation-potentiates-neutrophil-chemoattractant-c-x-c-motif-ligand-5-expression-in-keratinocytes-and-skin
#17
Kayla J Smith, Jacob A Boyer, Gulsum E Muku, Iain A Murray, Krishne Gowda, Dhimant Desai, Shantu G Amin, Adam B Glick, Gary H Perdew
Chemokines are components of the skin microenvironment, which enable immune cell chemotaxis. Traditionally, transcription factors involved in inflammatory signaling (eg, NFκB) are important mediators of chemokine expression. To what extent xenobiotics and their associated receptors control chemokine expression is poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known to mediate physiological responses in the skin through the regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, epidermal differentiation, and immunity...
November 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941474/resolving-inflammation-by-targeting-an-ancient-innate-immune-sensor-with-a-bacterial-metabolite
#18
REVIEW
Andrew Johnston
Bacterial, fungal, and plant metabolites are promising sources of small molecules for drug discovery. Smith et al. show that tapinarof, a bacteria-derived polyphenol, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that attenuated inflammatory responses and shows therapeutic potential for inflammatory skin diseases. This work adds to the growing literature stemming from the renewed interest in the discovery and development of novel small molecules with anti-inflammatory activity.
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892018/antioxidant-artemisia-princeps-extract-enhances-the-expression-of-filaggrin-and-loricrin-via-the-ahr-ovol1-pathway
#19
Akiko Hirano, Masashi Goto, Tsukasa Mitsui, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Gaku Tsuji, Masutaka Furue
The Japanese mugwort, Artemisia princeps (yomogi in Japanese), has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Skin care products containing Artemisia princeps extract (APE) are known to improve dry skin symptoms in atopic dermatitis. Atopic dry skin is associated with a marked reduction of skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin (LOR). Recently, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and its downstream transcription factor OVO-like 1 (OVOL1), have been shown to regulate the gene expression of FLG and LOR...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891677/genetic-variation-in-the-mitf-promoter-affects-skin-colour-and-transcriptional-activity-in-black-boned-chickens
#20
G Wang, J Liao, M Tang, S Yu
1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a pivotal role in melanocyte development by regulating the transcription of major pigmentation enzymes (e.g. TYR, TYRP1 and DCT). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.-638T>C, was identified in the MITF promoter, and genotyping of a population (n = 426) revealed that SNP c.-638T>C was associated with skin colour in black-boned chickens. 2. Individuals with genotypes CC and TC exhibited greater MTIF expression than those with genotype TT...
February 2018: British Poultry Science
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