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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129205/the-steroid-hormone-20-hydroxyecdysone-upregulates-calcium-release-activated-calcium-channel-modulator-1-expression-to-induce-apoptosis-in-the-midgut-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#1
Yong-Bo Li, Xu-Yang Pei, Di Wang, Cai-Hua Chen, Mei-Juan Cai, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Animal steroid hormones stimulate extracellular Ca(2+) influx into cells; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we determined that the Ca(2+) influx induced by steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is mediated by the calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1 (CRACM1/Orai1). The Orai1 mRNA is highly expressed during midgut programmed cell death in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. 20E upregulated the expression of Orai1 in H. armigera larvae and in an epidermal cell line (HaEpi)...
December 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#2
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951282/accumulation-of-dsrna-in-endosomes-contributes-to-inefficient-rna-interference-in-the-fall-armyworm-spodoptera-frugiperda
#3
June-Sun Yoon, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946649/the-incredible-journey-of-begomoviruses-in-their-whitefly-vector
#4
REVIEW
Henryk Czosnek, Aliza Hariton-Shalev, Iris Sobol, Rena Gorovits, Murad Ghanim
Begomoviruses are vectored in a circulative persistent manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The insect ingests viral particles with its stylets. Virions pass along the food canal and reach the esophagus and the midgut. They cross the filter chamber and the midgut into the haemolymph, translocate into the primary salivary glands and are egested with the saliva into the plant phloem. Begomoviruses have to cross several barriers and checkpoints successfully, while interacting with would-be receptors and other whitefly proteins...
September 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942847/identification-and-preliminary-characterization-of-a-putative-c-type-lectin-receptor-like-protein-in-the-t-cruzi-tomato-lectin-endocytic-enriched-proteome
#5
Sébastien Brosson, Guy Bottu, Etienne Pays, Sabrina Bousbata, Didier Salmon
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas' disease in Latin America undergoes a complex life cycle involving two hosts, a mammalian host and a reduviid insect vector (triatomine). In the insect midgut the parasite multiplies as epimastigote forms, which rely on endocytosis for their energy requirement. We recently showed that posttranslational modification of endocytic N-glycoproteins by tomato lectin (TL) binding-N-glycans is crucial for receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) in epimastigote forms...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#6
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840787/altering-plant-defenses-herbivore-associated-molecular-patterns-and-effector-arsenal-of-chewing-herbivores
#7
Saumik Basu, Suresh Varsani, Joe Louis
Chewing herbivores, such as caterpillars and beetles, while feeding on the host plant, cause extensive tissue damage and release a wide array of cues to alter plant defenses. Consequently, the cues can have both beneficial and detrimental impacts on the chewing herbivores. Herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) are molecules produced by herbivorous insects that aid them to elicit plant defenses leading to impairment of insect growth, while effectors suppress plant defenses and contribute to increased susceptibility to subsequent feeding by chewing herbivores...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808417/down-regulation-of-aminopeptidase-n-and-abc-transporter-subfamily-g-transcripts-in-cry1ab-and-cry1ac-resistant-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#8
Tiantao Zhang, Brad S Coates, Yueqin Wang, Yidong Wang, Shuxiong Bai, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a highly destructive pest of cultivated maize throughout East Asia. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance are not fully understood. In the current study, quantitative comparisons were made among midgut expressed transcripts from O...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#9
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#10
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703893/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#11
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: 3.5.1.28) activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#12
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630013/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-vicilin-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-midgut-epithelial-cells
#13
Daniele Kunz, Gabriel B Oliveira, Adriana F Uchôa, Richard I Samuels, Maria Lígia R Macedo, Carlos P Silva
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623231/cry6aa1-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-nematocidal-and-insecticidal-toxin-forms-pores-in-planar-lipid-bilayers-at-extremely-low-concentrations-and-without-the-need-of-proteolytic-processing
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eva Fortea, Vincent Lemieux, Léna Potvin, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, Timothy Hey, David McCaskill, Kenneth Narva, Sek Yee Tan, Xiaoping Xu, Vincent Vachon, Jean-Louis Schwartz
Cry6Aa1 is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin active against nematodes and corn rootworm insects. Its 3D molecular structure, which has been recently elucidated, is unique among those known for other Bt toxins. Typical three-domain Bt toxins permeabilize receptor-free planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) by forming pores at doses in the 1-50 μg/ml range. Solubilization and proteolytic activation are necessary steps for PLB permeabilization. In contrast to other Bt toxins, Cry6Aa1 formed pores in receptor-free bilayers at doses as low as 200 pg/ml in a wide range of pH (5...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry8-like-toxin-and-assembly-of-the-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#15
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, and Cry8-like is more toxic. To analyze the characteristics of the binding of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. The results of saturation binding assays demonstrated that Cry8-like bound specifically to binding sites on BBMVs from H...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331183/differential-expression-of-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-midguts-in-response-to-diet-of-spodoptera-litura
#16
Xin Yi, Jiangwei Qi, Xiaofan Zhou, Mei Ying Hu, Guo Hua Zhong
While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247982/cytotoxicity-and-binding-profiles-of-activated-cry1ac-and-cry2ab-to-three-insect-cell-lines
#17
Jizhen Wei, Gemei Liang, Kongming Wu, Shaohua Gu, Yuyuan Guo, Xinzhi Ni, Xianchun Li
While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baseline cytotoxicity of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the midgut and fat body cell lines of Helicoverpa zea and the ovary cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9). As expected, the descending order of cytotoxicity of Cry1Ac against the three cell lines in terms of 50% lethal concetration (LC50 ) was midgut (31...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223048/vegetative-insecticidal-protein-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-blb459-and-its-efficiency-against-lepidoptera
#18
Hanen Boukedi, Saoussen Ben Khedher, Rania Hadhri, Samir Jaoua, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
Bacillus thuringiensis strain BLB459 supernatant showed a promising activity against Lepidopteran pests with extremely damages in the larvae midgut. Investigations of the genes that encode secreted toxin demonstrated that this strain harbored a vip3-type gene named vip3(459). Based on its original nucleotide and amino acid sequences, this gene was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified and tested against different insects and interestingly the novel toxin demonstrated a remarkable activity against the stored products pest Ephestia kuehniella and the polyphagous insects Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum...
April 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002435/transcriptome-profiling-of-trypanosoma-brucei-development-in-the-tsetse-fly-vector-glossina-morsitans
#19
Amy F Savage, Nikolay G Kolev, Joseph B Franklin, Aurelien Vigneron, Serap Aksoy, Christian Tschudi
African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, have a complex digenetic life cycle between a mammalian host and an insect vector, the blood-feeding tsetse fly. Although the importance of the insect vector to transmit the disease was first realized over a century ago, many aspects of trypanosome development in tsetse have not progressed beyond a morphological analysis, mainly due to considerable challenges to obtain sufficient material for molecular studies. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile Trypanosoma brucei transcript levels in three distinct tissues of the tsetse fly, namely the midgut, proventriculus and salivary glands...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986933/the-spodoptera-exigua-lepidoptera-noctuidae-abcc2-mediates-cry1ac-cytotoxicity-and-in-conjunction-with-cadherin-contributes-to-enhance-cry1ca-toxicity-in-sf9-cells
#20
Xiang-Liang Ren, Wei-Li Jiang, Ya-Jie Ma, Hong-Yan Hu, Xiao-Yan Ma, Yan Ma, Guo-Qing Li
In insects, the mode of Cry1A toxins action has been studied in detail and many receptors that participate in the process are known. Recent evidence has revealed that an ABC transporter (ABCC2) is involved in conferring resistance to Cry1A toxins and that ABCC2 could be a receptor of Cry1A. However, it is not known whether Cry1Ca interacts with the same receptor proteins as Cry1A. In this study, we report the cloning of an ABC transporter gene, SeABCC2b, from the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) larvae, and its expression in Sf9 cells for a functional analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
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