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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852802/enhanced-macroboring-and-depressed-calcification-drive-net-dissolution-at-high-co2-coral-reefs
#1
Ian C Enochs, Derek P Manzello, Graham Kolodziej, Sam H C Noonan, Lauren Valentino, Katharina E Fabricius
Ocean acidification (OA) impacts the physiology of diverse marine taxa; among them corals that create complex reef framework structures. Biological processes operating on coral reef frameworks remain largely unknown from naturally high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) ecosystems. For the first time, we independently quantified the response of multiple functional groups instrumental in the construction and erosion of these frameworks (accretion, macroboring, microboring, and grazing) along natural OA gradients. We deployed blocks of dead coral skeleton for roughly 2 years at two reefs in Papua New Guinea, each experiencing volcanically enriched CO2, and employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to create three-dimensional models of changing skeletal structure...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852158/biodegradation-of-low-and-high-molecular-weight-hydrocarbons-in-petroleum-refinery-wastewater-by-a-thermophilic-bacterial-consortium
#2
Arulazhagan Pugazhendi, Hadeel Abbad Wazin, Huda Qari, Jalal Mohammad Al-Badry Basahi, Jean Jacques Godon, Jeyakumar Dhavamani
Clean-up of contaminated wastewater remains to be a major challenge in petroleum refinery. Here we describe the capacity of a bacterial consortium enriched from crude oil drilling site in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon source at 60 ˚C. The consortium reduced low molecular weight (LMW; naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) and high molecular weight (HMW; pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) PAH loads of up to 1.5 g/L with removal efficiencies of 90% and 80% within 10 days...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826305/impaired-stomatal-control-is-associated-with-reduced-photosynthetic-physiology-in-crop-species-grown-at-elevated-co2
#3
Matthew Haworth, Dilek Killi, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822308/advantageous-characteristics-of-the-diatom-chaetoceros-gracilis-as-a-sustainable-biofuel-producer
#4
Hiromi Tokushima, Natsuko Inoue-Kashino, Yukine Nakazato, Atsunori Masuda, Kentaro Ifuku, Yasuhiro Kashino
BACKGROUND: Diatoms have attracted interest as biofuel producers. Here, the contents of lipids and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed in a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. This diatom can be genetically engineered using our previously reported transformation technique and has a potential to produce valuable materials photosynthetically. Sustainable culture conditions for cost-effective production of biological materials under autotrophic conditions with atmospheric carbon dioxide were investigated in the laboratory...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816195/co2-leakage-from-carbon-dioxide-capture-and-storage-ccs-systems-affects-organic-matter-cycling-in-surface-marine-sediments
#5
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Teresa Amaro, Silvestro Greco, Marco Lo Martire, Laura Carugati, Ana M Queirós, Stephen Widdicombe, Roberto Danovaro
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO2-enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO2-enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786309/changes-in-microbial-communities-photosynthesis-and-calcification-of-the-coral-acropora-gemmifera-in-response-to-ocean-acidification
#6
Guowei Zhou, Tao Yuan, Lin Cai, Weipeng Zhang, Renmao Tian, Haoya Tong, Lei Jiang, Xiangcheng Yuan, Sheng Liu, Peiyuan Qian, Hui Huang
With the increasing anthropogenic CO2 concentration, ocean acidification (OA) can have dramatic effects on coral reefs. However, the effects of OA on coral physiology and the associated microbes remain largely unknown. In the present study, reef-building coral Acropora gemmifera collected from a reef flat with highly fluctuating environmental condition in the South China Sea were exposed to three levels of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (i.e., 421, 923, and 2070 μatm) for four weeks. The microbial community structures associated with A...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761318/the-effect-of-co2-enrichment-on-net-photosynthesis-of-the-red-alga-furcellaria-lumbricalis-in-a-brackish-water-environment
#7
Liina Pajusalu, Georg Martin, Tiina Paalme, Arno Põllumäe
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760541/insect-herbivory-in-a-mature-eucalyptus-woodland-canopy-depends-on-leaf-phenology-but-not-co2-enrichment
#8
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752798/improved-enrichment-culture-technique-for-methane-oxidizing-bacteria-from-marine-ecosystems-the-effect-of-adhesion-material-and-gas-composition
#9
Bram Vekeman, Charles Dumolin, Paul De Vos, Kim Heylen
Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739596/a-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-on-plant-hydraulics-implications-for-whole-plant-water-use-efficiency-and-resistance-to-drought
#10
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate McCulloh
Here we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture, and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend toward an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers the results are mixed, some species showing minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725210/production-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-by-nannochloropsis-oculata-effects-of-carbon-dioxide-and-glycerol
#11
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709349/bathing-in-carbon-dioxide-enriched-water-alters-protein-expression-in-keratinocytes-of-skin-tissue-in-rats
#12
Julia Kälsch, Leona L Pott, Atsushi Takeda, Hideo Kumamoto, Dorothe Möllmann, Ali Canbay, Barbara Sitek, Hideo A Baba
Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.Under controlled conditions, rats were bathed in either CO2-enriched water (CO2 content 1200 mg/L) or tap water, both at 37 °C, for 10 min daily over 4 weeks. Proliferation activity was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry of the epidermis of the abdomen...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693482/experimental-evaluation-of-two-different-types-of-reactors-for-co2-removal-from-gaseous-stream-by-bottom-ash-accelerated-carbonation
#13
L Lombardi, E A Carnevale, I Pecorini
Low methane content landfill gas may be enriched by removing carbon dioxide. An innovative process, based on carbon dioxide capture and storage by means of accelerated carbonation of bottom ash is proposed and studied for the above purpose. Within this research framework we devoted a preliminary research activity to investigate the possibility of improving the way the contact between bottom ash and landfill gas takes place: this is the scope of the work reported in this paper. Two different types of reactors - fixed bed and rotating drum - were designed and constructed for this purpose...
September 29, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669566/critical-involvement-of-environmental-carbon-dioxide-fixation-to-drive-wax-ester-fermentation-in-euglena
#14
Adchara Padermshoke, Takumi Ogawa, Kazuki Nishio, Masami Nakazawa, Masatoshi Nakamoto, Atsushi Okazawa, Shigehiko Kanaya, Masanori Arita, Daisaku Ohta
Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648406/carbon-dioxide-global-warning-for-nephrologists
#15
REVIEW
Marco Marano, Anna D'Amato, Alessandra Cantone
The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients' bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and "acidosis by dialysate" may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639056/ammonia-inhibition-on-hydrogen-enriched-anaerobic-digestion-of-manure-under-mesophilic-and-thermophilic-conditions
#16
Han Wang, Yifeng Zhang, Irini Angelidaki
Capturing of carbon dioxide by hydrogen derived from excess renewable energy (e.g., wind mills) to methane in a microbially catalyzed process offers an attractive technology for biogas production and upgrading. This bioconversion process is catalyzed by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which are known to be sensitive to ammonia. In this study, the tolerance of the biogas process under supply of hydrogen, to ammonia toxicity was studied under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. When the initial hydrogen partial pressure was 0...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622557/effect-of-pre-acclimation-of-granular-activated-carbon-on-microbial-electrolysis-cell-startup-and-performance
#17
Nicole LaBarge, Yasemin Dilsad Yilmazel, Pei-Ying Hong, Bruce E Logan
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0...
September 1, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525979/influence-of-ocean-acidification-on-a-natural-winter-to-summer-plankton-succession-first-insights-from-a-long-term-mesocosm-study-draw-attention-to-periods-of-low-nutrient-concentrations
#18
Lennart T Bach, Jan Taucher, Tim Boxhammer, Andrea Ludwig, Eric P Achterberg, María Algueró-Muñiz, Leif G Anderson, Jessica Bellworthy, Jan Büdenbender, Jan Czerny, Ylva Ericson, Mario Esposito, Matthias Fischer, Mathias Haunost, Dana Hellemann, Henriette G Horn, Thomas Hornick, Jana Meyer, Michael Sswat, Maren Zark, Ulf Riebesell
Every year, the oceans absorb about 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to a re-equilibration of the marine carbonate system and decreasing seawater pH. Today, there is increasing awareness that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-could differentially affect the competitive ability of marine organisms, thereby provoking a restructuring of marine ecosystems and biogeochemical element cycles. In winter 2013, we deployed ten pelagic mesocosms in the Gullmar Fjord at the Swedish west coast in order to study the effect of OA on plankton ecology and biogeochemistry under close to natural conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514017/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-stomatal-characteristics-and-carbon-isotope-ratio-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-ecotypes-originating-from-an-altitudinal-gradient
#19
H Iroja U Caldera, W A Janendra M De Costa, F Ian Woodward, Janice A Lake, Sudheera M W Ranwala
Stomatal functioning regulates the fluxes of CO2 and water vapour between vegetation and atmosphere and thereby influences plant adaptation to their habitats. Stomatal traits are controlled by external environmental and internal cellular signalling. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of CO2 enrichment (CE) on stomatal density-related properties, guard cell length (GCL) and carbon isotope ratio (δ(13) C) of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from a wide altitudinal range (50-1260 m above sea level (asl)), and grown at 400 and 800 ppm [CO2 ], and thereby elucidate the possible adaptation and acclimation responses controlling stomatal traits and water use efficiency (WUE)...
August 11, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494565/effects-of-growth-temperature-and-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-on-soybean-seed-components-at-different-stages-of-development
#20
Guangli Xu, Shardendu Singh, Jinyoung Barnaby, Jeffrey Buyer, Vangimalla Reddy, Richard Sicher
Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol(-1) CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity...
July 29, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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