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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917537/reproductive-biology-for-the-assessment-of-hunting-sustainability-of-rainforest-mammal-populations-through-the-participation-of-local-communities
#1
Pedro Mayor, Hani El Bizri, Richard E Bodmer, Mark Bowler
Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most-used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, since researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, these assessments often use 'classic' reproductive rates calculated mostly from captive studies conducted 30 years ago, resulting in flaws in almost 50% of studies and hampering decision-makings on wildlife management...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#2
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849270/child-undernutrition-in-one-of-the-cities-with-greater-nutritional-risk-in-brazil-population-based-study-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#3
Thiago Santos de Araújo, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes Oliveira, Pascoal Torres Muniz, Mônica da Silva-Nunes, Marly Augusto Cardoso
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of child undernutrition and associated factors in a municipality with high nutritional risk in Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with a sample of 478 children aged under 5 years in the city of Jordão, Acre, Brazil. The following indicators were calculated: weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for height (W/H), using the growth curves of the WHO as reference, which adopts a cutoff of -2 z scores for identification of malnourished children...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829036/assessing-mammal-exposure-to-climate-change-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#4
Bruno R Ribeiro, Lilian P Sales, Paulo De Marco, Rafael Loyola
Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784304/riverine-fishers-knowledge-of-extreme-climatic-events-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#5
Ana Isabel Camacho Guerreiro, Richard J Ladle, Vandick da Silva Batista
BACKGROUND: Climate change is altering climate patterns, mainly increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme events with potentially serious impacts on natural resources and the people that use them. Adapting to such impacts will require the integration of scientific and local (folk) knowledge, especially the first-hand experiences and perceptions of resource users such as fishers. In this study, we identify how commercial riverine fishers in the Amazon remember extreme climatic events (flood and drought) and how they face the consequences of extreme events on fish availability...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766667/captagon-use-and-trade-in-the-middle-east
#6
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651401/what-do-our-patients-truly-want-conjoint-analysis-of-an-aesthetic-plastic-surgery-practice-using-internet-crowdsourcing
#7
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575915/a-social-ecological-database-to-advance-research-on-infrastructure-development-impacts-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#8
COMMENT
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Denis Valle, Evandro Mateus Moretto, Sergio Mantovani Paiva Pulice, Nadia Lucia Zuca, Daniel Rondinelli Roquetti, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro Beduschi, Amanda Salles Praia, Claudia Parucce Franco Okamoto, Vinicius Leite da Silva Carvalhaes, Evandro Albiach Branco, Bruna Barbezani, Emily Labandera, Kelsie Timpe, David Kaplan
Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline...
2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565123/a-crowdsourced-nickel-and-dime-approach-to-analog-obm-research-a-behavioral-economic-framework-for-understanding-workforce-attrition
#9
Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed, Derek D Reed, Brent A Kaplan
Incentives are a popular method to achieve desired employee performance; however, research on optimal incentive magnitude is lacking. Behavioral economic demand curves model persistence of responding in the face of increasing cost and may be suitable to examine the reinforcing value of incentives on work performance. The present use-inspired basic study integrated an experiential human operant task within a crowdsourcing platform to evaluate the applicability of behavioral economics for quantifying changes in workforce attrition...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515317/are-all-research-fields-equal-rethinking-practice-for-the-use-of-data-from-crowdsourcing-market-places
#10
Ilka H Gleibs
New technologies like large-scale social media sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) and crowdsourcing services (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk, Crowdflower, Clickworker) are impacting social science research and providing many new and interesting avenues for research. The use of these new technologies for research has not been without challenges, and a recently published psychological study on Facebook has led to a widespread discussion of the ethics of conducting large-scale experiments online. Surprisingly little has been said about the ethics of conducting research using commercial crowdsourcing marketplaces...
August 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150493/anchoring-in-destination-therapy-left-ventricular-assist-device-decision-making-a-mechanical-turk-survey
#11
Arcadia M Paine, Larry A Allen, Jocelyn S Thompson, Colleen K McIlvennan, Amy Jenkins, Andrew Hammes, Miranda Kroehl, Daniel D Matlock
BACKGROUND: People with end-stage heart failure may have to decide about destination-therapy left ventricular assist device (DT-LVAD). Individuals facing difficult decisions often rely on heuristics, such as anchoring, which predictably bias decision outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether showing a larger historical Heartmate XVE creates an anchoring effect, making the smaller Heartmate II (HMII) appear more favorable. METHODS: With the use of Amazon Mechanical Turk, participants watched videos asking them to imagine themselves dying of end-stage heart failure, then were presented the option of LVAD as potentially life-prolonging therapy...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132798/facial-biometry-of-amazon-indigenous-people-of-the-xingu-river-perspectives-on-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-variation-in-human-facial-morphology
#12
M Barbosa, E P Vieira, C C A Quintão, D Normando
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate facial morphology of non-mixed indigenous people living in the Xingu region. Studies on these populations report that the total genetic diversity is as high as that observed for other continental populations. On the other hand, eating habits are different between indigenous and urban population, as indigenous people still have traditional habits. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The sample consisted of 106 indigenous subjects, in permanent dentition stage, belonging to four groups: Arara-Laranjal (n = 35), Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Xikrin-Kaiapó (n = 24), and Assurini (n = 27)...
August 2016: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084366/factors-associated-with-age-at-breastfeeding-cessation-in-amazonian-infants-applying-a-proximal-distal-framework
#13
Annie D Kearns, Marcia C Castro, Bárbara H Lourenço, Rosângela A Augusto, Marly A Cardoso
Introduction Breastfeeding is an important determinant of child survival and normal growth and development, but breastfeeding prevalence is generally low in Brazil. Factors associated with infant feeding practices there are not well understood. This paper examines factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in a township in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among children younger than 25 months and collected information on maternal and child characteristics...
July 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084301/comparing-brief-internet-based-compassionate-mind-training-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-perinatal-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Alex R Kelman, Meagan L Stanley, Alinne Z Barrera, Michelle Cree, Yotam Heineberg, Paul Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Depression that occurs during the perinatal period has substantial costs for both the mother and her baby. Since in-person care often falls short of meeting the global need of perinatal women, Internet interventions may function as an alternate to help women who currently lack adequate access to face-to-face psychological resources. However, at present there are insufficient empirically supported Internet-based resources for perinatal women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the relative efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to a novel Internet-based compassionate mind training approach (CMT) across measures of affect, self-reassurance, self-criticizing, self-attacking, self-compassion, depression, and anxiety...
April 15, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025215/the-ethics-of-animal-research-a-survey-of-the-public-and-scientists-in-north-america
#15
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the public and scientists consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of animal research (AR) convincing. METHODS: After validation, the survey was sent to samples of public (Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canadian), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; US), a Canadian city festival and children's hospital), medical students (two second-year classes), and scientists (corresponding authors, and academic pediatricians)...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885641/eight-new-species-of-charinus-simon-1892-arachnida-amblypygi-charinidae-endemic-for-the-brazilian-amazon-with-notes-on-their-conservational-status
#16
Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi, Gustavo Silva de Miranda
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26566900/disparities-in-social-health-by-sexual-orientation-and-the-etiologic-role-of-self-reported-discrimination
#17
David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix
Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i...
August 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398096/naming-and-shaming-for-conservation-evidence-from-the-brazilian-amazon
#18
Elías Cisneros, Sophie Lian Zhou, Jan Börner
Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26381817/seqmule-automated-pipeline-for-analysis-of-human-exome-genome-sequencing-data
#19
Yunfei Guo, Xiaolei Ding, Yufeng Shen, Gholson J Lyon, Kai Wang
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly helped us identify disease-contributory variants for Mendelian diseases. However, users are often faced with issues such as software compatibility, complicated configuration, and no access to high-performance computing facility. Discrepancies exist among aligners and variant callers. We developed a computational pipeline, SeqMule, to perform automated variant calling from NGS data on human genomes and exomes. SeqMule integrates computational-cluster-free parallelization capability built on top of the variant callers, and facilitates normalization/intersection of variant calls to generate consensus set with high confidence...
September 18, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26225922/protected-areas-impacts-on-brazilian-amazon-deforestation-examining-conservation-development-interactions-to-inform-planning
#20
Alexander Pfaff, Juan Robalino, Diego Herrera, Catalina Sandoval
Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure...
2015: PloS One
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