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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213222/development-of-a-qcm-d-biosensor-for-ochratoxin-a-detection-in-red-wine
#1
Aleksandra Karczmarczyk, Karsten Haupt, Karl-Heinz Feller
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#2
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179499/structural-mechanistic-and-functional-insight-into-gliotoxin-bis-thiomethylation-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Stephen K Dolan, Tobias Bock, Vanessa Hering, Rebecca A Owens, Gary W Jones, Wulf Blankenfeldt, Sean Doyle
Gliotoxin is an epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class toxin, contains a disulfide bridge that mediates its toxic effects via redox cycling and is produced by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Self-resistance against gliotoxin is effected by the gliotoxin oxidase GliT, and attenuation of gliotoxin biosynthesis is catalysed by gliotoxin S-methyltransferase GtmA. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structures of GtmA-apo (1.66 Å), GtmA complexed to S-adenosylhomocysteine (1.33 Å) and GtmA complexed to S-adenosylmethionine (2...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168605/synergistic-activity-between-s-layer-protein-and-spore-crystal-preparations-from-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae
#4
Lucía C Lozano, Jenny Dussán
Lysinibacillus sphaericus is used for the biological control of mosquitoes. The main toxicity mechanism of pathogenic strains is a binary toxin produced during sporulation. S-layer is a proteinaceous structure on the surface of bacteria; its functions have been involved in the interaction between bacterial cells and the environment, for example, as protective coats, surface recognition, and biological control. In L. sphaericus, S-layer protein (SlpC) is expressed in vegetative cells, and is also found in spore-crystal preparations; it has larvicidal activity in Culex spp...
February 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144706/pest-management-through-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-in-a-tea-silkworm-ecosystem-status-and-potential-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Kavya Dashora, Somnath Roy, Akanksha Nagpal, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay Roy, Julie Flood, Anjali Km Prasad, Ravinder Khetarpal, Suzanne Neave, N Muraleedharan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that forms spores containing crystals comprising one or more Cry or Cyt proteins having potential and specific insecticidal activity. Different strains of Bt produce different types of toxins, affecting a narrow taxonomic group of insects. Therefore, it is used in non-chemical pest management, including inherent pest resistance through GM crops. The specificity of action of Bt toxins reduces the concern of adverse effects on non-target species, a concern which remains with chemical insecticides as well...
January 31, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137883/tir-only-protein-rba1-recognizes-a-pathogen-effector-to-regulate-cell-death-in-arabidopsis
#6
Marc T Nishimura, Ryan G Anderson, Karen A Cherkis, Terry F Law, Qingli L Liu, Mischa Machius, Zachary L Nimchuk, Li Yang, Eui-Hwan Chung, Farid El Kasmi, Michael Hyunh, Erin Osborne Nishimura, John E Sondek, Jeffery L Dangl
Detection of pathogens by plants is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor proteins. NLR proteins are defined by their stereotypical multidomain structure: an N-terminal Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) or coiled-coil (CC) domain, a central nucleotide-binding (NB) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). The plant innate immune system contains a limited NLR repertoire that functions to recognize all potential pathogens. We isolated Response to the bacterial type III effector protein HopBA1 (RBA1), a gene that encodes a TIR-only protein lacking all other canonical NLR domains...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118708/pegylation-enhances-mosquito-larvicidal-activity-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-binary-toxin
#7
Mahima Sharma, Ramesh S Hire, Ashok B Hadapad, Gagan D Gupta, Vinay Kumar
Toxic strains of Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used in the field for larval control of mosquito vector diseases. The high toxicity of L. sphaericus is attributed to the binary (BinAB) toxin produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions during the early stages of sporulation. BinA and BinB, the primary components of these spore-crystals, exert high toxicity when administered together. However, instability, short half-lives, and rapid proteolytic digestion can limit their use as an effective insecticide...
February 2, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089847/the-binding-orientation-of-epibatidine-at-%C3%AE-7-nach-receptors
#8
Andrew J Thompson, Simon Metzger, Martin Lochner, Marc-David Ruepp
Epibatidine is an alkaloid toxin that binds with high affinity to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and has been extensively used as a research tool. To examine binding interactions at the nicotinic receptor, it has been co-crystallised with the structural homologue acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP; PDB ID 2BYQ), and with an AChBP chimaera (3SQ6) that shares 64% sequence identity with the α7 nACh receptor. However, the binding orientations revealed by AChBP co-crystal structures may not precisely represent their receptor homologues and experimental evidence is needed to verify the ligand poses...
January 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#9
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067269/proteomic-analysis-of-cry2aa-binding-proteins-and-their-receptor-function-in-spodoptera-exigua
#10
Lin Qiu, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Lizhen Chen
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt "pyramid" cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060413/molecularly-imprinted-polymer-chemosensor-for-selective-determination-of-an-n-nitroso-l-proline-food-toxin
#11
Patrycja Lach, Piyush Sindhu Sharma, Karolina Golebiewska, Maciej Cieplak, Francis D'Souza, Wlodzimierz Kutner
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based chemosensor for the selective determination of a chosen toxin, N-nitroso-l-proline (Pro-NO), was devised and fabricated. By means of DFT, the structure of the pre-polymerization (functional monomer)-template complex was modeled. This complex was then potentiodynamically electropolymerized in the presence of cross-linking monomer to form a MIP-Pro-NO thin film. Next, the Pro-NO template was extracted from MIP-Pro-NO with 0.1 m NaOH. Piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) on an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and electrochemical (differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) techniques were used to transduce binding of Pro-NO to molecular cavities of the MIP-Pro-NO...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056928/new-ligation-independent-cloning-vectors-for-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-with-a-self-cleaving-cpd-6xhis-tag
#12
Marco Biancucci, Jazel S Dolores, Jennifer Wong, Sarah Grimshaw, Wayne F Anderson, Karla J F Satchell, Keehwan Kwon
BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein purification is a crucial step for biochemistry and structural biology fields. Rapid robust purification methods utilize various peptide or protein tags fused to the target protein for affinity purification using corresponding matrices and to enhance solubility. However, affinity/solubility-tags often need to be removed in order to conduct functional and structural studies, adding complexities to purification protocols. RESULTS: In this work, the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin Cysteine Protease Domain (CPD) was inserted in a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vector to create a C-terminal 6xHis-tagged inducible autoprocessing enzyme tag, called "the CPD-tag"...
January 5, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050633/biopolymer-microencapsulations-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-crystal-preparations-for-increased-stability-and-resistance-to-environmental-stress
#13
Xiaolin He, Zhongqin Sun, Kanglai He, Shuyuan Guo
Parasporal crystals synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used as microbial pesticides because of their toxicity to the larval stages of specific insects. However, parasporal crystals can be damaged by environmental stresses, such as high temperature, ultraviolet radiation, and desiccation. To reduce environmental susceptibility of parasporal crystals and extend the duration of their activity, we developed a new type of protection by making microcapsules of crystals (MCs). The microcapsules were self-assembled by alternate deposition (layer by layer) of low-cost chitosan and sodium alginate (or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) on the crystal surface...
January 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034717/crystal-structure-of-a-phospholipase-a2-from-bothrops-asper-venom-insights-into-a-new-putative-myotoxic-cluster
#14
Guilherme H M Salvador, Juliana I Dos Santos, Bruno Lomonte, Marcos R M Fontes
Snake venoms from the Viperidae and Elapidae families often have several phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which may display different functions despite having a similar structural scaffold. These proteins are considered an important target for the development of drugs against local myotoxic damage because they are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. PLA2s from these venoms are generally divided into two classes: (i) catalytic PLA2s (or Asp49-PLA2s) and (ii) non-catalytic PLA2-like toxins (or Lys49-PLA2s)...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007447/synthesis-of-some-ester-derivatives-of-4-demethoxyepipodophyllotoxin-2-chloro-4-demethoxyepipodophyllotoxin-as-insecticidal-agents-against-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separata-walker
#15
Jiulin Huang, Ming Xu, Shaochen Li, Jiani He, Hui Xu
Podophyllotoxin is a naturally occurring non-alkaloid toxin isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum peltatum and P. hexandrum. In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural product-based insecticides, two series of ester derivatives of 4'-demethoxyepipodophyllotoxin/2'-chloro-4'-demethoxyepipodophyllotoxin were prepared. The structures of the target compounds were well characterized by 1H NMR, IR, optical rotation and mp. The precise three-dimensional structural information of 8j was further determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
December 9, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001053/low-dose-effects-nonmonotonic-responses-for-the-toxicity-of-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-biocide-to-daphnia-magna
#16
Anderson Abel de Souza Machado, Christiane Zarfl, Saskia Rehse, Werner Kloas
Currently, there is a trend toward an increasing use of biopesticides assumed to be environmentally friendly, such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Studies of the Bt toxicity to nontarget organisms have reported low effects at high exposure levels, which is interpreted as indicating negligible risk to nontarget organisms. We investigated the response of the nontarget organism Daphnia magna to waterborne DiPel ES, a globally used Bt formulation. Neonates and adults were exposed for 48 h to a wide range of concentrations, and immobilization and mortality were monitored...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998932/toxin-inhibition-in-c-crescentus-vapbc1-is-mediated-by-a-flexible-pseudo-palindromic-protein-motif-and-modulated-by-dna-binding
#17
Kirstine L Bendtsen, Kehan Xu, Majbritt Luckmann, Kristoffer S Winther, Shiraz A Shah, Christian N S Pedersen, Ditlev E Brodersen
Expression of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems is regulated at the transcriptional level through direct binding of the antitoxin to pseudo-palindromic sequences on operator DNA. In this context, the toxin functions as a co-repressor by stimulating DNA binding through direct interaction with the antitoxin. Here, we determine crystal structures of the complete 90 kDa heterooctameric VapBC1 complex from Caulobacter crescentus CB15 both in isolation and bound to its cognate DNA operator sequence at 1...
December 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977897/the-membrane-localization-domains-of-two-distinct-bacterial-toxins-form-a-4-helix-bundle-in-solution
#18
Grant S Hisao, Michael C Brothers, Mengfei Ho, Brenda A Wilson, Chad M Rienstra
Membrane localization domain (MLD) was first proposed for a 4-helix-bundle motif in the crystal structure of the C1 domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). This structure motif is also found in the crystal structures of several clostridial glycosylating toxins (TcdA, TcdB, TcsL, and TcnA). The Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) module of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin produced by Vibrio vulnificus has sequence homology to the C1-C2 domains of PMT, including a putative MLD...
December 15, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#19
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917833/crystal-structure-of-the-toxin-msmeg_6760-the-structural-homolog-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2035-a-novel-type-ii-toxin-involved-in-the-hypoxic-response
#20
R Alexandra Bajaj, Mark A Arbing, Annie Shin, Duilio Cascio, Linda Miallau
The structure of Msmeg_6760, a protein of unknown function, has been determined. Biochemical and bioinformatics analyses determined that Msmeg_6760 interacts with a protein encoded in the same operon, Msmeg_6762, and predicted that the operon is a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Structural comparison of Msmeg_6760 with proteins of known function suggests that Msmeg_6760 binds a hydrophobic ligand in a buried cavity lined by large hydrophobic residues. Access to this cavity could be controlled by a gate-latch mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
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