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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508113/doubly-labelled-water-assessment-of-energy-expenditure-principle-practice-and-promise
#1
REVIEW
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494115/disentangling-species-and-functional-group-richness-effects-on-soil-n-cycling-in-a-grassland-ecosystem
#2
Xiaorong Wei, Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Clare E Kazanski
Species richness (SR) and functional group richness (FGR) are often confounded in both observational and experimental field studies of biodiversity and ecosystem function. This precludes discernment of their separate influences on ecosystem processes, including nitrogen (N) cycling, and how those influences might be moderated by global change factors. In a 17-year field study of grassland species, we used two full factorial experiments to independently vary SR (1 or 4 species, with FGR=1) and FGR (1-4 groups, with SR=4) to assess SR and FGR effects on ecosystem N cycling and its response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and N addition...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484018/enhanced-co2-uptake-at-a-shallow-arctic-ocean-seep-field-overwhelms-the-positive-warming-potential-of-emitted-methane
#3
John W Pohlman, Jens Greinert, Carolyn Ruppel, Anna Silyakova, Lisa Vielstädte, Michael Casso, Jürgen Mienert, Stefan Bünz
Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10(6) tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444591/biotechnological-application-of-sustainable-biogas-production-through-dry-anaerobic-digestion-of-napier-grass
#4
Natthawud Dussadee, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Tapana Cheunbarn
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#5
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388042/triflic-acid-promoted-decarboxylation-of-adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one-access-to-chiral-amines-and-heterocycles
#6
Radim Hrdina, Marta Larrosa, Christian Logemann
We have developed a one-step procedure to a variety of chiral lipophilic and conformationally rigid amines and heterocycles by decarboxylation of adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one. Triflic acid or aluminum triflate promote the addition of diverse nucleophiles to the oxazolidine-2-one moiety accompanied by the release of carbon dioxide. The resulting amine or heterocycle is then protonated/metalated by the catalyst (promotor). Additionally, the starting racemic material, adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one, was resolved into single enantiomers using a chiral auxiliary to access enantio-enriched products and to study the racemization pathway of chiral 1,2-disubstituted adamantane derivatives...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372863/recycling-of-carbon-dioxide-by-free-air-co2-enriched-face-bacillus-sp-ss105-for-enhanced-production-and-optimization-of-biosurfactant
#7
Neha Maheshwari, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur, Shaili Srivastava
Carbon dioxide utilizing bacterium Bacillus sp. SS105 was isolated from FACE (free air CO2 enriched) sample. The strain was grown in shake flask containing minimal salt medium with 50mM NaHCO3 as autotrophic carbon source and molasses as a low cost byproduct for mixotrophic growth. Carbon dioxide sequestration property of Bacillus sp. SS105 was determined by enzyme assay of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Along with CO2 sequestration this strain produced biosurfactant and its characterization by FTIR and (1)H NMR indicated lipopeptide nature...
March 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370878/biomass-responses-in-a-temperate-european-grassland-through-17-years-of-elevated-co2
#8
L C Andresen, N Yuan, R Seibert, G Moser, C I Kammann, J Luterbacher, M Erbs, C Müller
Future increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations will potentially enhance grassland biomass production and shift the functional group composition with consequences for ecosystem functioning. In the 'GiFACE' experiment (Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment), fertilized grassland plots were fumigated with elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) year-round during daylight hours since 1998, at a level of +20% relative to ambient concentrations (in 1998 aCO2 was 364 ppm and eCO2 399 ppm; in 2014 aCO2 was 397 ppm and eCO2 518 ppm)...
April 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369644/species-characteristics-and-intraspecific-variation-in-growth-and-photosynthesis-of-cryptomeria-japonica-under-elevated-o3-and-co2
#9
Yuichiro Hiraoka, Taiichi Iki, Mine Nose, Hiroyuki Tobita, Kenichi Yazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Yoshitake Fujisawa, Mitsutoshi Kitao
In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination...
March 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368570/methanogenic-biocathode-microbial-community-development-and-the-role-of-bacteria
#10
Christy M Dykstra, Spyros G Pavlostathis
The cathode microbial community of a methanogenic bioelectrochemical system (BES) is key to the efficient conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methane (CH4) with application to biogas upgrading. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and microbial community composition of a biocathode inoculated with a mixed methanogenic (MM) culture to a biocathode inoculated with an enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic (EHM) culture, developed from the MM culture following pre-enrichment with H2 and CO2 as the only externally supplied electron donor and carbon source, respectively...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335808/potential-for-hydrogen-oxidizing-chemolithoautotrophic-and-diazotrophic-populations-to-initiate-biofilm-formation-in-oligotrophic-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-waters
#11
Xiaofen Wu, Karsten Pedersen, Johanna Edlund, Lena Eriksson, Mats Åström, Anders F Andersson, Stefan Bertilsson, Mark Dopson
BACKGROUND: Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. RESULTS: In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330079/evaluation-of-photosynthetic-efficacy-and-co2-removal-of-microalgae-grown-in-an-enriched-bicarbonate-medium
#12
S Abinandan, S Shanthakumar
Bicarbonate species in the aqueous phase is the primary source for CO2 for the growth of microalgae. The potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in enriched bicarbonate medium was evaluated. In the present study, effects of parameters such as pH, sodium bicarbonate concentration and inoculum size were assessed for the removal of CO2 by C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic condition. Central composite design tool from response surface methodology was used to validate statistical methods in order to study the influence of these parameters...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303465/pharmacotherapy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-novel-experimental-medicine-models-and-emerging-drug-targets
#13
REVIEW
David S Baldwin, Ruihua Hou, Robert Gordon, Nathan T M Huneke, Matthew Garner
Many pharmacological and psychological approaches have been found efficacious in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but many treatment-seeking patients will not respond and others will relapse despite continuing with interventions that initially had beneficial effects. Other patients will respond but then stop treatment early because of untoward effects such as sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, and weight gain. There is much scope for the development of novel approaches that could have greater overall effectiveness or acceptability than currently available interventions or that have particular effectiveness in specific clinical subgroups...
April 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294218/-13-c-labeling-the-carbon-fixation-pathway-of-a-highly-efficient-artificial-photosynthetic-system
#14
Chong Liu, Shannon N Nangle, Brendan C Colón, Pamela A Silver, Daniel G Nocera
Interfacing the CO2-fixing microorganism, Ralstonia eutropha, to the energy derived from hydrogen produced by water splitting is a viable approach to achieving renewable CO2 reduction at high efficiencies. We employ (13)C-labeling to report on the nature of CO2 reduction in the inorganic water splitting|R. eutropha hybrid system. Accumulated biomass in a reactor under a (13)C-enriched CO2 atmosphere may be sampled at different time points during CO2 reduction. Converting the sampled biomass into gaseous CO2 allows the (13)C/(12)C ratio to be determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
March 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272328/epiphytic-terrestrial-algae-trebouxia-sp-as-a-biomarker-using-the-free-air-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-face-system
#15
Asmida Ismail, Sarah Diyana Marzuki, Nordiana Bakti Mohd Yusof, Faeiza Buyong, Mohd Nizam Mohd Said, Harinder Rai Sigh, Amyrul Rafiq Zulkifli
The increasing concentration of CO₂ in the atmosphere has caused significant environmental changes, particularly to the lower plants such as terrestrial algae and lichens that alter species composition, and therefore can contribute to changes in community landscape. A study to understand how increased CO₂ in the atmosphere will affect algal density with minimal adjustment on its natural ecosystem, and the suitability of the algae to be considered as a biomarker, has been conducted. The current work was conducted in the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system located in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia...
March 7, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182838/effect-of-extraction-method-on-the-oxidative-stability-of-camelina-seed-oil-studied-by-differential-scanning-calorimetry
#16
Henok D Belayneh, Randy L Wehling, Edgar B Cahoon, Ozan N Ciftci
Camelina seed is a new alternative omega-3 source attracting growing interest. However, it is susceptible to oxidation due to its high omega-3 content. The objective of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of the camelina seed oil at the extraction stage in order to eliminate or minimize the use of additive antioxidants. Camelina seed oil extracts were enriched in terms of natural antioxidants using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction. Oxidative stability of the camelina seed oils extracted by ethanol modified SC-CO2 was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and compared with cold press, hexane, and SC-CO2 methods...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182638/effect-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-on-growth-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-of-quercus-acutissima-and-fraxinus-rhynchophylla
#17
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169988/chemolithotrophic-processes-in-the-bacterial-communities-on-the-surface-of-mineral-enriched-biochars
#18
Jun Ye, Stephen D Joseph, Mukan Ji, Shaun Nielsen, David R G Mitchell, Scott Donne, Joseph Horvat, Jianli Wang, Paul Munroe, Torsten Thomas
Biochar and mineral-enriched biochar (MEB) have been used as soil amendments to improve soil fertility, sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Such beneficial outcomes could be partially mediated by soil bacteria, however little is known about how they directly interact with biochar or MEB. We therefore analyzed the diversity and functions of bacterial communities on the surfaces of one biochar and two different MEBs after a 140-day incubation in soil. The results show that the biochar and the MEBs harbor distinct bacterial communities to the bulk soil...
May 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163046/temporal-stability-of-multiple-response-systems-to-7-5-carbon-dioxide-challenge
#19
Roxann Roberson-Nay, Eugenia I Gorlin, Jessica R Beadel, Therese Cash, Scott Vrana, Bethany A Teachman
Self-reported anxiety, and potentially physiological response, to maintained inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) enriched air shows promise as a putative marker of panic reactivity and vulnerability. Temporal stability of response systems during low-dose, steady-state CO2 breathing challenge is lacking. Outcomes on multiple levels were measured two times, one week apart, in 93 individuals. Stability was highest during the CO2 breathing phase compared to pre-CO2 and recovery phases, with anxiety ratings, respiratory rate, skin conductance level, and heart rate demonstrating good to excellent temporal stability (ICCs≥0...
March 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155911/effects-of-nutritional-and-ambient-oxygen-condition-on-biofilm-formation-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-via-altered-glycolipid-expression
#20
Takahiro Totani, Yukiko Nishiuchi, Yoshitaka Tateishi, Yutaka Yoshida, Hiromi Kitanaka, Mamiko Niki, Yukihiro Kaneko, Sohkichi Matsumoto
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment-related infectious diseases the incidence of which is increasing in industrialized countries. MAH is found in biofilm in drinking water distribution system and residential environments. We investigated the effect of gaseous and nutritional conditions, and the role of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) on biofilm-like pellicle formation in MAH. Pellicle formation was observed under 5% oxygen in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 0...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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