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leaf litter

Merlin Sheldrake, Nicholas P Rosenstock, Scott Mangan, Daniel Revillini, Emma J Sayer, Pål Axel Olsson, Erik Verbruggen, Edmund V J Tanner, Benjamin L Turner, S Joseph Wright
Improved understanding of the nutritional ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is important in understanding how tropical forests maintain high productivity on low-fertility soils. Relatively little is known about how AM fungi will respond to changes in nutrient inputs in tropical forests, which hampers our ability to assess how forest productivity will be influenced by anthropogenic change. Here we assessed the influence of long-term inorganic and organic nutrient additions and nutrient depletion on AM fungi, using two adjacent experiments in a lowland tropical forest in Panama...
June 13, 2018: ISME Journal
Jingjing Du, Mingxiang Qv, Yuyan Zhang, Xiaoyun Yin, Ning Wan, Baozhong Zhang, Hongzhong Zhang
With the development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have been widely applied in anti-bacterial coating, electronic device, and personal care products. NanoZnO is one of the most used materials and its ecotoxicity has been extensively studied. To explore the potential phototoxicity of nanoZnO induced by visible light, we conducted a long-term experiment on litter decomposition of Typha angustifolia leaves with assessment of fungal multifaceted natures. After 158 d exposure, the decomposition rate of leaf litter was decreased by nanoZnO but no additional effect by visible light...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Kymberly Newton, Jochen P Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Simon Lüderwald, Theresa Schell, Patrick Baudy, Marco Konschak, Alexander Feckler, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Waterborne exposure towards fungicides is known to trigger negative effects in aquatic leaf-associated microbial decomposers and leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. We expected similar effects when these organisms use leaf material from terrestrial plants that were treated with systemic fungicides as a food source since the fungicides may remain within the leaves when entering aquatic systems. To test this hypothesis, we treated black alder (Alnus glutinosa) trees with a tap water control or a systemic fungicide mixture (azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) at two worst-case application rates...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Flavia Pinzari, Javier Cuadros, Melania Migliore, Rosario Napoli, Jens Najorka
Decomposing fungi translocate Mn as demonstrated by the fact that Mn has been found to accumulate on decomposing leaves associated with individual fungal hyphae and forming insoluble Mn(III,IV) oxides that remain concentrated in diffuse patches. We studied here Mn translocation and precipitation by the saprophytic fungus Alternaria sp. strain FBL507 both on naturally decomposing oak leaves and in vitro experiments. Manganese was translocated and precipitated in beads and encrustations along the fungal hyphae...
June 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Suchada Mongkolsamrit, Wasana Noisripoom, Donnaya Thanakitpipattana, Tuksadon Wutikhun, Joseph W Spatafora, Jennifer Luangsa-Ard
A new genus and eight new species, all with isaria-like phialides, are described in Cordycipitaceae from Thailand. The new genus, Samsoniella, is segregated from Akanthomyces based on morphological and molecular evidence. Samsoniella differs from Akanthomyces in producing orange cylindrical to clavate stromata with superficial perithecia and orange conidiophores with isaria-like phialides and white to cream conidia. A new combination for CBS 240.32, originally identified as Paecilomyces farinosus (Isaria farinosa), and CBS 262...
January 2018: Mycologia
Laura J Raymond-Léonard, Dominique Gravel, Peter B Reich, I Tanya Handa
With ongoing global change, shifts in the ranges of non-native species and resulting novel communities can modify biotic interactions and ecosystem processes. We hypothesized that traits and not biogeographic origin of novel plant communities will determine community structure of organisms that depend on plants for habitat or as a food resource. We tested the functional redundancy of novel tree communities by verifying if six pairs of congeneric European and North American tree species bearing similar leaf litter traits resulted in similar ecological filters influencing the assembly of springtail (Collembola) communities at two sites...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Khadeeja Rehman, Tanvir Shahzad, Amna Sahar, Sabir Hussain, Faisal Mahmood, Muhammad H Siddique, Muhammad A Siddique, Muhammad I Rashid
Azo dyes are one of the largest classes of synthetic dyes being used in textile industries. It has been reported that 15-50% of these dyes find their way into wastewater that is often used for irrigation purpose in developing countries. The effect of azo dyes contamination on soil nitrogen (N) has been studied previously. However, how does the azo dye contamination affect soil carbon (C) cycling is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the effect of azo dye contamination (Reactive Black 5, 30 mg kg-1 dry soil), bacteria that decolorize this dye and dye + bacteria in the presence or absence of maize leaf litter on soil respiration, soil inorganic N and microbial biomass...
2018: PeerJ
Naiara López-Rojo, Aingeru Martínez, Javier Pérez, Ana Basaguren, Jesús Pozo, Luz Boyero
Biodiversity loss in riparian forests has the potential to alter rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream ecosystems. However, studies have reported the full range of positive, negative and no effects of plant diversity loss on decomposition, and there is currently no explanation for such inconsistent results. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether plant diversity loss affects other ecological processes related to decomposition, such as fine particulate organic matter production or detritivore growth, which precludes a thorough understanding of how detrital stream food webs are impacted by plant diversity loss...
2018: PloS One
Lixiong Zeng, Wei He, Mingjun Teng, Xin Luo, Zhaogui Yan, Zhilin Huang, Zhixiang Zhou, Pengcheng Wang, Wenfa Xiao
To determine whether mixed plantations can improve nutrient cycling and to elucidate the mechanisms of such effects, a field litterbag experiment with seven treatments involving Pinus massoniana (P.), Cupressus funebris (C.) and Quercus variabilis (Q.) litter in equal mass proportions (pure litter; pairwise combinations; and the combination of all three species) was conducted in a Pinus massoniana plantation in the region of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. We measured mass loss and the release of C, N and P from the litter treatments and assessed the effects of mixing litter in each sampling phase and for various decomposition periods...
May 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tyler Sowers, Dinesh Adhikari, Jian Wang, Yu Yang, Donald L Sparks
Organo-mineral associations of organic carbon (OC) with iron (Fe) oxides play a major role in environmental OC sequestration, a process crucial to mitigating climate change. Calcium has been found to have high co-association with OC in soils containing high Fe content, increase OC sorption extent to poorly-crystalline Fe oxides, and has long been suspected to form bridging complexes with Fe and OC. Due to the growing realization that Ca may be an important component of C cycling, we launched a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) investigation, paired with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, in order to spatially resolve Fe, Ca, and OC relationships and probe the effect of Ca on sorbed OC speciation...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julia K Nuy, Anja Lange, Arne J Beermann, Manfred Jensen, Vasco Elbrecht, Oliver Röhl, Derek Peršoh, Dominik Begerow, Florian Leese, Jens Boenigk
Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors worldwide. Even though effects of many single stressors are comparatively well studied, the effects of multiple stressors are difficult to predict. In particular bacteria and protists, which are responsible for the majority of ecosystem respiration and element flows, are infrequently studied with respect to multiple stressors responses. We conducted a stream mesocosm experiment to characterize the responses of single and multiple stressors on microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Cristina Lúcia Silveira Sisinno, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Worldwide, various guidelines and directives for human health and the environment aim to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission. Forest ecosystems are natural sinks of this element, transferring it from the atmosphere to litter and soil. Millipedes play an important role in litter/soil and may be negatively affected by contamination. As a pioneering contribution to ecotoxicological test guidelines with millipedes in litter, the present study evaluated food preference of millipedes and mercury toxicity, to prevent interference of food types in toxicity responses...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Yang Liu, Quan Chao Zeng, Shao Shan An, Xin Li, Yi Mei Huang
This study was conducted in the forest, forest-steppe and steppe vegetation zones along the Yanhe River Basin, where the leaf and litter samples from four dominant herbaceous plants including Lespedeza davurica, Stipa bungeana, Artemisia sacrorum, Artemisia giraldii were taken. By measuring the concentrations of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), we measured the concentrations and their ratios to explore the limit and resorption of nutrient in the herbaceous plants. The results showed that the leaf N/P of four herbaceous plants was all lower than 14, suggesting their growth was mainly limited by N content...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jin Tao Li, Xue Kai Sun, Ya Lin Hu, Shan Yu Zhao, De Hui Zeng
Soil drying-rewetting is a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions. Under the background of global climate change, it is predicted that the intensity of soil drying-rewetting cycle in Horqin Sandy Land will be further strengthened in the future. In this study, we conducted an in-situ soil column incubation experiment for 180 days to investigate the effects of soil drying-rewetting on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient releases of Populus simonii and Pinus sylvestris var. mongo-lica in Horqin Sandy Land...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jian Wu, Chen Yan Sha, Min Wang, Jian Qiang Wu, Juan Tan, Xiao Bao Qi, Shen Fa Huang
Plant-soil carbon stable isotope characteristics of riparian herbaceous ecosystem were ana-lyzed by measuring the δ13 C value of plant tissues from four typical riparian herbaceous plants, which were Cynodon dactylon, Trifolium repens, Festuca arundinacea and Imperata cylindrical, and that of soil organic carbon (SOC) from different vertical depths along Dongfeng Port River in Qingpu District, Shanghai. The result showed that T. repens and F. arundinacea were C3 plants while C. dactylon and I. cylindrical were C4 plants...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guido Incerti, Fabrizio Cartenì, Gaspare Cesarano, Tushar C Sarker, Ahmed M Abd El-Gawad, Rosaria D'Ascoli, Giuliano Bonanomi, Francesco Giannino
Plant invasions can have relevant impacts on biogeochemical cycles, whose extent, in Mediterranean ecosystems, have not yet been systematically assessed comparing litter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics between invasive plants and native communities. We carried out a 1-year litterbag experiment in 4 different plant communities (grassland, sand dune, riparian and mixed forests) on 8 invasives and 24 autochthonous plant species, used as control. Plant litter was characterized for mass loss, N release, proximate lignin and litter chemistry by 13 C CPMAS NMR...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martin J Gilbert, Michael J Samways
Scirtothrips aurantii Faure (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major pest of citrus fruit in subtropical southern Africa. Population monitoring is an important aspect of S. aurantii control, but additional information is required on its phenology. Dispersal of mature larvae onto the soil surface from the tree canopy, and emergence of adults, were assessed using dispersal/emergence (D/E) traps in an untreated citrus orchard in South Africa. Overall, 90.7% of adult Thysanoptera emerging from soil / leaf litter beneath the citrus trees were S...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Nobuyoshi Ishii, Masashi Murakami, Takahiro Suzuki, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida, Nobuhito Ohte
The effects of the Japanese horned beetle larvae on the transfer of 137 Cs from a contaminated leaf litter to the leaf vegetable, komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was studied. Feces of the larvae which were fed 137 Cs-contaminated leaf litter were added to a potting mix in which komatsuna plants were cultivated. The presence of feces increased the harvest yield of komatsuna, suggesting that feces provided nutrients for the plant growth. In addition, the amount of exchangeable 137 Cs in leaf litter was experimentally confirmed to be enhanced by the presence of feces which were excreted by larvae feeding...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lu Wang, Hai Jun Yang, Ling Li, Xiao Fei Nan, Zhen Xing Zhang, Kun Li
Annually, about 70% of the streams in the Changbai Mountains are frosted during November to April, with manifest seasonal freeze-thaw characters. By using monoculture and mixing leaf litters of Tilia amurensis, Acer mono and Quecus mongolica, this research attempted to disentangle the relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of macroinvertebrates in the stream during early frost period. A 35-day investigation was carried out in a headwater stream of the Changbai Mountains. Nylon bags with two hole sizes (5 mm and 0...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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