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carbon dioxide enrichment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280288/morphological-and-compositional-design-of-pd-cu-bimetallic-nanocatalysts-with-controllable-product-selectivity-toward-co2-electroreduction
#1
Wenjin Zhu, Lei Zhang, Piaoping Yang, Xiaoxia Chang, Hao Dong, Ang Li, Congling Hu, Zhiqi Huang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jinlong Gong
Electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide) to value-added products is a promising way to solve CO2 emission problems. This paper describes a facile one-pot approach to synthesize palladium-copper (Pd-Cu) bimetallic catalysts with different structures. Highly efficient performance and tunable product distributions are achieved due to a coordinative function of both enriched low-coordinated sites and composition effects. The concave rhombic dodecahedral Cu3 Pd (CRD-Cu3 Pd) decreases the onset potential for methane (CH4 ) by 200 mV and shows a sevenfold CH4 current density at -1...
December 27, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248685/bioconversion-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methane-using-hydrogen-and-hydrogenotrophic-methanogens
#2
REVIEW
Jana Zabranska, Dana Pokorna
Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable amount of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of the natural gas transport system requires CO2 removal or its conversion to methane. The biological conversion of CO2 and hydrogen to methane is well known reaction without the demand of high pressure and temperature and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Reducing equivalents to the biotransformation of carbon dioxide from biogas or other resources to biomethane can be supplied by external hydrogen...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222104/effect-of-start-up-strategies-and-electrode-materials-on-carbon-dioxide-reduction-on-bio-cathodes
#3
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2-reducing microbial bio-cathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bio-anodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into bio-cathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was, thus, to compare the start-up of bio-cathodes from pre-enriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195996/evaluation-of-tempranillo-and-albari%C3%A3-o-so2-free-wines-produced-by-different-chemical-alternatives-and-winemaking-procedures
#4
Raúl Ferrer-Gallego, Miquel Puxeu, Enric Nart, Laura Martín, Imma Andorrà
In this work physical and chemical alternatives to produce SO2 free wines are shown. The use of inactive yeast strains enriched in glutathione, chitosan, dimethyldicarbonate and different hydrolysable and condensed tannins were assessed in Tempranillo and Albariño wines. The time of addition, mixtures of additives and the use of inert gases were evaluated. In general, no significant differences on the sensory quality were shown when compared sulphited and non-sulphited wines. Both physical and chemical treatments were more effective for Tempranillo wines...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173743/clinical-correlates-of-carbon-dioxide-hypersensitivity-in-children
#5
Lance M Rappaport, Christina Sheerin, Dever M Carney, Kenneth E Towbin, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
OBJECTIVE: Hypersensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2)-enriched air may be a promising risk marker for anxiety disorders. Among adult and adolescent samples, heterogeneity in distress response to the CO2 challenge task indexes 3 underlying classes of individuals, which distinguish between sustained and acute threat response as markers for internalizing disorders, broadly, and anxiety disorders, specifically. The present study examines latent classes in children's response to the CO2 challenge task to clarify the association of CO2 hypersensitivity with anxiety and internalizing symptomatology in childhood...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159232/application-of-bi-clustering-of-gene-expression-data-and-gene-set-enrichment-analysis-methods-to-identify-potentially-disease-causing-nanomaterials
#6
Andrew Williams, Sabina Halappanavar
This article contains data related to the research article 'Application of bi-clustering of gene expression data and gene set enrichment analysis methods to identify potentially disease causing nanomaterials' (Williams and Halappanavar, 2015) [1]. The presence of diverse types of nanomaterials (NMs) in commerce has grown significantly in the past decade and as a result, human exposure to these materials in the environment is inevitable. The traditional toxicity testing approaches that are reliant on animals are both time- and cost- intensive; employing which, it is not possible to complete the challenging task of safety assessment of NMs currently on the market in a timely manner...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153878/extensive-processing-of-sediment-pore-water-dissolved-organic-matter-during-anoxic-incubation-as-observed-by-high-field-mass-spectrometry-fticr-ms
#7
Juliana Valle, Michael Gonsior, Mourad Harir, Alex Enrich-Prast, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, David Bastviken, Ralf Conrad, Norbert Hertkorn
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contained in lake sediments is a carbon source for many microbial degradation processes, including aerobic and anaerobic mineralization. During anaerobic degradation, DOM is partially consumed and transformed into new molecules while the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced. In this study, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to trace differences in the composition of solid-phase extractable (PPL resin) pore water DOM (SPE-DOM) isolated from surface sediments of three boreal lakes before and after 40 days of anoxic incubation, with concomitant determination of CH4 and CO2 evolution...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126009/characteristics-and-origin-of-agates-from-p%C3%A5-%C3%A3-czki-g%C3%A3-rne-lower-silesia-poland-a-combined-microscopic-micro-raman-and-cathodoluminescence-study
#8
Magdalena Dumańska-Słowik, Tomasz Powolny, Magdalena Sikorska-Jaworowska, Adam Gaweł, Lucyna Kogut, Krzysztof Poloński
Agates from Płóczki Górne hosted by Permian basaltic rocks are predominantly made of length-fast chalcedony, and subordinately megaquartz and quartzine. Moganite occurs in traces mainly in transparent, outer, darker regions of white-grey coloured agates. Silica matrix of agates comprises a wide variety of solid inclusions represented by celadonite, plagioclases, hematite, goethite, barite, calcite, heulandite-clinoptyloite, nontronite-saponite, and Mn-dioxides (ramsdellite). Mineral phases are locally accompanied by black aggregations of carbonaceous matter, which gives a Raman signature of disordered carbon...
November 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110424/increasing-drought-and-diminishing-benefits-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-for-soybean-yields-across-the-us-midwest
#9
Zhenong Jin, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Andrew D B Leakey, David B Lobell
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) are expected to increase C3 crop yield through the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) by stimulating photosynthesis and by reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration. The latter effect is widely believed to lead to greater benefits in dry rather than wet conditions, although some recent experimental evidence challenges this view. Here we used a process-based crop model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), to quantify the contemporary and future CFE on soybean in one of its primary production area of the US Midwest...
November 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102070/aragonite-saturation-state-in-a-tropical-coastal-embayment-dominated-by-phytoplankton-blooms-guanabara-bay-brazil
#10
Luiz C Cotovicz, Bastiaan A Knoppers, Nilva Brandini, Dominique Poirier, Suzan J Costa Santos, Gwenaël Abril
The dynamics of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) were investigated in the eutrophic coastal waters of Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil). Large phytoplankton blooms stimulated by a high nutrient enrichment promoted the production of organic matter with strong uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters, lowering the concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2aq), and increasing the pH, Ωarag and carbonate ion (CO3(2-)), especially during summer. The increase of Ωarag related to biological activity was also evident comparing the negative relationship between the Ωarag and the apparent utilization of oxygen (AOU), with a very close behavior between the slopes of the linear regression and the Redfield ratio...
October 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093701/soil-conditions-rather-than-long-term-exposure-to-elevated-co2-affect-soil-microbial-communities-associated-with-n-cycling
#11
Kristof Brenzinger, Katharina Kujala, Marcus A Horn, Gerald Moser, Cécile Guillet, Claudia Kammann, Christoph Müller, Gesche Braker
Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063587/carbon-dioxide-and-submersed-macrophytes-in-lakes-linking-functional-ecology-to-community-composition
#12
John E Titus, Angela M Pagano
Evaluating plant community response to atmospheric CO2 rise is critical to predicting ecosystem level change. Freshwater lakes offer a model system for examining CO2 effects as submersed macrophyte species differ greatly in their growth responses to CO2 enrichment, and free CO2 concentrations among these habitats show a wide range of natural, spatial variation. We determined free CO2 concentrations in the water column and sediment porewater in littoral zones with pH < 6.0 in Adirondack Mountain (New York, USA) lakes, and derived a community CO2 responsiveness index (CCRI) based on quantitative sampling of 15 submersed macrophyte communities coupled with greenhouse-derived growth responses to CO2 enrichment of constituent species to test two hypotheses: (1) CCRI, which is higher for communities dominated by species with greater growth responses to CO2 enrichment, is positively correlated to free [CO2 ] in the water column, and (2) in natural communities, the percent of sediment CO2 -using species, which are relatively unresponsive to CO2 enrichment, is negatively correlated to free [CO2 ]...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961541/the-impact-of-biosolids-application-on-organic-carbon-and-carbon-dioxide-fluxes-in-soil
#13
Hasintha Wijesekara, Nanthi S Bolan, Ramesh Thangavel, Balaji Seshadri, Aravind Surapaneni, Christopher Saint, Chris Hetherington, Peter Matthews, Meththika Vithanage
A field study was conducted on two texturally different soils to determine the influences of biosolids application on selected soil chemical properties and carbon dioxide fluxes. Two sites, located in Manildra (clay loam) and Grenfell (sandy loam), in Australia, were treated at a single level of 70 Mg ha(-1) biosolids. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC fractions, including total organic carbon (TOC), labile, and non-labile carbon contents. The natural abundances of soil δ(13)C and δ(15)N were measured as isotopic tracers to fingerprint carbon derived from biosolids...
September 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943864/evolutionary-engineering-in-chemostat-cultures-for-improved-maltotriose-fermentation-kinetics-in-saccharomyces-pastorianus-lager-brewing-yeast
#14
Anja Brickwedde, Marcel van den Broek, Jan-Maarten A Geertman, Frederico Magalhães, Niels G A Kuijpers, Brian Gibson, Jack T Pronk, Jean-Marc G Daran
The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913427/ultrastable-atomic-copper-nanosheets-for-selective-electrochemical-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide
#15
Lei Dai, Qing Qin, Pei Wang, Xiaojing Zhao, Chengyi Hu, Pengxin Liu, Ruixuan Qin, Mei Chen, Daohui Ou, Chaofa Xu, Shiguang Mo, Binghui Wu, Gang Fu, Peng Zhang, Nanfeng Zheng
The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into syngas using renewably generated electricity is an attractive approach to simultaneously achieve chemical fixation of CO2 and storage of renewable energy. Developing cost-effective catalysts for selective electroreduction of CO2 into CO is essential to the practical applications of the approach. We report a simple synthetic strategy for the preparation of ultrathin Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as an excellent cost-effective catalyst for the electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into tunable syngas under low overpotentials...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910645/performance-and-stability-of-sewage-sludge-digestion-under-co2-enrichment-a-pilot-study
#16
Luca Alibardi, Kevin Green, Lorenzo Favaro, Peter Vale, Ana Soares, Elise Cartmell, Yadira Bajón Fernández
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in anaerobic digestion has recently been proposed as an interesting possibility to boost methane (CH4) recovery from sludge and organic waste by converting a greenhouse gas into a renewable resource. This research assessed the effects of exogenous CO2 injection on performance and process stability of single-phase continuous anaerobic digesters. Two pilot scale reactors treating sewage sludge were operated for 130days. One reactor was periodically injected with CO2 while the other acted as control...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839161/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-a-green-sulfur-bacterium-as-a-potential-coral-symbiont
#17
Lin Cai, Guowei Zhou, Ren-Mao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Jin Sun, Wei Ding, Yue Him Wong, James Y Xie, Jian-Wen Qiu, Sheng Liu, Hui Huang, Pei-Yuan Qian
Coral reefs are ecologically significant habitats. Coral-algal symbiosis confers ecological success on coral reefs and coral-microbial symbiosis is also vital to coral reefs. However, current understanding of coral-microbial symbiosis on a genomic scale is largely unknown. Here we report a potential microbial symbiont in corals revealed by metagenomics-based genomic study. Microbial cells in coral were enriched for metagenomic analysis and a high-quality draft genome of "Candidatus Prosthecochloris korallensis" was recovered by metagenome assembly and genome binning...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835006/growth-of-chlorella-vulgaris-and-nutrient-removal-in-the-wastewater-in-response-to-intermittent-carbon-dioxide
#18
Xiaoning Liu, Kezhen Ying, Guangyao Chen, Canwei Zhou, Wen Zhang, Xihui Zhang, Zhonghua Cai, Thomas Holmes, Yi Tao
In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were cultured in cell culture flask supplied with intermittent CO2 enriched gas. The impact of CO2 concentration (from 1% to 20% v/v) on the growth of C. vulgaris cultured in domestic wastewater was exploited in various perspectives which include biomass, specific growth rate, culture pH, carbon consumption, and the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. The results showed that the maximum microalgal biomass concentration, 1.12 g L(-1), was achieved with 10% CO2 as a feed gas...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801632/stimulation-in-primary-and-secondary-metabolism-by-elevated-carbon-dioxide-alters-green-tea-quality-in-camellia-sinensis-l
#19
Xin Li, Lan Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Zhi-Xin Li, Ji-Peng Wei, Chen Shen, Peng Yan, Li-Ping Zhang, Wen-Yan Han
Rising CO2 concentration, a driving force of climate change, is impacting global food security by affecting plant physiology. Nevertheless, the effects of elevated CO2 on primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) still remain largely unknown. Here we showed that exposure of tea plants to elevated CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1) for 24 d) remarkably improved both photosynthesis and respiration in tea leaves. Furthermore, elevated CO2 increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, starch and total carbon, but decreased the total nitrogen concentration, resulting in an increased carbon to nitrogen ratio in tea leaves...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756241/rapid-cerebrovascular-reactivity-mapping-enabling-vascular-reactivity-information-to-be-routinely-acquired
#20
Nicholas P Blockley, James W Harkin, Daniel P Bulte
Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping (CVR), using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and carbon dioxide as a stimulus, provides useful information on how cerebral blood vessels react under stress. This information has proven to be useful in the study of vascular disorders, dementia and healthy ageing. However, clinical adoption of this form of CVR mapping has been hindered by relatively long scan durations of 7-12 min. By replacing the conventional block presentation of carbon dioxide enriched air with a sinusoidally modulated stimulus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether more clinically acceptable scan durations are possible...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
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