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Eating in the absence of hunger

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#1
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851989/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-during-childhood-predicts-self-reported-binge-eating-in-adolescence
#2
Katherine N Balantekin, Leann L Birch, Jennifer S Savage
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the current study were to examine whether eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at age 7 predicted reports of self-reported binge eating at age 15 and to identify factors among girls with high-EAH that moderated risk of later binge eating. METHOD: Subjects included 158 girls assessed at age 7 and age 15. Logistic regression was used to predict binge eating at age 15 from calories consumed during EAH at age 7. A series of logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of reporting binge eating given levels of risk factors (e...
November 10, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730429/association-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-gene-rs17782313-polymorphism-with-rewarding-value-of-food-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#3
A M Obregón, K Oyarce, J L Santos, M Valladares, G Goldfield
Studies conducted in monozygotic and dizygotic twins have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. Rare mutations and common variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been linked to obesity and eating behavior scores. However, few studies have assessed common variants in MC4R gene with the rewarding value of food in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism with homeostatic and non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chileans children...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620645/emotion-regulation-strategies-and-childhood-obesity-in-high-risk-preschoolers
#4
Thomas G Power, Yadira A Olivera, Rachael A Hill, Ashley D Beck, Veronica Hopwood, Karina Silva Garcia, Guadalupe G Ramos, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation)...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289521/associations-of-sleep-duration-and-quality-with-disinhibited-eating-behaviors-in-adolescent-girls-at-risk-for-type-2-diabetes
#5
Nichole R Kelly, Lauren B Shomaker, Rachel M Radin, Katherine A Thompson, Omni L Cassidy, Sheila Brady, Rim Mehari, Amber B Courville, Kong Y Chen, Ovidiu A Galescu, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVES: Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes...
August 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244808/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-and-weight-gain-in-low-income-toddlers
#6
Katharine Asta, Alison L Miller, Lauren Retzloff, Katherine Rosenblum, Niko A Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in low-income toddlers, describe affect during EAH, test EAH as a predictor of body mass index (BMI), and examine the type of food eaten as a predictor of BMI. METHODS: EAH, indexed as kilocalories (sweet, salty, and total) of palatable foods consumed after a satiating meal, was measured (n = 209) at ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Child gender, age, race/ethnicity, and previous exposure to the foods; maternal education and depressive symptoms; and family chaos, food insecurity, and structure were obtained via questionnaire...
May 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182090/estimating-controlled-direct-effects-of-restrictivefeeding-practices-in-the-early-dieting-in-girls-study
#7
Yeying Zhu, Debashis Ghosh, Donna L Coffman, Jennifer S Savage
In this article, we examine the causal effect of parental restrictive feeding practices on children's weight status. An important mediator is children's self-regulation status. Recent approaches interpret mediation effects based on the potential outcomes framework. Inverse probability weighting based on propensity scores are used to adjust for confounding and reduce the dimensionality of confounders simultaneously. We show that combining machine learning algorithms and logistic regression to estimate the propensity scores can be more accurate and efficient in estimating the controlled direct effects than using logistic regression alone...
January 2016: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133731/the-relation-of-hedonic-hunger-and-restrained-eating-to-lateralized-frontal-activation
#8
S R Winter, E H Feig, J Kounios, B Erickson, S Berkowitz, M R Lowe
Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083128/latina-mothers-influences-on-child-appetite-regulation
#9
Karina Silva Garcia, Thomas G Power, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days...
August 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994737/from-lab-to-clinic-extinction-of-cued-cravings-to-reduce-overeating
#10
REVIEW
Anita Jansen, Ghislaine Schyns, Peggy Bongers, Karolien van den Akker
Food cue reactivity is a strong motivation to eat, even in the absence of hunger. Therefore, food cue reactivity might sabotage healthy eating, induce weight gain and impede weight loss or weight maintenance. Food cue reactivity can be learned via Pavlovian appetitive conditioning: It is easily acquired but the extinction of appetitive responding seems to be more challenging. Several properties of extinction make it fragile: extinction does not erase the original learning and extinction is context-dependent...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970728/contextual-and-environmental-influences-on-reported-dietary-energy-intake-at-evening-eating-occasions
#11
Chelsea Lock, Emily Brindal, Gilly A Hendrie, David N Cox
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting. DESIGN: A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal...
April 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911259/parental-control-and-overconsumption-of-snack-foods-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#12
June Liang, Brittany E Matheson, Kyung E Rhee, Carol B Peterson, Sarah Rydell, Kerri N Boutelle
The associations between snack food consumption, parent feeding practices and general parenting in overweight in obese children are largely unknown. Therefore, we examined these relationships in 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese children (10.40 ± 1.35 years; 53% female; 52% Caucasian; BMI-z: 2.06 ± .39). Children consumed a dinner meal, completed an Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) free access paradigm (total EAH intake = EAH%-total; sweet food intake = EAH%-sweet), and completed the Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory...
May 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811004/eating-behaviors-and-weight-development-in-obesity-prone-children-and-the-importance-of-the-research-of-albert-j-stunkard
#13
REVIEW
Tanja V E Kral
Albert J. Stunkard, MD, was an internationally recognized leader and pioneer in the field of obesity and eating disorders research. He was also among the first scientists to study eating phenotypes and early life risk factors for childhood obesity at a time when childhood obesity prevalence rates were still comparatively low. The aim of this review is to highlight select findings from the work of Albert J. Stunkard which significantly advanced our understanding of eating traits of children with a different familial predisposition to obesity and genetic and environmental influences on weight outcomes...
March 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775646/weight-related-correlates-of-psychological-dysregulation-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-aya-females-with-severe-obesity
#14
Marissa A Gowey, Jennifer Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer Becnel, James Peugh, James E Mitchell, Meg H Zeller
OBJECTIVE: Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. METHODS: Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48...
April 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26667312/cortisol-response-to-an-induction-of-negative-affect-among-adolescents-with-and-without-loss-of-control-eating
#15
R M Radin, L B Shomaker, N R Kelly, C K Pickworth, K A Thompson, S M Brady, A Demidowich, O Galescu, A M Altschul, L M Shank, S Z Yanovski, M Tanofsky-Kraff, J A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Adults with binge eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge eating disorder. METHODS: We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger...
December 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649466/expectancy-violation-reduction-of-food-cue-reactivity-and-less-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-after-one-food-cue-exposure-session-for-overweight-and-obese-women
#16
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Sandra Mulkens, Anita Jansen
The present study investigated whether a single-session of food cue exposure for overweight women would decrease 'if CS then US' expectancies, cue reactivity and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). EAH was measured in a behavioural paradigm that enabled to also investigate whether the cue exposure effects were specific for exposed foods or would generalise to food items that were not present during exposure. Overweight women were randomly assigned to either the cue exposure intervention or a control intervention that focused on body image...
January 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593154/weight-bias-internalization-emotion-dysregulation-and-non-normative-eating-behaviors-in-prebariatric-patients
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sabrina Baldofski, Almut Rudolph, Wolfgang Tigges, Beate Herbig, Christian Jurowich, Stefan Kaiser, Arne Dietrich, Anja Hilbert
OBJECTIVE: Weight bias internalization (WBI) is associated with eating disorder psychopathology and non-normative eating behaviors among individuals with overweight and obesity, but has rarely been investigated in prebariatric patients. Based on findings demonstrating a relationship between emotion dysregulation and eating behavior, this study sought to investigate the association between WBI and eating disorder psychopathology as well as non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., food addiction, emotional eating, and eating in the absence of hunger), mediated by emotion dysregulation...
February 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561409/higher-eating-frequency-does-not-decrease-appetite-in-healthy-adults
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Martine M Perrigue, Adam Drewnowski, Ching-Yun Wang, Marian L Neuhouser
BACKGROUND: Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial...
January 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536818/orexin-hypocretin-1-receptor-antagonism-selectively-reduces-cue-induced-feeding-in-sated-rats-and-recruits-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-thalamus
#19
Sindy Cole, Heather S Mayer, Gorica D Petrovich
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for reward-seeking behaviors, however less is known about its function in non-homeostatic feeding. Environmental influences, particularly cues for food can stimulate feeding in the absence of hunger and lead to maladaptive overeating behavior. The key components of the neural network that mediates this cue-induced overeating in sated rats include lateral hypothalamus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), yet the neuropharmacological mechanisms within this network remain unknown...
November 5, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26172567/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-adapting-the-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-assessment-for-preschoolers-in-the-classroom-setting
#20
Erica G Soltero, Tracey Ledoux, Rebecca E Lee
Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2)...
December 2015: Eating Behaviors
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