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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182838/effect-of-extraction-method-on-the-oxidative-stability-of-camelina-seed-oil-studied-by-differential-scanning-calorimetry
#1
Henok D Belayneh, Randy L Wehling, Edgar B Cahoon, Ozan N Ciftci
Camelina seed is a new alternative omega-3 source attracting growing interest. However, it is susceptible to oxidation due to its high omega-3 content. The objective of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of the camelina seed oil at the extraction stage in order to eliminate or minimize the use of additive antioxidants. Camelina seed oil extracts were enriched in terms of natural antioxidants using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction. Oxidative stability of the camelina seed oils extracted by ethanol modified SC-CO2 was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and compared with cold press, hexane, and SC-CO2 methods...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182638/effect-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-on-growth-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-of-quercus-acutissima-and-fraxinus-rhynchophylla
#2
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169988/chemolithotrophic-processes-in-the-bacterial-communities-on-the-surface-of-mineral-enriched-biochars
#3
Jun Ye, Stephen D Joseph, Mukan Ji, Shaun Nielsen, David R G Mitchell, Scott Donne, Joseph Horvat, Jianli Wang, Paul Munroe, Torsten Thomas
Biochar and mineral-enriched biochar (MEB) have been used as soil amendments to improve soil fertility, sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Such beneficial outcomes could be partially mediated by soil bacteria, however little is known about how they directly interact with biochar or MEB. We therefore analyzed the diversity and functions of bacterial communities on the surfaces of one biochar and two different MEBs after a 140-day incubation in soil. The results show that the biochar and the MEBs harbor distinct bacterial communities to the bulk soil...
February 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163046/temporal-stability-of-multiple-response-systems-to-7-5-carbon-dioxide-challenge
#4
Roxann Roberson-Nay, Eugenia I Gorlin, Jessica R Beadel, Therese Cash, Scott Vrana, Bethany A Teachman
Self-reported anxiety, and potentially physiological response, to maintained inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) enriched air shows promise as a putative marker of panic reactivity and vulnerability. Temporal stability of response systems during low-dose, steady-state CO2 breathing challenge is lacking. Outcomes on multiple levels were measured two times, one week apart, in 93 individuals. Stability was highest during the CO2 breathing phase compared to pre-CO2 and recovery phases, with anxiety ratings, respiratory rate, skin conductance level, and heart rate demonstrating good to excellent temporal stability (ICCs≥0...
February 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155911/effects-of-nutritional-and-ambient-oxygen-condition-on-biofilm-formation-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-via-altered-glycolipid-expression
#5
Takahiro Totani, Yukiko Nishiuchi, Yoshitaka Tateishi, Yutaka Yoshida, Hiromi Kitanaka, Mamiko Niki, Yukihiro Kaneko, Sohkichi Matsumoto
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment-related infectious diseases the incidence of which is increasing in industrialized countries. MAH is found in biofilm in drinking water distribution system and residential environments. We investigated the effect of gaseous and nutritional conditions, and the role of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) on biofilm-like pellicle formation in MAH. Pellicle formation was observed under 5% oxygen in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 0...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126781/comment-on-mycorrhizal-association-as-a-primary-control-of-the-co2-fertilization-effect
#6
R J Norby, M G De Kauwe, A P Walker, C Werner, S Zaehle, D R Zak
Terrer et al (Reports, 1 July 2016, p. 72) used meta-analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment experiments as evidence of an interaction between mycorrhizal symbiosis and soil nitrogen availability. We challenge their database and biomass as the response metric and, hence, their recommendation that incorporation of mycorrhizae in models will improve predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to increasing atmospheric CO2.
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011598/reconstructing-metabolic-pathways-of-a-member-of-the-genus-pelotomaculum-suggesting-its-potential-to-oxidize-benzene-to-carbon-dioxide-with-direct-reduction-of-sulfate
#7
Xiyang Dong, Johannes Dröge, Christine von Toerne, Sviatlana Marozava, Alice C McHardy, Rainer U Meckenstock
The enrichment culture BPL is able to degrade benzene with sulfate as electron acceptor and is dominated by an organism of the genus Pelotomaculum Members of Pelotomaculum are usually known to be fermenters, undergoing syntrophy with anaerobic respiring microorganisms or methanogens. By using a metagenomic approach, we reconstructed a high-quality genome (∼2.97 Mbp, 99% completeness) for Pelotomaculum candidate BPL. The proteogenomic data suggested: (1) anaerobic benzene degradation was activated by a yet unknown mechanism for conversion of benzene to benzoyl-CoA; (2) the central benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway involved reductive dearomatization by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage and modified β-oxidation; (3) the oxidative acetyl-CoA pathway was utilized for complete oxidation to CO2 Interestingly, the genome of Pelotomaculum candidate BPL has all the genes for a complete sulfate reduction pathway including a similar electron transfer mechanism for dissimilatory sulfate reduction as in other Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria...
December 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011026/experimental-modeling-of-thaw-lake-water-evolution-in-discontinuous-permafrost-zone-role-of-peat-lichen-leaching-and-ground-fire
#8
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943083/effects-of-elevated-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-and-tropospheric-ozone-on-phytochemical-composition-of-trembling-aspen-populus-tremuloides-and-paper-birch-betula-papyrifera
#9
John J Couture, Timothy D Meehan, Kennedy F Rubert-Nason, Richard L Lindroth
Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3). These changes can alter phytochemistry, and in turn, influence ecosystem processes. We assessed the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the phytochemical composition of two tree species common to early successional, northern temperate forests. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon dioxide and ozone Enrichment) facility under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and O3...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852802/enhanced-macroboring-and-depressed-calcification-drive-net-dissolution-at-high-co2-coral-reefs
#10
Ian C Enochs, Derek P Manzello, Graham Kolodziej, Sam H C Noonan, Lauren Valentino, Katharina E Fabricius
Ocean acidification (OA) impacts the physiology of diverse marine taxa; among them corals that create complex reef framework structures. Biological processes operating on coral reef frameworks remain largely unknown from naturally high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) ecosystems. For the first time, we independently quantified the response of multiple functional groups instrumental in the construction and erosion of these frameworks (accretion, macroboring, microboring, and grazing) along natural OA gradients. We deployed blocks of dead coral skeleton for roughly 2 years at two reefs in Papua New Guinea, each experiencing volcanically enriched CO2, and employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to create three-dimensional models of changing skeletal structure...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852158/biodegradation-of-low-and-high-molecular-weight-hydrocarbons-in-petroleum-refinery-wastewater-by-a-thermophilic-bacterial-consortium
#11
Arulazhagan Pugazhendi, Hadeel Abbad Wazin, Huda Qari, Jalal Mohammad Al-Badry Basahi, Jean Jacques Godon, Jeyakumar Dhavamani
Clean-up of contaminated wastewater remains to be a major challenge in petroleum refinery. Here, we describe the capacity of a bacterial consortium enriched from crude oil drilling site in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole carbon source at 60°C. The consortium reduced low molecular weight (LMW; naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) and high molecular weight (HMW; pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) PAH loads of up to 1.5 g/L with removal efficiencies of 90% and 80% within 10 days...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826305/impaired-stomatal-control-is-associated-with-reduced-photosynthetic-physiology-in-crop-species-grown-at-elevated-co2
#12
Matthew Haworth, Dilek Killi, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822308/advantageous-characteristics-of-the-diatom-chaetoceros-gracilis-as-a-sustainable-biofuel-producer
#13
Hiromi Tokushima, Natsuko Inoue-Kashino, Yukine Nakazato, Atsunori Masuda, Kentaro Ifuku, Yasuhiro Kashino
BACKGROUND: Diatoms have attracted interest as biofuel producers. Here, the contents of lipids and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed in a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. This diatom can be genetically engineered using our previously reported transformation technique and has a potential to produce valuable materials photosynthetically. Sustainable culture conditions for cost-effective production of biological materials under autotrophic conditions with atmospheric carbon dioxide were investigated in the laboratory...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816195/co2-leakage-from-carbon-dioxide-capture-and-storage-ccs-systems-affects-organic-matter-cycling-in-surface-marine-sediments
#14
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Teresa Amaro, Silvestro Greco, Marco Lo Martire, Laura Carugati, Ana M Queirós, Stephen Widdicombe, Roberto Danovaro
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO2-enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO2-enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786309/changes-in-microbial-communities-photosynthesis-and-calcification-of-the-coral-acropora-gemmifera-in-response-to-ocean-acidification
#15
Guowei Zhou, Tao Yuan, Lin Cai, Weipeng Zhang, Renmao Tian, Haoya Tong, Lei Jiang, Xiangcheng Yuan, Sheng Liu, Peiyuan Qian, Hui Huang
With the increasing anthropogenic CO2 concentration, ocean acidification (OA) can have dramatic effects on coral reefs. However, the effects of OA on coral physiology and the associated microbes remain largely unknown. In the present study, reef-building coral Acropora gemmifera collected from a reef flat with highly fluctuating environmental condition in the South China Sea were exposed to three levels of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (i.e., 421, 923, and 2070 μatm) for four weeks. The microbial community structures associated with A...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761318/the-effect-of-co2-enrichment-on-net-photosynthesis-of-the-red-alga-furcellaria-lumbricalis-in-a-brackish-water-environment
#16
Liina Pajusalu, Georg Martin, Tiina Paalme, Arno Põllumäe
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760541/insect-herbivory-in-a-mature-eucalyptus-woodland-canopy-depends-on-leaf-phenology-but-not-co2-enrichment
#17
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752798/improved-enrichment-culture-technique-for-methane-oxidizing-bacteria-from-marine-ecosystems-the-effect-of-adhesion-material-and-gas-composition
#18
Bram Vekeman, Charles Dumolin, Paul De Vos, Kim Heylen
Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739596/a-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-on-plant-hydraulics-implications-for-whole-plant-water-use-efficiency-and-resistance-to-drought
#19
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate A McCulloh
Here, we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend towards an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers, the results are mixed, some species show minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725210/production-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-by-nannochloropsis-oculata-effects-of-carbon-dioxide-and-glycerol
#20
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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