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Eating in the absence of hunger

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080906/the-5-ht2c-receptor-agonist-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-mcpp-reduces-palatable-food-consumption-and-bold-fmri-responses-to-food-images-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#1
Jason M Thomas, Colin T Dourish, Jeremy Tomlinson, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Peter C Hansen, Suzanne Higgs
RATIONALE: Brain 5-HT2C receptors form part of a neural network that controls eating behaviour. 5-HT2C receptor agonists decrease food intake by activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, but recent research in rodents has suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may also act via dopaminergic circuitry to reduce the rewarding value of food and other reinforcers. No mechanistic studies on the effects of 5-HT2C agonists on food intake in humans have been conducted to date...
October 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071792/behavioral-associations-with-overweight-in-low-income-children
#2
Ashley N Gearhardt, Alison L Miller, Julie Sturza, Leonard H Epstein, Niko Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: Food reinforcement (relative reinforcement value [RRV]), self-control (the ability to delay gratification [ATDG]), and eating outside of homeostatic need (eating in the absence of hunger [EAH]) are associated with overweight/obesity. These constructs have typically been studied in isolation in children, and little is known about how they interrelate and whether these associations differ by sex. The objective of this study is to investigate these associations by sex. METHODS: In a low-income sample of 230 7- to 10-year-old children, RRV, ATDG, and EAH were assessed...
October 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#3
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898708/cue-exposure-therapy-reduces-overeating-of-exposed-and-non-exposed-foods-in-obese-adolescents
#4
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Fren T Y Smulders, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether two sessions of food cue exposure therapy reduced eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), specified for exposed and non-exposed food, in overweight and obese adolescents, and whether habituation of food cue reactivity and reduced CS-US expectancies predicted a decrease in EAH. METHODS: 41 overweight adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cue exposure intervention or a lifestyle intervention (control condition)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662906/reducing-consumption-of-confectionery-foods-a-post-hoc-segmentation-analysis-using-a-social-cognition-approach
#5
Paul Naughton, Mary McCarthy, Sinéad McCarthy
Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572588/hippocampal-atrophy-and-altered-brain-responses-to-pleasant-tastes-among-obese-compared-with-healthy-weight-children
#6
Z L Mestre, A Bischoff-Grethe, D M Eichen, C E Wierenga, D Strong, K N Boutelle
OBJECTIVE: The hippocampus is a key structure implicated in food motivation and intake. Research has shown that the hippocampus is vulnerable to the consumption of a western diet (i.e., high saturated fat and simple carbohydrates). Studies of patients with obesity (OB), compared with healthy weight (HW), show changes in hippocampal volume and response to food cues. Moreover, evidence suggests that OB children, relative to HW, have greater hippocampal response to taste. However, no study has examined the association of hippocampal volume with taste functioning in children...
October 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321980/relationship-between-food-insecurity-child-weight-status-and-parent-reported-child-eating-and-snacking-behaviors
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tanja V E Kral, Jesse Chittams, Reneé H Moore
PURPOSE: Prior studies showed that food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children and adults. We still know very little about the familial aggregation of obesity in food-insecure households or the mechanisms by which food insecurity confers an increased risk of obesity to children. The purpose of this study was to compare children and mothers from food-insecure and food-secure households in their weight status, child eating patterns/behaviors, and maternal feeding practices...
April 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283032/sustainability-via-active-garden-education-sage-results-from-two-feasibility-pilot-studies
#8
Rebecca E Lee, Nathan H Parker, Erica G Soltero, Tracey A Ledoux, Scherezade K Mama, Lorna McNeill
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. METHODS: SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241982/association-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-rs1800497-polymorphism-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#9
Ana M Obregón, Macarena Valladares, Gary Goldfield
OBJECTIVES: Studies have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497) has previously been associated with obesity and eating behavior. Additionally, this polymorphism has been associated with diminished dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) density, higher body mass, and food reinforcement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism and eating behavior in Chilean children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which we selected 258 children (44% girls, 56% boys; ages 8-14 y) with a wide variation in body mass index...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#10
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131964/contextual-factors-associated-with-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-among-adults-with-obesity
#11
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Carolyn M Pearson, Linsey M Utzinger, Carly R Pacanowski, Tyler B Mason, Laura A Berner, Scott G Engel, Stephen A Wonderlich, Carol B Peterson
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day×EAH interactions...
August 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940713/randomized-exposure-to-food-advertisements-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-among-preschoolers
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jennifer A Emond, Reina K Lansigan, Archana Ramanujam, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
BACKGROUND: Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. METHODS: Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939774/exploring-food-reward-and-calorie-intake-in-self-perceived-food-addicts
#13
Helen K Ruddock, Matt Field, Charlotte A Hardman
Previous research indicates that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. These 'self-perceived food addicts' may demonstrate aberrant eating patterns which put them at greater risk of overeating. However this is yet to be empirically investigated. The current study investigated whether self-perceived food addicts would exhibit higher food reward and calorie intake in a laboratory context relative to self-perceived non-addicts. A secondary aim was to investigate whether self-perceived food addicts would demonstrate increased food liking and/or increased hunger ratings...
August 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#14
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851989/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-during-childhood-predicts-self-reported-binge-eating-in-adolescence
#15
Katherine N Balantekin, Leann L Birch, Jennifer S Savage
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the current study were to examine whether eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at age 7 predicted reports of self-reported binge eating at age 15 and to identify factors among girls with high-EAH that moderated risk of later binge eating. METHOD: Subjects included 158 girls assessed at age 7 and age 15. Logistic regression was used to predict binge eating at age 15 from calories consumed during EAH at age 7. A series of logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of reporting binge eating given levels of risk factors (e...
January 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730429/association-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-gene-rs17782313-polymorphism-with-rewarding-value-of-food-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#16
A M Obregón, K Oyarce, J L Santos, M Valladares, G Goldfield
Studies conducted in monozygotic and dizygotic twins have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. Rare mutations and common variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been linked to obesity and eating behavior scores. However, few studies have assessed common variants in MC4R gene with the rewarding value of food in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism with homeostatic and non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chileans children...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620645/emotion-regulation-strategies-and-childhood-obesity-in-high-risk-preschoolers
#17
Thomas G Power, Yadira A Olivera, Rachael A Hill, Ashley D Beck, Veronica Hopwood, Karina Silva Garcia, Guadalupe G Ramos, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation)...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289521/associations-of-sleep-duration-and-quality-with-disinhibited-eating-behaviors-in-adolescent-girls-at-risk-for-type-2-diabetes
#18
Nichole R Kelly, Lauren B Shomaker, Rachel M Radin, Katherine A Thompson, Omni L Cassidy, Sheila Brady, Rim Mehari, Amber B Courville, Kong Y Chen, Ovidiu A Galescu, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVES: Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes...
August 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244808/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-and-weight-gain-in-low-income-toddlers
#19
Katharine Asta, Alison L Miller, Lauren Retzloff, Katherine Rosenblum, Niko A Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in low-income toddlers, describe affect during EAH, test EAH as a predictor of body mass index (BMI), and examine the type of food eaten as a predictor of BMI. METHODS: EAH, indexed as kilocalories (sweet, salty, and total) of palatable foods consumed after a satiating meal, was measured (n = 209) at ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Child gender, age, race/ethnicity, and previous exposure to the foods; maternal education and depressive symptoms; and family chaos, food insecurity, and structure were obtained via questionnaire...
May 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182090/estimating-controlled-direct-effects-of-restrictivefeeding-practices-in-the-early-dieting-in-girls-study
#20
Yeying Zhu, Debashis Ghosh, Donna L Coffman, Jennifer S Savage
In this article, we examine the causal effect of parental restrictive feeding practices on children's weight status. An important mediator is children's self-regulation status. Recent approaches interpret mediation effects based on the potential outcomes framework. Inverse probability weighting based on propensity scores are used to adjust for confounding and reduce the dimensionality of confounders simultaneously. We show that combining machine learning algorithms and logistic regression to estimate the propensity scores can be more accurate and efficient in estimating the controlled direct effects than using logistic regression alone...
January 2016: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
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