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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228475/parallel-evolution-of-mound-building-and-grass-feeding-in-australian-nasute-termites
#1
Daej A Arab, Anna Namyatova, Theodore A Evans, Stephen L Cameron, David K Yeates, Simon Y W Ho, Nathan Lo
Termite mounds built by representatives of the family Termitidae are among the most spectacular constructions in the animal kingdom, reaching 6-8 m in height and housing millions of individuals. Although functional aspects of these structures are well studied, their evolutionary origins remain poorly understood. Australian representatives of the termitid subfamily Nasutitermitinae display a wide variety of nesting habits, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution of mound building. Because they feed on a variety of substrates, they also provide an opportunity to illuminate the evolution of termite diets...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215078/contribution-of-leaf-litter-to-nutrient-export-during-winter-months-in-an-urban-residential-watershed
#2
Anika Rose Bratt, Jacques C Finlay, Sarah E Hobbie, Benjamin D Janke, Adam C Worm, Kathrine L Kemmitt
Identification of non-point sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in urban systems is imperative to improve water quality and better manage eutrophication. Winter contributions and sources of annual N and P loads from urban watersheds are poorly characterized in northern cities because monitoring is often limited to warm weather periods. To determine winter export of N and P, we monitored storm water outflow in a residential watershed in Saint Paul, Minnesota during 2012-2014. Our data demonstrate that winter melt events contribute a high percentage of annual N and P export (50%)...
February 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193820/functional-preservation-and-variation-in-the-cone-opsin-genes-of-nocturnal-tarsiers
#3
Gillian L Moritz, Perry S Ong, George H Perry, Nathaniel J Dominy
The short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsin gene OPN1SW is pseudogenized in some nocturnal primates and retained in others, enabling dichromatic colour vision. Debate on the functional significance of this variation has focused on dark conditions, yet many nocturnal species initiate activity under dim (mesopic) light levels that can support colour vision. Tarsiers are nocturnal, twilight-active primates and exemplary visual predators; they also express different colour vision phenotypes, raising the possibility of discrete adaptations to mesopic conditions...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192628/evaluation-of-climate-related-carbon-turnover-processes-in-global-vegetation-models-for-boreal-and-temperate-forests
#4
Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Philippe Ciais, Andrew D Friend, Akihiko Ito, Axel Kleidon, Mark R Lomas, Shaun Quegan, Tim T Rademacher, Sibyll Schaphoff, Markus Tum, Andy Wiltshire, Nuno Carvalhais
Turnover concepts in state-of-the-art global vegetation models (GVMs) account for various processes, but are often highly simplified and may not include an adequate representation of the dominant processes that shape vegetation carbon turnover rates in real forest ecosystems at a large spatial scale. Here we evaluate vegetation carbon turnover processes in GVMs participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT) using estimates of vegetation carbon turnover rate (k) derived from a combination of remote sensing based products of biomass and net primary production (NPP)...
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187555/new-species-and-records-of-ptyctimous-mites-acari-oribatida-from-the-philippines
#5
Wojciech Niedbała, Sergey G Ermilov
A list of identified oribatid ptyctimous mites from the Philippine Islands Luzon, Mindanao, Polillo and Samar Islands, including 16 species, 10 genera and 5 families, is provided. The genus Mesotritia and species Atropacarus (Atropacarus) griseus (Niedbała, 1984), A. (Atropacarus) striculus (C. L. Koch, 1835) and A. (Hoplophorella) stilifer (Hammer, 1961) are recorded for the Philippine fauna for the first time. Two new species, Mesotritia paraflagelliformis Niedbała sp. nov. (Oribotritiidae) and Plonaphacarus leonilae Niedbała sp...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182638/effect-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-on-growth-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-of-quercus-acutissima-and-fraxinus-rhynchophylla
#6
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176855/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#7
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM-) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160498/long-term-effects-of-fungicides-on-leaf-associated-microorganisms-and-shredder-populations-an-artificial-stream-study
#8
Jochen P Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Lüderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms as well as macroinvertebrate leaf-shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, such chronic exposures have, however, not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic, up to 8 wk lasting exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration: 20 µg/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf-shredder Gammarus fossarum were, therefore, assessed...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152094/beetle-pollination-and-flowering-rhythm-of-annona-coriacea-mart-annonaceae-in-brazilian-cerrado-behavioral-features-of-its-principal-pollinators
#9
Marilza Silva Costa, Ricardo José Silva, Hipólito Ferreira Paulino-Neto, Mônica Josene Barbosa Pereira
The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140497/invasive-rodents-have-multiple-indirect-effects-on-seabird-island-invertebrate-food-web-structure
#10
Joshua Thoresen, David Towns, Sebastian Leuzinger, Mel Durrett, Christa P H Mulder, David A Wardle
Burrowing seabirds that nest on islands transfer nutrients from the sea, disturb the soil through burrowing, damage tree foliage when landing, and thereby modify the surface litter. However, seabirds are in decline worldwide, as are their community- and ecosystem-level impacts, primarily due to invasive predatory mammals. The direct and indirect effects of seabird decline on communities and ecosystems are inherently complex. Here we employed network analysis, as a means of simplifying ecological complexity, to better understand the effects seabird loss may have on island invertebrate communities...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124839/tea-polyphenols-dominate-the-short-term-tea-camellia-sinensis-leaf-litter-decomposition
#11
Dong-Mei Fan, Kai Fan, Cui-Ping Yu, Ya-Ting Lu, Xiao-Chang Wang
Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108022/evaluation-of-a-method-for-removing-cesium-and-reducing-the-volume-of-leaf-litter-from-broad-leaved-trees-contaminated-by-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-accident-during-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#12
Shigeki Harada, Mitsunori Yanagisawa
The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076359/environmental-factors-affecting-survival-of-immature-ixodes-scapularis-and-implications-for-geographical-distribution-of-lyme-disease-the-climate-behavior-hypothesis
#13
Howard S Ginsberg, Marisa Albert, Lixis Acevedo, Megan C Dyer, Isis M Arsnoe, Jean I Tsao, Thomas N Mather, Roger A LeBrun
Recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of Ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. This behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of Lyme disease. We studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. Four month old larvae resulting from a cross between Wisconsin males and South Carolina females died faster under southern than under northern conditions in the lab, as has previously been reported for ticks from both northern and southern populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074270/tree-leaf-litter-composition-drives-temporal-variation-in-aquatic-beetle-colonization-and-assemblage-structure-in-lentic-systems
#14
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater systems are a major resource and primary drivers of ecosystem processes and structure. Spatial variation in tree species distributions and forest composition control litter inputs across landscapes, but inputs to individual lentic habitat patches are determined by adjacent plant communities. In small, ephemeral, fishless ponds, resource quality and abundance can be the most important factor affecting habitat selection preferences of colonizing animals. We used a landscape of experimental mesocosms to assess how natural populations of aquatic beetles respond over time to variation in tree leaf litter composition (pine or hardwood)...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057067/lyme-disease-risk-in-southern-california-abiotic-and-environmental-drivers-of-ixodes-pacificus-acari-ixodidae-density-and-infection-prevalence-with-borrelia-burgdorferi
#15
Andrew J MacDonald, David W Hyon, John B Brewington, Kerry E O'Connor, Andrea Swei, Cheryl J Briggs
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. In order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. In North America, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. This study aimed to explore the abiotic and environmental drivers of density and infection prevalence of western blacklegged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in southern California, an understudied and densely populated region of North America...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053209/comparison-between-ground-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-communities-foraging-in-the-straw-mulch-of-sugarcane-crops-and-in-the-leaf-litter-of-neighboring-forests
#16
N S Silva, L P Saad, D R Souza-Campana, O C Bueno, M S C Morini
In many sugarcane plantations in Brazil, the straw is left on the soil after harvesting, and vinasse, a by-product of the production of sugar and ethanol, is used for fertigation. Our goal was to compare ant community composition and species richness in the straw mulch of sugarcane crops with the leaf litter of neighboring forests. We tested the hypothesis that ant communities in the straw mulch of vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops and in the forest leaf litter were similar, because the combination of straw mulching and vinasse irrigation has a positive effect on soil fauna...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052385/fungi-exposed-to-chronic-nitrogen-enrichment-are-less-able-to-decay-leaf-litter
#17
Linda T A van Diepen, Serita D Frey, Elizabeth A Landis, Eric W Morrison, Anne Pringle
Saprotrophic fungi are the primary decomposers of plant litter in temperate forests, and their activity is critical for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Simulated atmospheric N deposition is associated with reduced fungal biomass, shifts in fungal community structure, slowed litter decay, and soil C accumulation. Although rarely studied, N deposition may also result in novel selective pressures on fungi, affecting evolutionary trajectories. To directly test if long-term N enrichment reshapes fungal responses to N, we isolated decomposer fungi from a long-term (28 yr) N-addition experiment and used a common garden approach to compare growth rates and decay abilities of isolates from control and N-amended plots...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042878/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-community-composition-is-altered-by-long-term-litter-removal-but-not-litter-addition-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#18
Merlin Sheldrake, Nicholas P Rosenstock, Daniel Revillini, Pål Axel Olsson, Scott Mangan, Emma J Sayer, Håkan Wallander, Benjamin L Turner, Edmund V J Tanner
Tropical forest productivity is sustained by the cycling of nutrients through decomposing organic matter. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a key role in the nutrition of tropical trees, yet there has been little experimental investigation into the role of AM fungi in nutrient cycling via decomposing organic material in tropical forests. We evaluated the responses of AM fungi in a long-term leaf litter addition and removal experiment in a tropical forest in Panama. We described AM fungal communities using 454-pyrosequencing, quantified the proportion of root length colonised by AM fungi using microscopy, and estimated AM fungal biomass using a lipid biomarker...
April 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042105/a-comparison-of-trapping-techniques-coleoptera-carabidae-buprestidae-cerambycidae-and-curculionoidea-excluding-scolytinae
#19
Michael J Skvarla, Ashley P G Dowling
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039909/global-synthesis-of-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-leaf-litter-breakdown-in-streams-and-rivers
#20
J J Follstad Shah, J S Kominoski, M Ardón, W K Dodds, M O Gessner, N A Griffiths, C P Hawkins, S L Johnson, A Lecerf, C J LeRoy, D W P Manning, A D Rosemond, R L Sinsabaugh, C M Swan, J R Webster, L H Zeglin
Streams and rivers are important conduits of terrestrially derived carbon (C) to atmospheric and marine reservoirs. Leaf litter breakdown rates are expected to increase as water temperatures rise in response to climate change. The magnitude of increase in breakdown rates is uncertain, given differences in litter quality and microbial and detritivore community responses to temperature, factors that can influence the apparent temperature sensitivity of breakdown and the relative proportion of C lost to the atmosphere vs...
December 31, 2016: Global Change Biology
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