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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631264/targeted-use-of-leds-in-improvement-of-production-efficiency-through-phytochemical-enrichment
#1
REVIEW
E Taulavuori, K Taulavuori, J K Holopainen, R Julkunen-Tiitto, C Acar, I Dincer
Based on available literature, ecology and economy of LED (light emitting diode) lights in plant foods production were assessed and compared to HPS (high pressure sodium) and CFL (compact fluorescent light) lamps. The assessment summarises that LEDs are superior compared to other lamp types. LEDs are ideal in luminous efficiency, life span and electricity usage. Mercury, carbon dioxide and heat emissions are also lowest in comparison to HPS and CFL lamps. This indicates that LEDs are indeed economic and eco-friendly lighting devices...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623019/exogenous-addition-of-h2-for-an-in-situ-biogas-upgrading-through-biological-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-into-methane
#2
Daniel Girma Mulat, Freya Mosbæk, Alastair James Ward, Daniela Polag, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Anders Feilberg
Biological reduction of CO2 into CH4 by exogenous addition of H2 is a promising technology for upgrading biogas into higher CH4 content. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of exogenous H2 addition for an in situ biogas upgrading through biological conversion of the biogas CO2 into CH4. Moreover, this study employed systematic study with isotope analysis for providing comprehensive evidence on the underlying pathways of CH4 production and upstream processes. Batch reactors were inoculated with digestate originating from a full-scale biogas plant and fed once with maize leaf substrate...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605591/influencing-mechanism-of-ocean-acidification-on-byssus-performance-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#3
Shiguo Li, Chuang Liu, Aibin Zhan, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang
The byssus is an important adhesive structure by which bivalves robustly adhere to underwater substrates. It is susceptible to carbon dioxide-driven ocean acidification (OA). Previous investigations have documented significant adverse effects of OA on the performance of byssal threads, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, multiple approaches were employed to reveal the underlying mechanisms for the effects of OA on byssus production and mechanical properties in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575426/evolution-of-microbial-communities-growing-with-carbon-monoxide-hydrogen-and-carbon-dioxide
#4
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Anca G Delgado, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Microbial anaerobic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) and syngas (mainly composed of CO, CO2 and H2) leads to the production of important industrial products, such as acetate and ethanol. The composition of CO- and syngas-converting microbial communities, and the microbial interactions involved are still largely unknown. The main objectives of this study were 1) to understand the effects of CO, CO2 and H2 on the structure and function of a CO-consuming microbial community, and 2) to identify key carboxidotrophs in the mixed culture...
May 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557424/carbon-dioxide-as-traceless-caramelization-promotor-preparation-of-prebiotic-difructose-dianhydrides-dfas-enriched-caramels-from-d-fructose
#5
Maite Audemar, Loyda S Atencio-Gene, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, François Jerome, José Manuel García Fernández, Karine De Oliveira Vigier
Activation of a concentrated solution of D-fructose with carbonic acid, generated from carbon dioxide, induces the formation of difructose dianhydrides (DFAs) and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs), a family of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Under optimized conditions, up to 70% of the active DFA species was obtained from a highly concentrated solution of fructose, avoiding the filtration step and contamination risk associated to the current procedures that employ heterogeneous catalysis with acid ion-exchange resins...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555276/suppression-of-phosphorylated-mapk-and-caspase-3-by-carbon-dioxide
#6
Yan-Jun Xu, Vijayan Elimban, Naranjan S Dhalla
Although CO2 is produced during the oxidation of different substrates in all types of cells, the role of this gas in the regulation of cellular function is not clearly understood. Since changes in several signal transduction as well as apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, and other proteins are known to modify cellular function, we investigated if some of these proteins are altered upon incubating the rat hind leg skeletal muscle in a medium enriched with CO2 (1000-1200 ppm) for 30 min. CO2 was observed to depress phosphorylated levels of ERK1 (P44) and ERK2 (P42) without affecting the unphosphorylated content of these MAPK proteins...
May 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508113/doubly-labelled-water-assessment-of-energy-expenditure-principle-practice-and-promise
#7
REVIEW
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494115/disentangling-species-and-functional-group-richness-effects-on-soil-n-cycling-in-a-grassland-ecosystem
#8
Xiaorong Wei, Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Clare E Kazanski
Species richness (SR) and functional group richness (FGR) are often confounded in both observational and experimental field studies of biodiversity and ecosystem function. This precludes discernment of their separate influences on ecosystem processes, including nitrogen (N) cycling, and how those influences might be moderated by global change factors. In a 17-year field study of grassland species, we used two full factorial experiments to independently vary SR (1 or 4 species, with FGR=1) and FGR (1-4 groups, with SR=4) to assess SR and FGR effects on ecosystem N cycling and its response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and N addition...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484018/enhanced-co2-uptake-at-a-shallow-arctic-ocean-seep-field-overwhelms-the-positive-warming-potential-of-emitted-methane
#9
John W Pohlman, Jens Greinert, Carolyn Ruppel, Anna Silyakova, Lisa Vielstädte, Michael Casso, Jürgen Mienert, Stefan Bünz
Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10(6) tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444591/biotechnological-application-of-sustainable-biogas-production-through-dry-anaerobic-digestion-of-napier-grass
#10
Natthawud Dussadee, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Tapana Cheunbarn
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388042/triflic-acid-promoted-decarboxylation-of-adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one-access-to-chiral-amines-and-heterocycles
#12
Radim Hrdina, Marta Larrosa, Christian Logemann
We have developed a one-step procedure to a variety of chiral lipophilic and conformationally rigid amines and heterocycles by decarboxylation of adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one. Triflic acid or aluminum triflate promote the addition of diverse nucleophiles to the oxazolidine-2-one moiety accompanied by the release of carbon dioxide. The resulting amine or heterocycle is then protonated/metalated by the catalyst (promotor). Additionally, the starting racemic material, adamantane-oxazolidine-2-one, was resolved into single enantiomers using a chiral auxiliary to access enantio-enriched products and to study the racemization pathway of chiral 1,2-disubstituted adamantane derivatives...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372863/recycling-of-carbon-dioxide-by-free-air-co2-enriched-face-bacillus-sp-ss105-for-enhanced-production-and-optimization-of-biosurfactant
#13
Neha Maheshwari, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur, Shaili Srivastava
Carbon dioxide utilizing bacterium Bacillus sp. SS105 was isolated from FACE (free air CO2 enriched) sample. The strain was grown in shake flask containing minimal salt medium with 50mM NaHCO3 as autotrophic carbon source and molasses as a low cost byproduct for mixotrophic growth. Carbon dioxide sequestration property of Bacillus sp. SS105 was determined by enzyme assay of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Along with CO2 sequestration this strain produced biosurfactant and its characterization by FTIR and (1)H NMR indicated lipopeptide nature...
March 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370878/biomass-responses-in-a-temperate-european-grassland-through-17-years-of-elevated-co2
#14
L C Andresen, N Yuan, R Seibert, G Moser, C I Kammann, J Luterbacher, M Erbs, C Müller
Future increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations will potentially enhance grassland biomass production and shift the functional group composition with consequences for ecosystem functioning. In the 'GiFACE' experiment (Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment), fertilized grassland plots were fumigated with elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) year-round during daylight hours since 1998, at a level of +20% relative to ambient concentrations (in 1998 aCO2 was 364 ppm and eCO2 399 ppm; in 2014 aCO2 was 397 ppm and eCO2 518 ppm)...
April 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369644/species-characteristics-and-intraspecific-variation-in-growth-and-photosynthesis-of-cryptomeria-japonica-under-elevated-o3-and-co2
#15
Yuichiro Hiraoka, Taiichi Iki, Mine Nose, Hiroyuki Tobita, Kenichi Yazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Yoshitake Fujisawa, Mitsutoshi Kitao
In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination...
March 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368570/methanogenic-biocathode-microbial-community-development-and-the-role-of-bacteria
#16
Christy M Dykstra, Spyros G Pavlostathis
The cathode microbial community of a methanogenic bioelectrochemical system (BES) is key to the efficient conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methane (CH4) with application to biogas upgrading. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and microbial community composition of a biocathode inoculated with a mixed methanogenic (MM) culture to a biocathode inoculated with an enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic (EHM) culture, developed from the MM culture following pre-enrichment with H2 and CO2 as the only externally supplied electron donor and carbon source, respectively...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335808/potential-for-hydrogen-oxidizing-chemolithoautotrophic-and-diazotrophic-populations-to-initiate-biofilm-formation-in-oligotrophic-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-waters
#17
Xiaofen Wu, Karsten Pedersen, Johanna Edlund, Lena Eriksson, Mats Åström, Anders F Andersson, Stefan Bertilsson, Mark Dopson
BACKGROUND: Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. RESULTS: In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330079/evaluation-of-photosynthetic-efficacy-and-co2-removal-of-microalgae-grown-in-an-enriched-bicarbonate-medium
#18
S Abinandan, S Shanthakumar
Bicarbonate species in the aqueous phase is the primary source for CO2 for the growth of microalgae. The potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in enriched bicarbonate medium was evaluated. In the present study, effects of parameters such as pH, sodium bicarbonate concentration and inoculum size were assessed for the removal of CO2 by C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic condition. Central composite design tool from response surface methodology was used to validate statistical methods in order to study the influence of these parameters...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303465/pharmacotherapy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-novel-experimental-medicine-models-and-emerging-drug-targets
#19
REVIEW
David S Baldwin, Ruihua Hou, Robert Gordon, Nathan T M Huneke, Matthew Garner
Many pharmacological and psychological approaches have been found efficacious in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but many treatment-seeking patients will not respond and others will relapse despite continuing with interventions that initially had beneficial effects. Other patients will respond but then stop treatment early because of untoward effects such as sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, and weight gain. There is much scope for the development of novel approaches that could have greater overall effectiveness or acceptability than currently available interventions or that have particular effectiveness in specific clinical subgroups...
April 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294218/-13-c-labeling-the-carbon-fixation-pathway-of-a-highly-efficient-artificial-photosynthetic-system
#20
Chong Liu, Shannon N Nangle, Brendan C Colón, Pamela A Silver, Daniel G Nocera
Interfacing the CO2-fixing microorganism, Ralstonia eutropha, to the energy derived from hydrogen produced by water splitting is a viable approach to achieving renewable CO2 reduction at high efficiencies. We employ (13)C-labeling to report on the nature of CO2 reduction in the inorganic water splitting|R. eutropha hybrid system. Accumulated biomass in a reactor under a (13)C-enriched CO2 atmosphere may be sampled at different time points during CO2 reduction. Converting the sampled biomass into gaseous CO2 allows the (13)C/(12)C ratio to be determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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