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Eating in the absence of hunger

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341214/cue-reactivity-habituation-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-in-children-with-loss-of-control-eating-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Anja Hilbert, Susanne Kurz, Daniela Dremmel, Susann Weihrauch Blüher, Simone Munsch, Ricarda Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Childhood loss of control (LOC) eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid conditions and present with disordered eating behaviors, such as overeating. This study sought to delineate shared and specific abnormalities in physiological, cognitive-motivational, and behavioral components of food-specific impulsivity in children with LOC eating and ADHD. Specifically, children's reactivity and habituation to food and eating in the absence of hunger were examined...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331366/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-is-related-to-loss-of-control-eating-hedonic-hunger-and-short-term-weight-gain-in-normal-weight-women
#2
Emily H Feig, Amani D Piers, Tanja V E Kral, Michael R Lowe
Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year...
January 10, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288678/parental-feeding-practices-to-manage-snack-food-intake-associations-with-energy-intake-regulation-in-young-children
#3
Nadia Corsini, Lisa Kettler, Vanessa Danthiir, Carlene Wilson
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been directed to understanding the relationship between restriction and regulation of snack food intake in toddlers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of parental restriction of toddlers' eating of snacks in the absence of hunger (EAH) and to examine the impact of three contextual factors; snack food access, frequency of snack food consumption, and attraction to snack food. DESIGN: 64 parents and toddlers (aged 22-36 months) took part in a protocol to measure EAH (defined as kJ of energy-dense snack foods consumed)...
December 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274949/what-works-better-food-cue-exposure-aiming-at-the-habituation-of-eating-desires-or-food-cue-exposure-aiming-at-the-violation-of-overeating-expectancies
#4
Ghislaine Schyns, Karolien van den Akker, Anne Roefs, Rianne Hilberath, Anita Jansen
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the role of habituation of eating desires and violation of overeating expectancies during food cue exposure in obese women. METHOD: 52 obese females were randomised into a two-session exposure condition aimed at habituation, a two-session exposure condition aimed at expectancy violation, or a no-treatment control condition. Eating in the absence of hunger of foods included during cue exposure (i.e., exposed foods) and foods not included during cue exposure (i...
December 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258621/maternal-restrictive-feeding-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-among-toddlers-a-cohort-study
#5
Katherine W Bauer, Jess Haines, Alison L Miller, Katherine Rosenblum, Danielle P Appugliese, Julie C Lumeng, Niko A Kaciroti
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding by parents has been associated with greater eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) among children, a risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have examined the association between restrictive feeding and EAH longitudinally, raising questions regarding the direction of associations between restrictive feeding and child EAH. Our objective was to examine the bidirectional prospective associations between restrictive feeding and EAH among toddlers. METHODS: Low-income mother-child dyads (n = 229) participated when children were 21, 27, and 33 months old...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220529/oxytocin-and-naltrexone-successfully-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-a-boy-post-craniopharyngioma-resection
#6
Eugenie A Hsu, Jennifer L Miller, Francisco A Perez, Christian L Roth
Context: Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. Case description: In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154884/double-up-examining-the-effects-of-adding-inhibition-training-to-food-cue-exposure-in-chocolate-loving-female-students
#7
Peggy Bongers, Katrijn Houben, Anita Jansen
In the present we study investigated whether addition of a Go/No Go training enhanced the effects of food cue exposure. We assessed desire to eat, salivation, CS-US expectancies, and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) during and after cue exposure. Participants (N = 71) were chocolate-loving female students who tried to eat less chocolate in daily life. They received two sessions of either cue exposure with Go/No Go training (EXP + GNG), cue exposure with a sham training (EXP + shamGNG), or a control procedure with sham training (CON + shamGNG)...
November 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080906/the-5-ht2c-receptor-agonist-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-mcpp-reduces-palatable-food-consumption-and-bold-fmri-responses-to-food-images-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#8
Jason M Thomas, Colin T Dourish, Jeremy Tomlinson, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Peter C Hansen, Suzanne Higgs
RATIONALE: Brain 5-HT2C receptors form part of a neural network that controls eating behaviour. 5-HT2C receptor agonists decrease food intake by activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, but recent research in rodents has suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may also act via dopaminergic circuitry to reduce the rewarding value of food and other reinforcers. No mechanistic studies on the effects of 5-HT2C agonists on food intake in humans have been conducted to date...
October 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071792/behavioral-associations-with-overweight-in-low-income-children
#9
Ashley N Gearhardt, Alison L Miller, Julie Sturza, Leonard H Epstein, Niko Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: Food reinforcement (relative reinforcement value [RRV]), self-control (the ability to delay gratification [ATDG]), and eating outside of homeostatic need (eating in the absence of hunger [EAH]) are associated with overweight/obesity. These constructs have typically been studied in isolation in children, and little is known about how they interrelate and whether these associations differ by sex. The objective of this study is to investigate these associations by sex. METHODS: In a low-income sample of 230 7- to 10-year-old children, RRV, ATDG, and EAH were assessed...
October 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#10
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898708/cue-exposure-therapy-reduces-overeating-of-exposed-and-non-exposed-foods-in-obese-adolescents
#11
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Fren T Y Smulders, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether two sessions of food cue exposure therapy reduced eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), specified for exposed and non-exposed food, in overweight and obese adolescents, and whether habituation of food cue reactivity and reduced CS-US expectancies predicted a decrease in EAH. METHODS: 41 overweight adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cue exposure intervention or a lifestyle intervention (control condition)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662906/reducing-consumption-of-confectionery-foods-a-post-hoc-segmentation-analysis-using-a-social-cognition-approach
#12
Paul Naughton, Mary McCarthy, Sinéad McCarthy
Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572588/hippocampal-atrophy-and-altered-brain-responses-to-pleasant-tastes-among-obese-compared-with-healthy-weight-children
#13
Z L Mestre, A Bischoff-Grethe, D M Eichen, C E Wierenga, D Strong, K N Boutelle
OBJECTIVE: The hippocampus is a key structure implicated in food motivation and intake. Research has shown that the hippocampus is vulnerable to the consumption of a western diet (i.e., high saturated fat and simple carbohydrates). Studies of patients with obesity (OB), compared with healthy weight (HW), show changes in hippocampal volume and response to food cues. Moreover, evidence suggests that OB children, relative to HW, have greater hippocampal response to taste. However, no study has examined the association of hippocampal volume with taste functioning in children...
October 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321980/relationship-between-food-insecurity-child-weight-status-and-parent-reported-child-eating-and-snacking-behaviors
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tanja V E Kral, Jesse Chittams, Reneé H Moore
PURPOSE: Prior studies showed that food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children and adults. We still know very little about the familial aggregation of obesity in food-insecure households or the mechanisms by which food insecurity confers an increased risk of obesity to children. The purpose of this study was to compare children and mothers from food-insecure and food-secure households in their weight status, child eating patterns/behaviors, and maternal feeding practices...
April 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283032/sustainability-via-active-garden-education-sage-results-from-two-feasibility-pilot-studies
#15
Rebecca E Lee, Nathan H Parker, Erica G Soltero, Tracey A Ledoux, Scherezade K Mama, Lorna McNeill
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. METHODS: SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241982/association-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-rs1800497-polymorphism-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#16
Ana M Obregón, Macarena Valladares, Gary Goldfield
OBJECTIVES: Studies have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497) has previously been associated with obesity and eating behavior. Additionally, this polymorphism has been associated with diminished dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) density, higher body mass, and food reinforcement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism and eating behavior in Chilean children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which we selected 258 children (44% girls, 56% boys; ages 8-14 y) with a wide variation in body mass index...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#17
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131964/contextual-factors-associated-with-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-among-adults-with-obesity
#18
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Carolyn M Pearson, Linsey M Utzinger, Carly R Pacanowski, Tyler B Mason, Laura A Berner, Scott G Engel, Stephen A Wonderlich, Carol B Peterson
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day×EAH interactions...
August 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940713/randomized-exposure-to-food-advertisements-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-among-preschoolers
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jennifer A Emond, Reina K Lansigan, Archana Ramanujam, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
BACKGROUND: Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. METHODS: Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939774/exploring-food-reward-and-calorie-intake-in-self-perceived-food-addicts
#20
Helen K Ruddock, Matt Field, Charlotte A Hardman
Previous research indicates that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. These 'self-perceived food addicts' may demonstrate aberrant eating patterns which put them at greater risk of overeating. However this is yet to be empirically investigated. The current study investigated whether self-perceived food addicts would exhibit higher food reward and calorie intake in a laboratory context relative to self-perceived non-addicts. A secondary aim was to investigate whether self-perceived food addicts would demonstrate increased food liking and/or increased hunger ratings...
August 1, 2017: Appetite
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