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Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Denis Valle, Evandro Mateus Moretto, Sergio Mantovani Paiva Pulice, Nadia Lucia Zuca, Daniel Rondinelli Roquetti, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro Beduschi, Amanda Salles Praia, Claudia Parucce Franco Okamoto, Vinicius Leite da Silva Carvalhaes, Evandro Albiach Branco, Bruna Barbezani, Emily Labandera, Kelsie Timpe, David Kaplan
Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline...
2016: Scientific Data
Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed, Derek D Reed, Brent A Kaplan
Incentives are a popular method to achieve desired employee performance; however, research on optimal incentive magnitude is lacking. Behavioral economic demand curves model persistence of responding in the face of increasing cost and may be suitable to examine the reinforcing value of incentives on work performance. The present use-inspired basic study integrated an experiential human operant task within a crowdsourcing platform to evaluate the applicability of behavioral economics for quantifying changes in workforce attrition...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ilka H Gleibs
New technologies like large-scale social media sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) and crowdsourcing services (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk, Crowdflower, Clickworker) are impacting social science research and providing many new and interesting avenues for research. The use of these new technologies for research has not been without challenges, and a recently published psychological study on Facebook has led to a widespread discussion of the ethics of conducting large-scale experiments online. Surprisingly little has been said about the ethics of conducting research using commercial crowdsourcing marketplaces...
August 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Arcadia M Paine, Larry A Allen, Jocelyn S Thompson, Colleen K McIlvennan, Amy Jenkins, Andrew Hammes, Miranda Kroehl, Daniel D Matlock
BACKGROUND: People with end-stage heart failure may have to decide about destination therapy left ventricular assist device (DT-LVAD). Individuals facing difficult decisions often rely on heuristics, such as anchoring, which predictably bias decision outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether showing a larger, historical HeartMate XVE creates an anchoring effect, making the smaller HeartMate II (HMII) appear more favorable. METHODS: Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, participants watched videos asking them to imagine themselves dying of end-stage heart failure, then presented the option of LVAD as potentially life-prolonging therapy...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
M Barbosa, E P Vieira, C C A Quintão, D Normando
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate facial morphology of non-mixed indigenous people living in the Xingu region. Studies on these populations report that the total genetic diversity is as high as that observed for other continental populations. On the other hand, eating habits are different between indigenous and urban population, as indigenous people still have traditional habits. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The sample consisted of 106 indigenous subjects, in permanent dentition stage, belonging to four groups: Arara-Laranjal (n = 35), Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Xikrin-Kaiapó (n = 24), and Assurini (n = 27)...
August 2016: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Annie D Kearns, Marcia C Castro, Bárbara H Lourenço, Rosângela A Augusto, Marly A Cardoso
Introduction Breastfeeding is an important determinant of child survival and normal growth and development, but breastfeeding prevalence is generally low in Brazil. Factors associated with infant feeding practices there are not well understood. This paper examines factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in a township in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among children younger than 25 months and collected information on maternal and child characteristics...
July 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Alex R Kelman, Meagan L Stanley, Alinne Z Barrera, Michelle Cree, Yotam Heineberg, Paul Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Depression that occurs during the perinatal period has substantial costs for both the mother and her baby. Since in-person care often falls short of meeting the global need of perinatal women, Internet interventions may function as an alternate to help women who currently lack adequate access to face-to-face psychological resources. However, at present there are insufficient empirically supported Internet-based resources for perinatal women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the relative efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to a novel Internet-based compassionate mind training approach (CMT) across measures of affect, self-reassurance, self-criticizing, self-attacking, self-compassion, depression, and anxiety...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the public and scientists consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of animal research (AR) convincing. METHODS: After validation, the survey was sent to samples of public (Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canadian), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; US), a Canadian city festival and children's hospital), medical students (two second-year classes), and scientists (corresponding authors, and academic pediatricians)...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi, Gustavo Silva de Miranda
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species...
2016: PloS One
David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix
Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i...
August 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Elías Cisneros, Sophie Lian Zhou, Jan Börner
Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation...
2015: PloS One
Yunfei Guo, Xiaolei Ding, Yufeng Shen, Gholson J Lyon, Kai Wang
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly helped us identify disease-contributory variants for Mendelian diseases. However, users are often faced with issues such as software compatibility, complicated configuration, and no access to high-performance computing facility. Discrepancies exist among aligners and variant callers. We developed a computational pipeline, SeqMule, to perform automated variant calling from NGS data on human genomes and exomes. SeqMule integrates computational-cluster-free parallelization capability built on top of the variant callers, and facilitates normalization/intersection of variant calls to generate consensus set with high confidence...
September 18, 2015: Scientific Reports
Alexander Pfaff, Juan Robalino, Diego Herrera, Catalina Sandoval
Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure...
2015: PloS One
Ricardo Godoy, Victoria Reyes-García, Thomas McDade, Susan Tanner, William R Leonard, Tomás Huanca, Vincent Vadez, Karishma Patel
Growing evidence suggests mothers invest more in girls than boys and fathers more in boys than girls. We develop a hypothesis that predicts preference for girls by the parent facing more resource constraints and preference for boys by the parent facing less constraint. We test the hypothesis with panel data from the Tsimane', a foraging-farming society in the Bolivian Amazon. Tsimane' mothers face more resource constraints than fathers. As predicted, mother's wealth protected girl's BMI, but father's wealth had weak effects on boy's BMI...
June 2006: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Stalin Vilcarromero, Wilma Casanova, Julia S Ampuero, Cesar Ramal-Asayag, Crystyan Siles, Gloria Díaz, Salomón Durand, Juan C Celis-Salinas, Helvio Astete, Percy Rojas, Gabriela Vásquez-La Torre, Johan Marín, Isabel Bazán, Yuri Alegre, Amy C Morrison, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferrucci
Dengue has affected Iquitos since 1990 causing outbreaks of major impact on public health and for this reason great efforts have been made for its temporal control. Currently, with the expansion of the chikungunya virus in the Americas and the threat of the emergence of the virus in Iquitos, we reflect on lessons learned by way of the activities undertaken in the area of vector control; epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management during periods of outbreaks of dengue, in a way that will allow us to better face the threat of an outbreak of chikungunya virus in the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon...
January 2015: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Bento Sousa de Souza, Livia Monteiro Bichara, João Farias Guerreiro, Cátia Cardoso Abdo Quintão, David Normando
BACKGROUND: Indigenous people of the Xingu river present a similar tooth wear pattern, practise exclusive breast-feeding, no pacifier use, and have a large intertribal genetic distance. OBJECTIVE: To revisit the etiology of dental malocclusion features considering these population characteristics. DESIGN: Occlusion and facial features of five semi-isolated Amazon indigenous populations (n=351) were evaluated and compared to previously published data from urban Amazon people...
September 2015: Archives of Oral Biology
Colleen E Crangle, Joyce Brothers Kart
Despite the wealth of mental-health information available online to consumers, research has shown that the mental-health information needs of consumers are not being met. This study contributes to that research by soliciting consumer questions directly, categorizing them, analyzing their form, and assessing the extent to which they can be answered from a trusted and vetted source of online information, namely the website of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). As an alternative to surveys and analyses of online activity, this study shows how consumer questions provide new insight into what consumers do not know and how they express their information needs...
2015: PeerJ
Jason Davis, Richard Bilsborrow, Clark Gray
CONTEXT: Communities indigenous to the Amazon are among the few remaining worldwide still practicing near-natural fertility, without the use of modern contraceptives. Given the large proportion of women desiring no more births, information on the challenges women there face in limiting fertility would be useful. METHODS: Samples of women of reproductive age from five indigenous ethnic groups in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon were surveyed in 2001 and 2012. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses examined married women's desire for another child at both times and modern contraceptive use in 2012, as well as determinants of a change in women's desire to have more children and of the number of children born during the study period...
March 2015: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
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