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carbon dioxide enrichment

Michael J Aspinwall, Chris J Blackman, Víctor Resco de Dios, Florian A Busch, Paul D Rymer, Michael E Loik, John E Drake, Sebastian Pfautsch, Renee A Smith, Mark G Tjoelker, David T Tissue
Intraspecific variation in biomass production responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) could influence tree species' ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying genotypic variation in responsiveness to eCO2 remain poorly understood. In this study, we grew 17 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. subsp. camaldulensis genotypes (representing provenances from four different climates) under ambient atmospheric CO2 and eCO2. We tested whether genotype leaf-scale photosynthetic and whole-tree carbon (C) allocation responses to eCO2 were predictive of genotype biomass production responses to eCO2...
May 8, 2018: Tree Physiology
Na Wang, Wen Qiang Xu, Hua Jun Xu, Yi Xing Feng, Chao Fan Li
The southern margin desert of Junggar Basin in the central arid region of Asia was selec-ted as the study area. To gain insight into the distribution characteristic of stable carbon isotope and the relationship between the change of soil carbon and the distance to oasis of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC), three belt transects were set according to the distance between the desert and the oasis in edge, middle and hinterland of the desert respectively, and collected the soil profile samples with depth of 2 m...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Shuwei Liu, Cheng Ji, Cong Wang, Jie Chen, Yaguo Jin, Ziheng Zou, Shuqing Li, Shuli Niu, Jianwen Zou
The net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) remains poorly understood. Here, we synthesise 1655 measurements from 169 published studies to assess GHGs budget of terrestrial ecosystems under elevated CO2 . We show that elevated CO2 significantly stimulates plant C pool (NPP) by 20%, soil CO2 fluxes by 24%, and methane (CH4 ) fluxes by 34% from rice paddies and by 12% from natural wetlands, while it slightly decreases CH4 uptake of upland soils by 3...
May 7, 2018: Ecology Letters
Line Hust Storgaard, Hans-Ulrich Hockey, Birgitte Schantz Laursen, Ulla Møller Weinreich
Background: This study investigated the long-term effects of humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in COPD patients with chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). Patients and methods: A total of 200 patients were randomized into usual care ± HFNC. At inclusion, acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and hospital admissions 1 year before inclusion, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) were recorded...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Fuxun Ai, Nico Eisenhauer, Yuwei Xie, Jianguo Zhu, Alexandre Jousset, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Xiaowei Zhang, Rong Ji, Hongyan Guo
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in the environment have been rising due to human activities. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels have been shown to affect plant physiology and soil microbes, which may alter the degradation of organic pollutants. Here, we study the effect of eCO2 on PAH accumulation in a paddy soil grown with rice. We collected soil and plant samples after rice harvest from a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system, which had already run for more than 15 years...
2018: PloS One
Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Tali D Lee, Melissa A Pastore
Theory predicts and evidence shows that plant species that use the C4 photosynthetic pathway (C4 species) are less responsive to elevated carbon dioxide ( e CO2 ) than species that use only the C3 pathway (C3 species). We document a reversal from this expected C3 -C4 contrast. Over the first 12 years of a 20-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment with 88 C3 or C4 grassland plots, we found that biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C3 but not C4 plots, as expected. During the subsequent 8 years, the pattern reversed: Biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C4 but not C3 plots...
April 20, 2018: Science
Yangzhi Mo, Jun Li, Bin Jiang, Tao Su, Xiaofei Geng, Junwen Liu, Haoyu Jiang, Chengde Shen, Ping Ding, Guangcai Zhong, Zhineng Cheng, Yuhong Liao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Gan Zhang
Humic-like substances (HULIS) are a class of high molecular weight, light-absorbing compounds that are highly related to brown carbon (BrC). In this study, the sources and compositions of HULIS isolated from fine particles collected in Beijing, China during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit were characterized based on carbon isotope (13 C and 14 C) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses, respectively. HULIS were the main light-absorbing components of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), accounting for 80...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Miroslava Rakocevic, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga
Background and Aims: Dynamics in branch and leaf growth parameters, such as the phyllochron, duration of leaf expansion, leaf life span and bud mortality, determine tree architecture and canopy foliage distribution. We aimed to estimate leaf growth parameters in adult Arabica coffee plants based on leaf supporter axis order and position along the vertical profile, considering their modifications related to seasonal growth, air [CO2] and water availability. Methods: Growth and mortality of leaves and terminal buds of adult Arabica coffee trees were followed in two independent field experiments in two sub-tropical climate regions of Brazil, Londrina-PR (Cfa) and Jaguariúna-SP (Cwa)...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Guoyun Zhang, Tong Zhang, Juanjuan Liu, Jianguo Zhang, Caiyun He
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration increases every year. It is critical to understand the elevated CO2 response molecular mechanisms of plants using genomic techniques. Hippophae rhamnoides L. is a high stress resistance plant species widely distributed in Europe and Asia. However, the molecular mechanism of elevated CO2 response in H. rhamnoides has been limited. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of two sea buckthorn cultivars under different CO2 concentrations was performed, based on the next-generation illumina sequencing platform and de novo assembly...
March 21, 2018: Gene
Rebecca Albright, Yuichiro Takeshita, David A Koweek, Aaron Ninokawa, Kennedy Wolfe, Tanya Rivlin, Yana Nebuchina, Jordan Young, Ken Caldeira
Coral reefs feed millions of people worldwide, provide coastal protection and generate billions of dollars annually in tourism revenue. The underlying architecture of a reef is a biogenic carbonate structure that accretes over many years of active biomineralization by calcifying organisms, including corals and algae. Ocean acidification poses a chronic threat to coral reefs by reducing the saturation state of the aragonite mineral of which coral skeletons are primarily composed, and lowering the concentration of carbonate ions required to maintain the carbonate reef...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Steven Caskey, John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. Methods: M. abscessus isolates (n = 13) were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
María Teresa García-Valverde, María Rosende, Rafael Lucena, Soledad Cárdenas, Manuel Miró
Mesofluidic lab-on-a-valve (LOV) platforms have been proven suitable to accommodate automatic micro-solid-phase extraction (μSPE) approaches with on-chip handling of micrometer-bead materials in a fully disposable mode to prevent sample cross-contamination and pressure-drop effects. The efficiency of the extraction process notably depends upon the sorptive capacity of the material because the sorbent mass is usually down to 10 mg in LOV devices. Nanomaterials, capitalizing upon their enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and diversity of potential chemical moieties, are appealing alternatives to microbead sorbents...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kyle Brubaker, Armand Garewal, Rachel C Steinhardt, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
Improving the efficiency of gas separation technology is a challenge facing modern industry, since existing methods for gas separation, including hollow-fiber membrane contactors, vacuum swing adsorption, and cryogenic distillation, represents a significant portion of the world's energy consumption. Here, we report an enhancement in the release rate of carbon dioxide and oxygen of a thermal swing gas desorption unit using a counter-current amplification method inspired by fish. Differing from a conventional counter-current extraction system, counter-current amplification makes use of parallel capture fluid channels separated by a semipermeable membrane in addition to the semipermeable membrane separating the capture fluid channel and the gas release channel...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Yuwei Yuan, Weixing Zhang, Yongzhi Zhang, Zhi Liu, Shengzhi Shao, Li Zhou, Karyne M Rogers
Chemometric methods using stable isotopes and elemental fingerprinting were used to characterize organically grown rice from green and conventionally grown rice in experimental field trials in China. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotopes as well as 26 other elements were determined. Organic rice was found to be more depleted in 13 C than green or conventionally grown rice because of the uptake of enriched 13 C from carbon dioxide and methane respiring bacteria and more enriched in 15 N because of the volatilization of the nitrogen from the urea and ammonium of the animal manures used to manufacture the organic composts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Neha Maheshwari, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur, Shaili Srivastava
Carbon dioxide sequestering bacterial strains were previously isolated from free air CO2 enriched (FACE) soil. In the present study, these strains were screened for PHA accumulation and Bacillus cereus SS105 was found to be the most prominent PHA accumulating strain on sodium bicarbonate and molasses as carbon source. This strain was further characterized by Spectrofluorometric method and Confocal microscopy after staining with Nile red. PHA granules in inclusion bodies were visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy...
April 2018: Bioresource Technology
Winny Fam, Jaleh Mansouri, Hongyu Li, Jingwei Hou, Vicki Chen
Blends containing ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methyimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [emim][BF4 ] gelled with Pebax 1657 block copolymers were modified by adding graphene oxide (GO) and fabricated in the form of thin film composite hollow fiber membranes. Their carbon dioxide (CO2 ) separation performance was evaluated using CO2 and N2 gas permeation and low-pressure adsorption measurements, and the morphology of films was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
February 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenjin Zhu, Lei Zhang, Piaoping Yang, Xiaoxia Chang, Hao Dong, Ang Li, Congling Hu, Zhiqi Huang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jinlong Gong
Electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide) to value-added products is a promising way to solve CO2 emission problems. This paper describes a facile one-pot approach to synthesize palladium-copper (Pd-Cu) bimetallic catalysts with different structures. Highly efficient performance and tunable product distributions are achieved due to a coordinative function of both enriched low-coordinated sites and composition effects. The concave rhombic dodecahedral Cu3 Pd (CRD-Cu3 Pd) decreases the onset potential for methane (CH4 ) by 200 mV and shows a sevenfold CH4 current density at -1...
February 2018: Small
Jana Zabranska, Dana Pokorna
Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable amount of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of the natural gas transport system requires CO2 removal or its conversion to methane. The biological conversion of CO2 and hydrogen to methane is well known reaction without the demand of high pressure and temperature and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Reducing equivalents to the biotransformation of carbon dioxide from biogas or other resources to biomethane can be supplied by external hydrogen...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2 -reducing microbial biocathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bioanodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into biocathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was thus to compare the start-up of biocathodes from preenriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
February 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Raúl Ferrer-Gallego, Miquel Puxeu, Enric Nart, Laura Martín, Imma Andorrà
In this work physical and chemical alternatives to produce SO2 free wines are shown. The use of inactive yeast strains enriched in glutathione, chitosan, dimethyldicarbonate and different hydrolysable and condensed tannins were assessed in Tempranillo and Albariño wines. The time of addition, mixtures of additives and the use of inert gases were evaluated. In general, no significant differences on the sensory quality were shown when compared sulphited and non-sulphited wines. Both physical and chemical treatments were more effective for Tempranillo wines...
December 2017: Food Research International
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