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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801632/stimulation-in-primary-and-secondary-metabolism-by-elevated-carbon-dioxide-alters-green-tea-quality-in-camellia-sinensis-l
#1
Xin Li, Lan Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Zhi-Xin Li, Ji-Peng Wei, Chen Shen, Peng Yan, Li-Ping Zhang, Wen-Yan Han
Rising CO2 concentration, a driving force of climate change, is impacting global food security by affecting plant physiology. Nevertheless, the effects of elevated CO2 on primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) still remain largely unknown. Here we showed that exposure of tea plants to elevated CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1) for 24 d) remarkably improved both photosynthesis and respiration in tea leaves. Furthermore, elevated CO2 increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, starch and total carbon, but decreased the total nitrogen concentration, resulting in an increased carbon to nitrogen ratio in tea leaves...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756241/rapid-cerebrovascular-reactivity-mapping-enabling-vascular-reactivity-information-to-be-routinely-acquired
#2
Nicholas P Blockley, James W Harkin, Daniel P Bulte
Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping (CVR), using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and carbon dioxide as a stimulus, provides useful information on how cerebral blood vessels react under stress. This information has proven to be useful in the study of vascular disorders, dementia and healthy ageing. However, clinical adoption of this form of CVR mapping has been hindered by relatively long scan durations of 7-12 min. By replacing the conventional block presentation of carbon dioxide enriched air with a sinusoidally modulated stimulus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether more clinically acceptable scan durations are possible...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749538/fast-further-purification-of-diastereomeric-salts-of-a-nonracemic-acid-by-gas-antisolvent-fractionation
#3
Márton Kőrösi, János Madarász, Tamás Sohajda, Edit Székely
A novel, green possibility of the further purification of the diastereomeric salt of 4-chloromandelic acid and 1-phenylethane-1-amine was developed. Gas antisolvent method using supercritical carbon dioxide was applied for the first time to precipitate the diastereomeric salts with increased purity followed by the supercritical fluid extraction of the dissolved diastereomers. The RR-salt can be purified to >99%, while fractionation-based purification of the SR-salt is limited to ~80%. The limiting initial diastereomeric excess correlates strongly with the atmospheric melting eutectic composition of the same salts, which suggests that despite the fast precipitation, the diastereomeric excess of the solid product is not kinetically determined...
July 27, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738515/characterization-of-carbon-dioxide-concentrating-chemolithotrophic-bacterium-serratia-sp-istd04-for-production-of-biodiesel
#4
Manish Kumar, Raj Morya, Edgard Gnansounou, Christian Larroche, Indu Shekhar Thakur
Proteomics and metabolomics analysis has become a powerful tool for characterization of microbial ability for fixation of Carbon dioxide. Bacterial community of palaeoproterozoic metasediments was enriched in the shake flask culture in the presence of NaHCO3. One of the isolate showed resistance to NaHCO3 (100mM) and was identified as Serratia sp. ISTD04 by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Carbon dioxide fixing ability of the bacterium was established by carbonic anhydrase enzyme assay along with proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS...
July 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724452/exercise-energy-expenditure-and-energy-balance-as-measured-with-doubly-labelled-water
#5
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE...
July 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715112/effects-of-free-air-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-face-on-nitrogen-assimilation-and-growth-of-winter-wheat-under-nitrate-and-ammonium-fertilization
#6
Markus Dier, Rieke Meinen, Martin Erbs, Lena Kollhorst, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, David Kaufholdt, Martin Kücke, Hans-Joachim Weigel, Christian Zörb, Robert Hänsch, Remy Manderscheid
A two year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted with winter wheat. It was investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) inhibit nitrate assimilation and whether better growth and nitrogen acquisition under e[CO2 ] can be achieved with an ammonium based fertilization as it was observed in hydroponic culture with wheat. Under e[CO2 ] a decrease of nitrate assimilation has been discussed as the cause for observed declines in protein concentration in C3 cereals. Wheat was grown under ambient [CO2 ] and e[CO2 ] (600 ppm) with three levels (deficiency, optimal and excessive) of nitrate based fertilization (calcium ammonium nitrate; CAN) or with optimal ammonium based fertilization...
July 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712133/aquatic-export-of-young-dissolved-and-gaseous-carbon-from-a-pristine-boreal-fen-implications-for-peat-carbon-stock-stability
#7
A Campeau, K Bishop, M F Billett, M H Garnett, H Laudon, J A Leach, M B Nilsson, M G Öquist, M B Wallin
The stability of northern peatland's carbon (C) store under changing climate is of major concern for the global C cycle. The aquatic export of C from boreal peatlands is recognized as both a critical pathway for the remobilization of peat C stocks as well as a major component of the net ecosystem C balance (NECB). Here, we present a full year characterization of radiocarbon content ((14) C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) exported from a boreal peatland catchment coupled with (14) C characterization of the catchment's peat profile of the same C-species...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684156/virus-incidence-in-wheat-increases-under-elevated-co2-a-4-year-study-of-yellow-dwarf-viruses-from-a-free-air-carbon-dioxide-facility
#8
Piotr Trębicki, Narelle Nancarrow, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Brendan Rodoni, Mohammad Aftab, Angela Freeman, Alan Yen, Glenn Fitzgerald
The complexities behind the mechanisms associated with virus-host-vector interactions of vector-transmitted viruses, and their consequences for disease development need to be understood to reduce virus spread and disease severity. Climate has a substantial effect on viruses, vectors, host plants and their interactions. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is predicted to impact the interactions between them. This study, conducted under ambient and elevated CO2 (550μmolmol(-1)), in the Australian Grains Free Air Carbon Enrichment facility reports on natural yellow dwarf virus incidence on wheat (including Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV))...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631264/targeted-use-of-leds-in-improvement-of-production-efficiency-through-phytochemical-enrichment
#9
REVIEW
E Taulavuori, K Taulavuori, J K Holopainen, R Julkunen-Tiitto, C Acar, I Dincer
Based on available literature, ecology and economy of LED (light emitting diode) lights in plant foods production were assessed and compared to HPS (high pressure sodium) and CFL (compact fluorescent light) lamps. The assessment summarises that LEDs are superior compared to other lamp types. LEDs are ideal in luminous efficiency, life span and electricity usage. Mercury, carbon dioxide and heat emissions are also lowest in comparison to HPS and CFL lamps. This indicates that LEDs are indeed economic and eco-friendly lighting devices...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623019/exogenous-addition-of-h2-for-an-in-situ-biogas-upgrading-through-biological-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-into-methane
#10
Daniel Girma Mulat, Freya Mosbæk, Alastair James Ward, Daniela Polag, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Anders Feilberg
Biological reduction of CO2 into CH4 by exogenous addition of H2 is a promising technology for upgrading biogas into higher CH4 content. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of exogenous H2 addition for an in situ biogas upgrading through biological conversion of the biogas CO2 into CH4. Moreover, this study employed systematic study with isotope analysis for providing comprehensive evidence on the underlying pathways of CH4 production and upstream processes. Batch reactors were inoculated with digestate originating from a full-scale biogas plant and fed once with maize leaf substrate...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605591/influencing-mechanism-of-ocean-acidification-on-byssus-performance-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#11
Shiguo Li, Chuang Liu, Aibin Zhan, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang
The byssus is an important adhesive structure by which bivalves robustly adhere to underwater substrates. It is susceptible to carbon dioxide-driven ocean acidification (OA). Previous investigations have documented significant adverse effects of OA on the performance of byssal threads, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, multiple approaches were employed to reveal the underlying mechanisms for the effects of OA on byssus production and mechanical properties in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575426/evolution-of-microbial-communities-growing-with-carbon-monoxide-hydrogen-and-carbon-dioxide
#12
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Anca G Delgado, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Microbial anaerobic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) and syngas (mainly composed of CO, CO2 and H2) leads to the production of important industrial products, such as acetate and ethanol. The composition of CO- and syngas-converting microbial communities, and the microbial interactions involved are still largely unknown. The main objectives of this study were 1) to understand the effects of CO, CO2 and H2 on the structure and function of a CO-consuming microbial community, and 2) to identify key carboxidotrophs in the mixed culture...
May 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557424/carbon-dioxide-as-a-traceless-caramelization-promotor-preparation-of-prebiotic-difructose-dianhydrides-dfas-enriched-caramels-from-d-fructose
#13
Maïté Audemar, Loyda Atencio-Genes, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, François Jérôme, José Manuel Garcia Fernandez, Karine De Oliveira Vigier
Activation of a concentrated solution of d-fructose with carbonic acid, generated from carbon dioxide, induces the formation of difructose dianhydrides (DFAs) and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs), a family of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Under optimized conditions, up to 70% of the active DFA species were obtained from a highly concentrated solution of fructose, avoiding the filtration step and contamination risk associated with the current procedures that employ heterogeneous catalysis with acid ion-exchange resins...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555276/suppression-of-phosphorylated-mapk-and-caspase-3-by-carbon-dioxide
#14
Yan-Jun Xu, Vijayan Elimban, Naranjan S Dhalla
Although CO2 is produced during the oxidation of different substrates in all types of cells, the role of this gas in the regulation of cellular function is not clearly understood. Since changes in several signal transduction as well as apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, and other proteins are known to modify cellular function, we investigated if some of these proteins are altered upon incubating the rat hind leg skeletal muscle in a medium enriched with CO2 (1000-1200 ppm) for 30 min. CO2 was observed to depress phosphorylated levels of ERK1 (P44) and ERK2 (P42) without affecting the unphosphorylated content of these MAPK proteins...
May 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508113/doubly-labelled-water-assessment-of-energy-expenditure-principle-practice-and-promise
#15
REVIEW
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm...
July 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494115/disentangling-species-and-functional-group-richness-effects-on-soil-n-cycling-in-a-grassland-ecosystem
#16
Xiaorong Wei, Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Clare E Kazanski
Species richness (SR) and functional group richness (FGR) are often confounded in both observational and experimental field studies of biodiversity and ecosystem function. This precludes discernment of their separate influences on ecosystem processes, including nitrogen (N) cycling, and how those influences might be moderated by global change factors. In a 17-year field study of grassland species, we used two full factorial experiments to independently vary SR (1 or 4 species, with FGR=1) and FGR (1-4 groups, with SR=4) to assess SR and FGR effects on ecosystem N cycling and its response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and N addition...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484018/enhanced-co2-uptake-at-a-shallow-arctic-ocean-seep-field-overwhelms-the-positive-warming-potential-of-emitted-methane
#17
John W Pohlman, Jens Greinert, Carolyn Ruppel, Anna Silyakova, Lisa Vielstädte, Michael Casso, Jürgen Mienert, Stefan Bünz
Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10(6) tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444591/biotechnological-application-of-sustainable-biogas-production-through-dry-anaerobic-digestion-of-napier-grass
#18
Natthawud Dussadee, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Tapana Cheunbarn
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#19
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388042/triflic-acid-promoted-decarboxylation-of-adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one-access-to-chiral-amines-and-heterocycles
#20
Radim Hrdina, Marta Larrosa, Christian Logemann
We have developed a one-step procedure to a variety of chiral lipophilic and conformationally rigid amines and heterocycles by decarboxylation of adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one. Triflic acid or aluminum triflate promote the addition of diverse nucleophiles to the oxazolidine-2-one moiety accompanied by the release of carbon dioxide. The resulting amine or heterocycle is then protonated/metalated by the catalyst (promotor). Additionally, the starting racemic material, adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one, was resolved into single enantiomers using a chiral auxiliary to access enantio-enriched products and to study the racemization pathway of chiral 1,2-disubstituted adamantane derivatives...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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