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leaf litter

Elizabeth Psomas, Sholto Holdsworth, Paul Eggleton
Pselaphinae is a species-rich beetle subfamily found globally, with many exhibiting myrmecophily-a symbiotic association with ants. Pselaphine-ant associations vary from facultative to obligate, but direct behavioral observations still remain scarce. Pselaphines are speciose and ecologically abundant within tropical leaf litter invertebrate communities where ants dominate, implying a potentially important ecological role that may be affected by habitat disturbances that impact ants. In this study, we measured and analyzed putative functional traits of leaf litter pselaphines associated with myrmecophily through morphometric analysis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Itanna O Fernandes, Jorge L P de Souza
Background: Biodiversity loss is accelerating rapidly in response to increasing human influence on the Earth's natural ecosystems. One way to overcome this problem is by focusing on places of human interest and monitoring the changes and impacts on the biodiversity. This study was conducted at six sites within the influence area of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Power Plant in the margins of the Madeira River in Rondônia State. The sites cover a latitudinal gradient of approximately 100 km in the Brazilian Amazon Basin...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Adelita M Linzmeier, Alexander S Konstantinov
Andersonoplatus , a new genus with 16 new species from Venezuela ( A. andersoni , A. bechyneorum , A. castaneus , A. flavus , A. jolyi , A. laculata , A. lagunanegra , A. macubaji , A. merga , A. merida , A. microoculus , A. peck , A. rosalesi , A. sanare , A. saviniae ) and Panama ( A. baru ), is described and illustrated. All the specimens were collected in leaf litter by R. Anderson and S. and J. Peck. Andersonoplatus is compared to Andersonaltica Linzmeier & Konstantinov, Apleuraltica Bechyne, Distigmoptera Blake and Ulrica Scherer...
2018: ZooKeys
Jian-Huan Yang, Zhao-Chi Zeng, Ying-Yong Wang
The Asian leaf litter toads of the genus Leptolalax represent a highly diverse species group and currently contain 53 recognized species. During herpetological surveys in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan of China, we collected series of Leptolalax specimens from an isolated small fragment of montane evergreen forest. Subsequent study based on acoustic, morphological and molecular data reveals that there were three different species among the specimens sampled: while one of them belongs to Leptolalax ventripunctataus , the other two species represent unknown taxa and are described herein: Leptolalax purpurus sp...
2018: PeerJ
L A Leite-Rossi, H H L Saulino, E M Shimabukuro, M B Cunha-Santino, S Trivinho-Strixino
The diet of shredder chironomid larvae depends on the local and temporal conditions of the food resources. We analysed the gut content of shredder chironomid larvae that colonised the leaf litter of three riparian species: Hedychium coronarium, Pteridium arachnoideum and Magnolia ovata. We hypothesised that the differences in the decomposition rates of leaf litter species influence the consumption of plant tissue by shredder chironomid taxa over time. We incubated perforated bottles with each leaf species within four low-order streams during 1st, 3rd, 7th, 22nd, 36th, 55th and 85th day of exposure...
April 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Chelse M Prather, Gary E Belovsky, Sharon A Cantrell, Grizelle González
Consumers can alter decomposition rates through both feces and selective feeding in many ecosystems, but these combined effects have seldom been examined in tropical ecosystems. Members of the detrital food web (litter-feeders or microbivores) should presumably have greater effects on decomposition than herbivores, members of the green food web. Using litterbag experiments within a field enclosure experiment, we determined the relative effects of common litter snails (Megalomastoma croceum) and herbivorous walking sticks (Lamponius portoricensis) on litter composition, decomposition rates, and microbes in a Puerto Rican rainforest, and whether consumer effects were altered by canopy cover presence...
March 30, 2018: Ecology
Zacchaeus G Compson, Bruce A Hungate, Thomas G Whitham, George W Koch, Paul Dijkstra, Adam C Siders, Todd Wojtowicz, Ryan Jacobs, David N Rakestraw, Kiel E Allred, Chelsea K Sayer, Jane C Marks
Leaf litter provides an important nutrient subsidy to headwater streams, but little is known about how tree genetics influences energy pathways from litter to higher trophic levels. Despite the charge to quantify carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pathways from decomposing litter, the relationship between litter decomposition and aquatic consumers remains unresolved. We measured litter preference (attachments to litter), C and N assimilation rates, and growth rates of a shredding caddisfly (Hesperophylax magnus, Limnephilidae) in response to leaf litter of different chemical and physical phenotypes using Populus cross types (P...
March 30, 2018: Ecology
Uranchimeg Bayarsaikhan, Josefine Filter, Ulrich Gernert, Martin Jekel, Aki Sebastian Ruhl
Degradation of particulate organic carbon (POC) such as leaf litter might deplete dissolved oxygen within the upper layers of bank filtration, an efficient and robust barrier for pathogens and for various organic micro-pollutants (OMP) in water supply systems worldwide. The degradation of OMP during bank filtration depends on the redox conditions. The present study aimed at identifying the impacts and fates of different local leaves on the oxygen consumption and the possible biological degradation of indicator OMP...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Alessia Bani, Luigimaria Borruso, Flavio Fornasier, Silvia Pioli, Camilla Wellstein, Lorenzo Brusetti
Litter decomposition is the main source of mineral nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystem and a key step in carbon (C) cycle. Microbial community is the main decomposer, and its specialization on specific litter is considered at the basis of higher decomposition rate in its natural environment than in other forests. However, there are contrasting evidences on how the microbial community responds to a new litter input and if the mass loss is higher in natural environment. We selected leaf litter from three different plant species across three sites of different altitudinal ranges: oak (Quercus petraea (Matt...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Fulin Yang, Rafat Qubaja, Fyodor Tatarinov, Eyal Rotenberg, Dan Yakir
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a tracer of ecosystem photosynthesis that can advance carbon cycle research from leaf to global scales; however, a range of newly reported caveats related to sink/source strength of various ecosystem components hinder its application. Using comprehensive eddy-covariance and chamber measurements, we systematically measure ecosystem contributions from leaf, stem, soil and litter and were able to close the ecosystem COS budget. The relative contributions of non-photosynthetic components to the overall canopy-scale flux are relatively small (~4% during peak activity season) and can be independently estimated based on their responses to temperature and humidity...
March 25, 2018: Global Change Biology
Héctor Rodríguez Pérez, Guillaume Borrel, Céline Leroy, Jean-François Carrias, Bruno Corbara, Diane S Srivastava, Régis Céréghino
Future climate scenarios forecast a 10-50% decline in rainfall in Eastern Amazonia. Altered precipitation patterns may change important ecosystem functions like decomposition through either changes in physical and chemical processes or shifts in the activity and/or composition of species. We experimentally manipulated hydroperiods (length of wet:dry cycles) in a tank bromeliad ecosystem to examine impacts on leaf litter decomposition. Gross loss of litter mass over 112 days was greatest in continuously submersed litter, lowest in continuously dry litter, and intermediate over a range of hydroperiods ranging from eight cycles of 7 wet:7 dry days to one cycle of 56 wet:56 dry days...
March 24, 2018: Oecologia
Mary E Gilliam, Will T Rechkemmer, Kenneth W McCravy, Seán E Jenkins
The distribution of Amblyomma americanum (L.) is changing and reports of tick-borne disease transmitted by A. americanum are increasing in the USA. We used flagging to collect ticks, surveyed vegetation and collected weather data in 2015 and 2016. A. americanum dominated collections in both years (97%). Ticks did not differ among burn treatments; however, tick abundance differed between years among total, adult, and larval ticks. Habitat variables showed a weak negative correlation to total ticks in respect to: Shannon diversity index, percent bare ground, perennial cover, and coarse woody debris...
March 22, 2018: Insects
Andreia Cm Rodrigues, Ana L Machado, Maria D Bordalo, Liliana Saro, Fátima C P Simão, Rui Mj Rocha, Oksana Golovko, Vladimir Zlabek, Carlos Barata, Amadeu M V M Soares, João L T Pestana
Anthropogenic activities increase pesticide contamination and biological invasions in freshwater ecosystems. Understanding their combined effects on community structure and on ecosystem functioning presents challenges for an improved ecological risk assessment. This study focuses on an artificial stream mesocosms experiment testing for direct and indirect effects of insecticide (chlorantraniliprole - CAP) exposure on the structure of a benthic macroinvertebrate freshwater community and on ecosystem functioning (leaf decomposition, primary production)...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Saskia Knillmann, Polina Orlinskiy, Oliver Kaske, Kaarina Foit, Matthias Liess
The agricultural use of pesticides leads to environmentally relevant pesticide concentrations that cause adverse effects on stream ecosystems. These effects on invertebrate community composition can be identified by the bio-indicator SPEARpesticides . However, refuge areas have been found to partly confound the indicator. On the basis of three monitoring campaigns of 41 sites in Central Germany, we identified 11 refuge taxa. The refuge taxa, mainly characterized by dispersal-based resilience, were observed only nearby uncontaminated stream sections and independent of the level of pesticide pressure...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm)...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Mathieu Santonja, Laura Pellan, Christophe Piscart
Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jin-Min Chen, Nikolay A Poyarkov, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Amy Lathrop, Yun-He Wu, Wei-Wei Zhou, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Jie-Qiong Jin, Hong-Man Chen, He-Qun Liu, Truong Quang Nguyen, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Tang Van Duong, Koshiro Eto, Kanto Nishikawa, Masafumi Matsui, Nikolai L Orlov, Bryan L Stuart, Rafe M Brown, Jodi J L Rowley, Robert W Murphy, Ying-Yong Wang, Jing Che
Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Sheng Xu, Wei Chen, Yan Li, Bo Li, Lili Su, Qin Ping
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer...
2018: PeerJ
Alessandro Catenazzi, Alex Ttito
We describe a new species of small strabomantid frog (genus Psychrophrynella ) from a humid montane forest in the Peruvian Department of Puno. Specimens were collected at 2,225 m a.s.l. in the leaf litter of primary montane forest near Thiuni, along the Macusani-San Gabán road, in the province of Carabaya. The new species is assigned to Psychrophrynella on the basis of morphological similarity, including presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and call composed of multiple notes. We also include genetic distances for 16S rRNA partial sequences between the new species and other strabomantid frogs...
2018: PeerJ
Sara L Jackrel, Timothy C Morton
Differences among individuals within species affect community and ecosystem processes in many systems, and may rival the importance of differences between species. Intraspecific variation consists of both plastic and genetic components that are regulated by different processes and operate on different time scales. Therefore, probing which mechanisms can affect traits sufficiently strongly to affect ecosystem processes is fundamental to understanding the consequences of individual variation. We find that a dominant deciduous tree of Pacific Northwest riparian ecosystems, red alder, exhibits strong and synergistic responses to nutrient resources and herbivory stress...
February 26, 2018: Oecologia
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