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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806772/microhabitats-and-canopy-cover-moderate-high-summer-temperatures-in-a-fragmented-mediterranean-landscape
#1
Gunnar Keppel, Sharolyn Anderson, Craig Williams, Sonia Kleindorfer, Christopher O'Connell
Extreme heat events will become more frequent under anthropogenic climate change, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Microhabitats can considerably moderate (buffer) the effects of extreme weather events and hence facilitate the persistence of some components of the biodiversity. We investigate the microclimatic moderation provided by two important microhabitats (cavities formed by the leaves of the grass-tree Xanthorrhoea semiplana F.Muell., Xanthorrhoeaceae; and inside the leaf-litter) during the summer of 2015/16 on the Fleurieu Peninsula of South Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800692/does-the-developmental-stage-and-composition-of-riparian-forest-stand-affect-ecosystem-functioning-in-streams
#2
Sahadevan Seena, Francisco Carvalho, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal
A common watershed restoration practice to improve water quality and stream ecosystem functions and services is replanting riparian corridors with plant species that may differ from those of natural communities. This restoration practice may have consequences on the aquatic ecosystem processes because organisms obtain energy from leaf litter inputs of the riparian zones. Leaf litter decomposition in streams is a vital ecosystem-level process, which depends on the activity of microorganisms and invertebrates...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797038/plant-diversity-and-structure-describe-the-presence-of-a-new-threatened-australian-marsupial-within-its-highly-restricted-post-fire-habitat
#3
Eugene D Mason, Jennifer Firn, Harry B Hines, Andrew M Baker
Management of critical habitat for threatened species with small ranges requires location-specific, fine-scale survey data. The silver-headed antechinus (Antechinus argentus) is known from only two isolated, fire-prone locations. At least one of these populations, at Kroombit Tops National Park in central-eastern Queensland, Australia, possesses a very small range. Here, we present detailed vegetation species diversity and structure data from three sites comprising the known habitat of A. argentus at Kroombit Tops and relate it to capture data obtained over two years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778002/the-efficacy-of-combined-educational-and-site-management-actions-in-reducing-off-trail-hiking-in-an-urban-proximate-protected-area
#4
Karen S Hockett, Jeffrey L Marion, Yu-Fai Leung
Park and protected area managers are tasked with protecting natural environments, a particularly daunting challenge in heavily visited urban-proximate areas where flora and fauna are already stressed by external threats. In this study, an adaptive management approach was taken to reduce extensive off-trail hiking along a popular trail through an ecologically diverse and significant area in the Chesapeake and Ohio National Historical Park near Washington DC. Substantial amounts of off-trail hiking there had created an extensive 16...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770050/resource-allocation-tradeoffs-in-caddisflies-facing-multiple-stressors
#5
Francisco Correa-Araneda, Ana Basaguren, Roberto T Abdala-Díaz, Alan Mosele Tonin, Luz Boyero
The replacement of native forests by exotic tree monocultures, such as those of Eucalyptus, decreases the quality of leaf litter inputs to streams and often reduces riparian cover, which can elevate water temperature. The combined effects of these stressors on the survival and performance of detritivores may be important, as detritivore species loss leads to reduced litter breakdown, a key ecosystem process. Potential loss of cased caddisfly larvae is of particular concern because they are the predominant detritivores in many streams, they are sensitive to warming, and they expend energy on building and carrying their cases, which may be an added burden under times of stress...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756675/trees-and-streets-as-drivers-of-urban-stormwater-nutrient-pollution
#6
Benjamin D Janke, Jacques C Finlay, Sarah E Hobbie
Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742126/the-pre-columbian-introduction-and-dispersal-of-algarrobo-prosopis-section-algarobia-in-the-atacama%C3%A2-desert-of-northern-chile
#7
Virginia B McRostie, Eugenia M Gayo, Calogero M Santoro, Ricardo De Pol-Holz, Claudio Latorre
Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700-1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731471/changes-in-nutrient-stoichiometry-elemental-homeostasis-and-growth-rate-of-aquatic-litter-associated-fungi-in-response-to-inorganic-nutrient-supply
#8
Vladislav Gulis, Kevin A Kuehn, Louie N Schoettle, Desiree Leach, Jonathan P Benstead, Amy D Rosemond
Aquatic fungi mediate important energy and nutrient transfers in freshwater ecosystems, a role potentially altered by widespread eutrophication. We studied the effects of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and ratios on fungal stoichiometry, elemental homeostasis, nutrient uptake and growth rate in two experiments that used (1) liquid media and a relatively recalcitrant carbon (C) source and (2) fungi grown on leaf litter in microcosms. Two monospecific fungal cultures and a multi-species assemblage were assessed in each experiment...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720979/first-report-of-phyllosticta-citricarpa-and-description-of-two-new-species-p-%C3%A2-paracapitalensis-and-p-%C3%A2-paracitricarpa-from-citrus-in-europe
#9
V Guarnaccia, J Z Groenewald, H Li, C Glienke, E Carstens, V Hattingh, P H Fourie, P W Crous
The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citrus-growing regions with warm summer rainfall climates, but is absent in countries of the European Union (EU). Phyllosticta capitalensis is morphologically similar to P...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706573/the-effects-of-catchment-and-riparian-forest-quality-on-stream-environmental-conditions-across-a-tropical-rainforest-and-oil-palm-landscape-in-malaysian-borneo
#10
Sarah H Luke, Holly Barclay, Kawi Bidin, Vun Khen Chey, Robert M Ewers, William A Foster, Anand Nainar, Marion Pfeifer, Glen Reynolds, Edgar C Turner, Rory P D Walsh, David C Aldridge
Freshwaters provide valuable habitat and important ecosystem services but are threatened worldwide by habitat loss and degradation. In Southeast Asia, rainforest streams are particularly threatened by logging and conversion to oil palm, but we lack information on the impacts of this on freshwater environmental conditions, and the relative importance of catchment versus riparian-scale disturbance. We studied 16 streams in Sabah, Borneo, including old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm sites. We assessed forest quality in riparian zones and across the whole catchment and compared it with stream environmental conditions including water quality, structural complexity, and organic inputs...
June 2017: Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694813/intrapopulation-genotypic-variation-of-foliar-secondary-chemistry-during-leaf-senescence-and-litter-decomposition-in-silver-birch-betula-pendula
#11
Ulla Paaso, Sarita Keski-Saari, Markku Keinänen, Heini Karvinen, Tarja Silfver, Matti Rousi, Juha Mikola
Abundant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, and their interpopulation genotypic variation can remain through plant leaf senescence and affect litter decomposition. Whether the intrapopulation genotypic variation of a more diverse assortment of secondary metabolites equally persists through leaf senescence and litter decomposition is not well understood. We analyzed concentrations of intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones, epicuticular triterpenoids, condensed tannins, and lignin in green leaves, senescent leaves and partly decomposed litter of silver birch, Betula pendula...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687764/impacts-of-increasing-typhoons-on-the-structure-and-function-of-a-subtropical-forest-reflections-of-a-changing-climate
#12
Kuo-Chuan Lin, Steven P Hamburg, Lixin Wang, Chin-Tzer Duh, Chu-Mei Huang, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin
Due to their destructive and sporadic nature, it is often difficult to evaluate and predict the effects of typhoon on forest ecosystem patterns and processes. We used a 21-yr record of litterfall rates to explore the influence of typhoon frequency and intensity, along with other meteorological variables, on ecosystem dynamics in a subtropical rainforest. Over the past half century there has been an increasing frequency of strong typhoons (category 3; >49.6 m s(-1); increase of 1.5 typhoons/decade) impacting the Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680653/transoceanic-origin-of-microendemic-and-flightless-new-caledonian-weevils
#13
Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Rene Tänzler, Michael Balke, Alexander Riedel
The origin of the astonishing New Caledonian biota continues to fuel a heated debate among advocates of a Gondwanan relict scenario and defenders of late oceanic dispersal. Here, we study the origin of New Caledonian Trigonopterus flightless weevils using a multimarker molecular phylogeny. We infer two independent clades of species found in the archipelago. Our dating estimates suggest a Late Miocene origin of both clades long after the re-emergence of New Caledonia about 37 Ma. The estimation of ancestral ranges supports an ancestral origin of the genus in a combined region encompassing Australia and New Guinea with subsequent colonizations of New Caledonia out of New Guinea in the mid-Miocene...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679727/exposure-to-the-leaf-litter-microbiome-of-healthy-adults-protects-seedlings-from-pathogen-damage
#14
Natalie Christian, Edward Allen Herre, Luis C Mejia, Keith Clay
It is increasingly recognized that microbiota affect host health and physiology. However, it is unclear what factors shape microbiome community assembly in nature, and how microbiome assembly can be manipulated to improve host health. All plant leaves host foliar endophytic fungi, which make up a diverse, environmentally acquired fungal microbiota. Here, we experimentally manipulated assembly of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) fungal microbiome in nature and tested the effect of assembly outcome on host health...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675878/contrasting-habitats-but-comparable-microbial-decomposition-in-the-benthic-and-hyporheic-zone
#15
Ute Risse-Buhl, Clara Mendoza-Lera, Helge Norf, Javier Pérez, Jesús Pozo, Jeanette Schlief
Input of allochthonous leaf litter is the main carbon source for heterotrophic metabolism in low-order forested streams. A major part of this leaf litter is accumulated at benthic retention structures or buried in the hyporheic zone. As a result of hyporheic sediment characteristics, hyporheic physicochemistry differs from that of the benthic zone selecting the microbial community. The present study aimed at understanding the influence of the hydrological and physiochemical differences between the benthic and hyporheic zone on microbial leaf litter decomposition and on the structure and function of the associated microbial community...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659130/what-makes-a-successful-species-traits-facilitating-survival-in-altered-tropical-forests
#16
Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel
BACKGROUND: Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes...
June 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649350/driving-factors-and-temporal-fluctuation-of-collembola-communities-and-reproductive-mode-across-forest-types-and-regions
#17
Melanie M Pollierer, Stefan Scheu
Despite the major role of Collembola in forest soil animal food webs, ecological and evolutionary determinants of their community composition are not well understood. We investigated abundance, community structure, life forms, and reproductive mode of Collembola in four different forest types (coniferous, young managed beech, old managed beech, and unmanaged beech forests) representing different management intensities. Forest types were replicated within three regions across Germany: the Schorfheide-Chorin, the Hainich, and the Swabian Alb, differing in geology, altitude, and climate...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640343/the-peculiar-breeding-biology-of-the-amazonian-frog-allobates-subfolionidificans-aromobatidae
#18
Jesus R D Souza, Igor L Kaefer, Albertina P Lima
Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624948/metal-release-from-contaminated-leaf-litter-and-leachate-toxicity-for-the-freshwater-crustacean-gammarus-fossarum
#19
Florence Maunoury-Danger, Vincent Felten, Clément Bojic, Fabrice Fraysse, Mar Cosin Ponce, Odile Dedourge-Geffard, Alain Geffard, François Guérold, Michael Danger
Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic. When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of leaf litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated leaf litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from leaf litter during a 48-h experimental leaching. We used aspen (Populus tremula L...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624939/additive-effect-of-calcium-depletion-and-low-resource-quality-on-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-life-history-traits
#20
Marc Rollin, Romain Coulaud, Michael Danger, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Alexandre Bec, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Vincent Felten
Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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