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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor skin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720465/inhibition-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-and-induction-of-nrf2-mediated-antioxidant-activity-by-cinnamaldehyde-in-human-keratinocytes
#1
Hiroshi Uchi, Mao Yasumatsu, Saori Morino-Koga, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
BACKGROUND: Dioxins and other environmental pollutants are toxic and remain in biological tissues for a long time leading to various levels of oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of these agents has been linked to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), no effective treatment has been developed. OBJECTIVE: To explore novel phytochemicals that inhibit AHR activation in keratinocytes. METHODS: Keratinocytes were used in this study because the skin is one of the organs most affected by dioxin and other environmental pollutants...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670593/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-liver-resident-natural-killer-cells
#2
Luhua H Zhang, June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
A tissue-resident population of natural killer cells (NK cells) in the liver has recently been described to have the unique capacity to confer immunological memory in the form of hapten-specific contact hypersensitivity independent of T and B cells. Factors regulating the development and maintenance of these liver-resident NK cells are poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor modulated by exogenous and endogenous ligands that is important in the homeostasis of immune cells at barrier sites, such as the skin and gut...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539901/action-spectrum-of-melanoblast-maturation-and-involvement-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#3
Motoki Nakamura, Emi Nishida, Akimichi Morita
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates melanocyte activation and skin tanning. We hypothesized that the AHR also mediates melanoblast-to-melanocyte maturation. In a cloned cell line, NCCmelb4, derived from mouse neural crest cells, we investigated AHR expression in melanoblasts stimulated by UV irradiation and AHR agonists. We irradiated the cells with UV, ranging from 280 to 380 nm in 10-nm increments, using a multiwavelength irradiation spectral apparatus. Tyrosinase expression significantly increased with bimodal peaks at 310 and 360 nm...
August 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430407/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-keratinocytes-is-essential-for-murine-skin-barrier-integrity
#4
Katharina Haas, Heike Weighardt, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Björn Clausen, Sonja Zahner, Petra Boukamp, Wilhelm Bloch, Jean Krutmann, Charlotte Esser
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in adaptive cell functions, and is highly active in the epidermis. AhR ligands can accelerate keratinocyte differentiation, but the precise role of AhR in the skin barrier is unknown. Our study showed that transepidermal water loss (TEWL), a parameter of skin barrier integrity, is high in AhR-deficient (AhR-KO) mice. Experiments with conditionally AhR-deficient mouse lines identified keratinocytes as the primary cell population responsible for high TEWL...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376471/cd69-controls-the-uptake-of-l-tryptophan-through-lat1-cd98-and-ahr-dependent-secretion-of-il-22-in-psoriasis
#5
Danay Cibrian, María Laura Saiz, Hortensia de la Fuente, Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Olga Moreno-Gonzalo, Inmaculada Jorge, Alessia Ferrarini, Jesús Vázquez, Carmen Punzón, Manuel Fresno, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Esteban Daudén, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero, Pilar Martín, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The activation marker CD69 is expressed by skin γδ T cells. Here we found that CD69 controlled the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent secretion of interleukin 22 (IL-22) by γδ T cells, which contributed to the development of psoriasis induced by IL-23. CD69 associated with the aromatic-amino-acid-transporter complex LAT1-CD98 and regulated its surface expression and uptake of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and the intracellular quantity of L-Trp-derived activators of AhR. In vivo administration of L-Trp, an inhibitor of AhR or IL-22 abrogated the differences between CD69-deficient mice and wild-type mice in skin inflammation...
August 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363826/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-skin-manifestations
#6
Qiang Ju, Christos C Zouboulis
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin...
June 30, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313009/urban-particulate-matter-down-regulates-filaggrin-via-cox2-expression-pge2-production-leading-to-skin-barrier-dysfunction
#7
Chiang-Wen Lee, Zih-Chan Lin, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Yao-Chang Chiang, Lee-Fen Hsu, Yu-Ching Lin, I-Ta Lee, Ming-Horng Tsai, Jia-You Fang
We explored the regulation of filaggrin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression induced by urban particulate matter (PM) in human keratinocytes. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in PM-induced effects on COX2/PGE2 and filaggrin. PMs induced increases in COX2 expression and PGE2 production, and decreased filaggrin expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with COX2 inhibitor and PGE2 receptor antagonist, or after transfection with siRNAs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), gp91phox and p47phox...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184933/balancing-intestinal-and-systemic-inflammation-through-cell-type-specific-expression-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-repressor
#8
Olga Brandstätter, Oliver Schanz, Julia Vorac, Jessica König, Tetsushi Mori, Toru Maruyama, Markus Korkowski, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Dorthe von Smolinski, Joachim L Schultze, Josef Abel, Charlotte Esser, Haruko Takeyama, Heike Weighardt, Irmgard Förster
As a sensor of polyaromatic chemicals the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exerts an important role in immune regulation besides its requirement for xenobiotic metabolism. Transcriptional activation of AhR target genes is counterregulated by the AhR repressor (AhRR) but the exact function of the AhRR in vivo is currently unknown. We here show that the AhRR is predominantly expressed in immune cells of the skin and intestine, different from other AhR target genes. Whereas AhRR antagonizes the anti-inflammatory function of the AhR in the context of systemic endotoxin shock, AhR and AhRR act in concert to dampen intestinal inflammation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129092/benzopyrene-a-major-polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-in-smoke-fume-mobilizes-langerhans-cells-and-polarizes-th2-17-responses-in-epicutaneous-protein-sensitization-through-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#9
Chien-Hui Hong, Chih-Hung Lee, Hsin-Su Yu, Shau-Ku Huang
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with genetic and environmental interactions. We previously reported lifetime exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with adult-onset AD. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is important in regulating environmental exposure to xenobiotics, including benzopyrenes (BP), a major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) present in cigarette smoke. However, how AhR regulates immune responses in sensitization phase of AD remained elusive. METHODS: We investigated how BP affects epicutaneous sensitization response through AhR axis...
April 26, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686552/evidence-for-new-light-independent-pathways-for-generation-of-the-endogenous-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonist-ficz
#10
Anna Smirnova, Emma Wincent, Linda Vikström Bergander, Tomas Alsberg, Jan Bergman, Agneta Rannug, Ulf Rannug
Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a conserved transcription factor best known as a target for highly toxic halogenated substances such as dioxin, under normal xenobiotic-free conditions is of considerable scientific interest. We have demonstrated previously that a photoproduct of tryptophan, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), fulfills the criteria for an endogenous ligand for this receptor and proposed that this compound is the enigmatic mediator of the physiological functions of AhR. Here, we describe novel light-independent pathways by which FICZ can be formed...
January 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613509/myeloid-human-cell-lines-lack-functional-regulation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-dependent-phase-i-genes
#11
Claudia Skazik-Voogt, Katrin Kühler, Hagen Ott, Katharina Czaja, Gabriele Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Hans F Merk, Philipp M Amann, Jens M Baron
Primary dendritic cells and myeloid cell lines are used to assess the skin sensitization hazard in in vitro approaches. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modulates expression of CYP enzymes which play a significant role in the bioactivation of various xenobiotics. These studies revealed a strong constitutive expression of the AhR in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDC) and cord blood-derived Langerhans cells (LC). In contrast, mRNA and protein expression of AhR was hardly detectable in the cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-3...
2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26440531/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-in-acne-vulgaris-skin-a-case-series-from-the-region-of-naples-italy
#12
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Gürkan Kaya, Patricia Caseiro Silverio, Valerio De Vita, Aysin Kaya, Fabienne Fontao, Olivier Sorg, Jean-Hilaire Saurat
BACKGROUND: Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants present in the environment. They exert their biological effects by binding to an intracellular receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Activation of AhR leads to the induction of cytochrome p450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Expression of CYP1A1 in human skin is a key marker for AhR activation, and it may induce comedogenesis resulting in acne-like lesions known as chloracne/metabolising acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas (MADISH). The contribution of this pathway in patients seen in a busy acne clinic is unknown...
2015: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26363502/impurities-contained-in-antifungal-drug-ketoconazole-are-potent-activators-of-human-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#13
Aneta Grycová, Aneta Dořičáková, Zdeněk Dvořák
Antifungal drug ketoconazole is a mixture of (+)/(-) cis-enantiomers, which also contains several impurities. Ketoconazole was identified as an activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR by three independent research teams. In the current paper we demonstrate that impurities contained in ketoconazole preparations are strong activators of human AhR and inducers of CYP1A1. Impurity IMP-C had similar potency (EC50), but 10-15 times higher efficacy (magnitude of induction) towards AhR, comparing to (+)-ketoconazole, as revealed by gene reporter assay in AZ-AHR stably transfected cells...
December 3, 2015: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360246/occluded-cigarette-smoke-exposure-causing-localized-chloracne-like-comedones
#14
Andrew T Patterson, Frances T Tian, Dirk M Elston, Benjamin H Kaffenberger
Many environmental acne disorders, including chloracne and oil acne, were previously thought to occur predominantly in occupational settings following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Cigarette smoke has also been shown to contain a large number of these toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components and strictly correlates with noninflammatory acneiform lesion development in postadolescent patients. We report a case of localized open comedones associated with occluded cigarette smoke exposure near the nasal cavity due to infrequently changed gauze following rhinectomy...
2015: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26354876/ultraviolet-light-converts-propranolol-a-nonselective-%C3%AE-blocker-and-potential-lupus-inducing-drug-into-a-proinflammatory-ahr-ligand
#15
Karim Dorgham, Zahir Amoura, Christophe Parizot, Laurent Arnaud, Camille Frances, Cédric Pionneau, Hervé Devilliers, Sandra Pinto, Rima Zoorob, Makoto Miyara, Martin Larsen, Hans Yssel, Guy Gorochov, Alexis Mathian
UV light and some medications are known to trigger lupus erythematosus (LE). A common mechanism underlying the immunopathologic effect, resulting from exposure to these two seemingly unrelated factors, remains unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in the regulation of IL-22 production in humans and can be activated by both xenobiotics and naturally occurring photoproducts. A significant expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was observed in the peripheral blood of active systemic LE (SLE) patients, compared to inactive patients and controls...
November 2015: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289769/recognizing-the-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-skin-health
#16
REVIEW
S E Mancebo, S Q Wang
Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora...
December 2015: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26276439/gene-regulation-of-filaggrin-and-other-skin-barrier-proteins-via-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#17
REVIEW
Masutaka Furue, Gaku Tsuji, Chikage Mitoma, Takeshi Nakahara, Takahito Chiba, Saori Morino-Koga, Hiroshi Uchi
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that binds to structurally diverse chemicals including dioxins, coal tar, flavonoids and tryptophan photoproducts. Upon ligation, cytoplasmic AHR translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and mediates numerous biological effects by inducing the transcription of various AHR-responsive genes such as epidermal barrier proteins. The activation of AHR usually generates oxidative stress...
November 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269144/the-janus-faced-role-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-skin-consequences-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-skin-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Charlotte Esser, Jean Krutmann
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in all skin cell types, which is critically involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of skin diseases and thus represents a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies indicate that blocking AHR activation is desirable in some skin conditions, whereas the opposite, i.e., stimulation of AHR activation, is beneficial in another group of skin disorders. We here propose a model based on qualitative differences in canonical versus non-canonical AHR signaling to reconcile these seemingly contradictory observations...
November 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26226682/-latest-findings-of-yusho-and-its-therapeutic-development
#19
REVIEW
Chikage Mitoma, Hiroshi Uchi, Gaku Tsuji, Saori Koga, Masutaka Furue
Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food poisoning that occurred in the western area of Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The victims of Yusho have suffered from characteristic skin manifestations in company with systemic, ophthalmological, and mucosal symptoms for a long period. Since the outbreak of Yusho, the Study Group of Yusho has been conducting annual medical check-ups on Yusho victims...
May 2015: Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, Hukuoka Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26183243/t-helper-22-cells-as-a-new-player-in-chronic-inflammatory-skin-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Abbas Mirshafiey, Anita Simhag, Nadia M M El Rouby, Gholamreza Azizi
T-helper 22 (Th22) cell is a new subset of CD4+ T cells that secrets interleukin (IL)-22 but not IL-17 or interferon-γ. Th22 is distinct from Th17 and other known CD4+ T-cell subsets with distinguished gene expression and function. Th22 subsets have chemokine receptors CCR6+ CCR4+ CCR10+ phenotype and aryl hydrocarbon receptor as the key transcription factor. This T-helper subset, by producing cytokines such as IL-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α, is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorder...
August 2015: International Journal of Dermatology
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