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carbon dioxide enrichment

Liina Pajusalu, Georg Martin, Tiina Paalme, Arno Põllumäe
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
Bram Vekeman, Charles Dumolin, Paul De Vos, Kim Heylen
Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate McCulloh
Here we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture, and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend toward an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers the results are mixed, some species showing minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Julia Kälsch, Leona L Pott, Atsushi Takeda, Hideo Kumamoto, Dorothe Möllmann, Ali Canbay, Barbara Sitek, Hideo A Baba
Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.Under controlled conditions, rats were bathed in either CO2-enriched water (CO2 content 1200 mg/L) or tap water, both at 37 °C, for 10 min daily over 4 weeks. Proliferation activity was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry of the epidermis of the abdomen...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
L Lombardi, E A Carnevale, I Pecorini
Low methane content landfill gas may be enriched by removing carbon dioxide. An innovative process, based on carbon dioxide capture and storage by means of accelerated carbonation of bottom ash is proposed and studied for the above purpose. Within this research framework we devoted a preliminary research activity to investigate the possibility of improving the way the contact between bottom ash and landfill gas takes place: this is the scope of the work reported in this paper. Two different types of reactors - fixed bed and rotating drum - were designed and constructed for this purpose...
September 29, 2016: Waste Management
Adchara Padermshoke, Takumi Ogawa, Kazuki Nishio, Masami Nakazawa, Masatoshi Nakamoto, Atsushi Okazawa, Shigehiko Kanaya, Masanori Arita, Daisaku Ohta
Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation...
2016: PloS One
Marco Marano, Anna D'Amato, Alessandra Cantone
The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients' bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and "acidosis by dialysate" may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Han Wang, Yifeng Zhang, Irini Angelidaki
Capturing of carbon dioxide by hydrogen derived from excess renewable energy (e.g., wind mills) to methane in a microbially catalyzed process offers an attractive technology for biogas production and upgrading. This bioconversion process is catalyzed by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which are known to be sensitive to ammonia. In this study, the tolerance of the biogas process under supply of hydrogen, to ammonia toxicity was studied under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. When the initial hydrogen partial pressure was 0...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Nicole LaBarge, Yasemin Dilsad Yilmazel, Pei-Ying Hong, Bruce E Logan
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0...
September 1, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Lennart T Bach, Jan Taucher, Tim Boxhammer, Andrea Ludwig, Eric P Achterberg, María Algueró-Muñiz, Leif G Anderson, Jessica Bellworthy, Jan Büdenbender, Jan Czerny, Ylva Ericson, Mario Esposito, Matthias Fischer, Mathias Haunost, Dana Hellemann, Henriette G Horn, Thomas Hornick, Jana Meyer, Michael Sswat, Maren Zark, Ulf Riebesell
Every year, the oceans absorb about 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to a re-equilibration of the marine carbonate system and decreasing seawater pH. Today, there is increasing awareness that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-could differentially affect the competitive ability of marine organisms, thereby provoking a restructuring of marine ecosystems and biogeochemical element cycles. In winter 2013, we deployed ten pelagic mesocosms in the Gullmar Fjord at the Swedish west coast in order to study the effect of OA on plankton ecology and biogeochemistry under close to natural conditions...
2016: PloS One
H Iroja U Caldera, W A Janendra M De Costa, F Ian Woodward, Janice A Lake, Sudheera M W Ranwala
Stomatal functioning regulates the fluxes of CO2 and water vapour between vegetation and atmosphere and thereby influences plant adaptation to their habitats. Stomatal traits are controlled by external environmental and internal cellular signalling. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of CO2 enrichment (CE) on stomatal density-related properties, guard cell length (GCL) and carbon isotope ratio (δ(13) C) of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from a wide altitudinal range (50-1260 m above sea level (asl)), and grown at 400 and 800 ppm [CO2 ], and thereby elucidate the possible adaptation and acclimation responses controlling stomatal traits and water use efficiency (WUE)...
August 11, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Guangli Xu, Shardendu Singh, Jinyoung Barnaby, Jeffrey Buyer, Vangimalla Reddy, Richard Sicher
Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol(-1) CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity...
July 29, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Frances M Deegan, Valentin R Troll, Martin J Whitehouse, Ester M Jolis, Carmela Freda
Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Brandon L Drake, David T Hanson, Timothy K Lowrey, Zachary D Sharp
From 1890 to 2015, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 270 mol mol(-1) to 400 mol mol(-1) . The effect of increased carbon emissions on plant growth and reproduction has been the subject of study of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments. These experiments have found a) an increase in internal CO2 partial pressure (ci ) alongside acclimation of photosynthetic capacity, b) variable decreases in stomatal conductance, and c) that increases in yield do not increase commensurate with CO2 concentrations...
August 2, 2016: Global Change Biology
Francis H Y Green, Richard Leigh, Morenike Fadayomi, Gurkeet Lalli, Andrea Chiu, Grishma Shrestha, Sharif G ElShahat, David Evan Nelson, Tamer Y El Mays, Cora A Pieron, John H Dennis
BACKGROUND: A major challenge in treating acute asthma exacerbations is the need to open constricted airways rapidly enough to reestablish ventilation and allow delivery of conventional medication to diseased airways. The solution requires a new approach that considers both biophysical and pharmacological aspects of treatments used in acute asthma. The result of testing several formulations was S-1226: carbon dioxide-enriched air delivered in nebulized perflubron, a synthetic surfactant...
2016: Trials
Suman Bajracharya, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Cees J N Buisman, Deepak Pant, David P B T B Strik
Microbial catalysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to multi-carbon compounds at the cathode is a highly attractive application of microbial electrosynthesis (MES). The microbes reduce CO2 by either taking the electrons or reducing the equivalents produced at the cathode. While using gaseous CO2 as the carbon source, the biological reduction process depends on the dissolution and mass transfer of CO2 in the electrolyte. In order to deal with this issue, a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) was investigated by feeding CO2 through the GDE into the MES reactor for its reduction at the biocathode...
July 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kang Liu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Fu-Shen Zhang
The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Phillip M Chalk, Shu K Lam, Deli Chen
Methodologies based on (15)N enrichment (E) and (15)N natural abundance (NA) have been used to obtain quantitative estimates of the response of biological N2 fixation (BNF) of legumes (woody, grain and forage) and actinorhizal plants grown in artificial media or in soil exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide e[CO2] for extended periods of time, in growth rooms, greenhouses, open top chambers or free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facilities. (15)N2 has also been used to quantify the response of endophytic and free-living diazotrophs to e[CO2]...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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