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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521387/structural-and-functional-recovery-of-macroinvertebrate-communities-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-after-a-marked-drought-does-vegetation-type-matter
#1
Silvia Monroy, Aingeru Martínez, Naiara López-Rojo, Ana Victoria Pérez-Calpe, Ana Basaguren, Jesús Pozo
Climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are expected to lead to more intense and frequent droughts, with potentially severe effects on structure and function of perennial temperate streams. However, more information is required on whether streams flowing through basins already affected by exotic plantations will respond to droughts in the same way as streams under native forests. The recolonisation dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and leaf litter decomposition rates were examined in nine streams of oceanic-temperate climate that differed in catchment vegetation (three streams draining native deciduous forest, three in pine plantations and three in eucalypt plantations) after a marked drought...
May 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514700/a-comparative-in-situ-decomposition-study-using-still-born-piglets-and-leaf-litter-from-a-deciduous-forest
#2
Ayodeji O Olakanye, Andrew Nelson, T Komang Ralebitso-Senior
A cadaver and dead plant organic matter, or litter, are rich energy sources that undergo a complex decomposition process, which impact the surrounding environmental microbiota. Advances in molecular microbiology techniques, with study of the 16S RNA genes, in particular, have highlighted the application of forensic ecogenomics in addressing key knowledge gaps. To investigate subsurface microbiome shifts as a novel tool to establish "postmortem microbial clock" and augment postmortem interval (PMI) and time-since-burial estimations, an in situ study with triplicate underground burials of piglets as human taphonomic proxies and Quercus robur leaf litter was monitored for 270 days...
May 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504834/resource-stoichiometry-and-availability-modulate-species-richness-and-biomass-of-tropical-litter-macro-invertebrates
#3
Malte Jochum, Andrew D Barnes, Patrick Weigelt, David Ott, Katja Rembold, Achmad Farajallah, Ulrich Brose
1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466110/occurrence-and-function-of-enzymes-for-lignocellulose-degradation-in-commercial-agaricus-bisporus-cultivation
#4
REVIEW
Mirjam A Kabel, Edita Jurak, Miia R Mäkelä, Ronald P de Vries
The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is economically the most important commercially produced edible fungus. It is grown on carbon- and nitrogen-rich substrates, such as composted cereal straw and animal manure. The commercial mushroom production process is usually performed in buildings or tunnels under highly controlled environmental conditions. In nature, the basidiomycete A. bisporus has a significant impact on the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems as a saprotrophic decayer of leaf litter. In this mini-review, the fate of the compost plant cell wall structures, xylan, cellulose and lignin, is discussed...
May 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459960/diversity-of-platygastridae-in-leaf-litter-and-understory-layers-of-tropical-rainforests-of-the-western-ghats-biodiversity-hotspot-india
#5
K Manoj, T P Rajesh, U Prashanth Ballullaya, K M Meharabi, V K Shibil, K Rajmohana, Palatty Allesh Sinu
Platygastridae is the third largest family of parasitic Hymenoptera in the world. It includes important egg and larval parasitoids of insects and spiders. Therefore, Platygastridae is functionally important in maintaining the stability of tropical rainforests and agroecosystems. Although the diversity of Platygastridae is relatively well-known in agroecosystems, we know little about their diversity in tropical rainforests, and particularly about that of the leaf litter layer. Here, we address the importance of monitoring Platygastridae in tropical rainforests, using data from the relic primary forests of the sacred groves of the Western Ghats...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#6
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423423/invertebrates-fungal-biomass-and-leaf-breakdown-in-pools-and-riffles-of-neotropical-streams
#7
Renato Tavares Martins, Lidimara Souza da Silveira, Marcos Pereira Lopes, Roberto Gama Alves
We evaluated fungal biomass (as ergosterol concentration) and invertebrate colonization during leaf breakdown of Picramnia sellowii Planch. (Picramniaceae) in pools and riffles of three low-order forested streams in southeastern Brazil. We hypothesized that leaf breakdown will be higher in riffles due to the high physical fragmentation and fungal activity. The experiment was carried out during the dry season of 2012, using 108 litter bags, each containing 3 ± 0.05 g of air-dried leaves. After 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of incubation, six litter bags (riffle = 3 and pool = 3) were removed from each stream...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421326/nutrient-enrichment-in-water-more-than-in-leaves-affects-aquatic-microbial-litter-processing
#8
Cristiane Biasi, Manuel A S Graça, Sandro Santos, Verónica Ferreira
Nutrient enrichment of soils and water will intensify in the future and has the potential to alter fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition. We tested the direct (via water nutrient enrichment) and indirect (via changes in leaf chemistry) effects of nutrient enrichment on microbial activity and decomposability of Quercus robur L. (oak) leaves in laboratory microcosms simulating streams. Senescent leaves of oak trees grown without and with fertilization were incubated under ambient and elevated water nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] concentrations for 60 days...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389728/leaf-litter-chemistry-drives-the-structure-and-composition-of-soil-testate-amoeba-communities-in-a-tropical-montane-rainforest-of-the-ecuadorian-andes
#9
Valentyna Krashevska, Dorothee Sandmann, Franca Marian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
We investigated the role of leaf litter chemistry and richness in affecting testate amoeba communities of tropical rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. Litterbags containing leaf litter from four dominating tree species (Clusia sp., Myrcia pubescens, Graffenrieda emarginata, and Cecropia andina) with richness 1, 2, and 4 species were established and exposed in the field for 12 months at 2000 m a.s.l. Chemical elements and compounds of leaf litter were analyzed before exposure. At the end of exposure, microbial biomass and litter mass loss were measured, and living testate amoeba species number, density, biomass, and community composition were determined...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384573/soilplusveg-an-integrated-air-plant-litter-soil-model-to-predict-organic-chemical-fate-and-recycling-in-forests
#10
Elisa Terzaghi, Melissa Morselli, Matteo Semplice, Bruno Enrico Leone Cerabolini, Kevin C Jones, Michele Freppaz, Antonio Di Guardo
Current modelling approaches often ignore the dynamics of organic chemicals uptake/release in forest compartments under changing environmental conditions and may fail in accurately predict exposure to chemicals for humans and ecosystems. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted concentrations in forest compartments, as well as, on air-leaf-litter fluxes, the SoilPlusVeg model was developed including a forest compartment (root, stem, leaves) in an existing air-litter-soil model. The accuracy of the model was tested simulating leaf concentrations in broadleaf woods located in Northern Italy and resulted in satisfying model performance...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382450/removal-of-pfoa-and-pfos-from-aqueous-solutions-using-activated-carbon-produced-from-vitis-vinifera-leaf-litter
#11
Bamidele Oladapo Fagbayigbo, Beatrice Olutoyin Opeolu, Olalekan Siyanbola Fatoki, Terresa Ayuko Akenga, Olatunde Stephen Olatunji
The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364957/new-insights-into-the-source-of-decadal-increase-in-chemical-oxygen-demand-associated-with-dissolved-organic-carbon-in-dianchi-lake
#12
Wei Guo, Feng Yang, Yanping Li, Shengrui Wang
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be used an alternative index of water quality instead of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to reflect the organic pollution in water. The monitoring data of water quality in a long-term (1990-2013) from Dianchi Lake confirmed the increase trend of COD concentration in the lake since 2007. The similarities and differences in the DOC components between the lake and its sources and the contribution from allochthonous and autochthonous DOC to the total DOC in this lake were determined to elucidate the reason of COD increase based on C/N atomic ratios, stable isotope abundance of carbon and nitrogen, UV-visible spectroscopy, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy...
March 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358894/phylogenetic-conservation-of-substrate-use-specialization-in-leaf-litter-bacteria
#13
Kristin L Dolan, Jeniffer Peña, Steven D Allison, Jennifer B H Martiny
Environmental change will influence the ecosystem processes regulated by microbial communities, including leaf litter decomposition. To assess how microbial communities and their functioning might respond to increases in temperature, we quantified the distribution of traits related to carbon substrate utilization and temperature sensitivity in leaf litter bacteria isolated from a natural grassland ecosystem in Southern California. The isolates varied substantially in their carbon substrate use, as well as their response to temperature change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324829/interactive-effects-of-an-insecticide-and-a-fungicide-on-different-organism-groups-and-ecosystem-functioning-in-a-stream-detrital-food-web
#14
Mohab Dawoud, Mirco Bundschuh, Willem Goedkoop, Brendan G McKie
Freshwater ecosystems are often affected by cocktails of multiple pesticides targeting different organism groups. Prediction and evaluation of the ecosystem-level effects of these mixtures is complicated by the potential not only for interactions among the pesticides themselves, but also for the pesticides to alter biotic interactions across trophic levels. In a stream microcosm experiment, we investigated the effects of two pesticides targeting two organism groups (the insecticide lindane and fungicide azoxystrobin) on the functioning of a model stream detrital food web consisting of a detritivore (Ispoda: Asellus aquaticus) and microbes (an assemblage of fungal hyphomycetes) consuming leaf litter...
March 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303178/composition-of-riparian-litter-input-regulates-organic-matter-decomposition-implications-for-headwater-stream-functioning-in-a-managed-forest-landscape
#15
Johan Lidman, Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Mirco Bundschuh, Ryan A Sponseller
Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300940/distribution-and-abundance-of-freshwater-decapods-in-an-atlantic-rainforest-catchment-with-a-dammed-future
#16
E F Silva-Junior, M Silva-Araújo, T P Moulton
Variations in physical characteristics along the course of a river influence habitat availability which reflects in species distribution. Knowledge of ecology and diversity of lotic species is important for evaluating how river ecosystems will respond to environmental impacts. Freshwater decapods are a group of high ecological and economic importance, but the knowledge about factors influencing their distribution is scarce in Brazil. We performed a survey of decapods to describe their abundance and distribution as well as to study their relationships with stream physical variables and especially their association with different substrates types...
March 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285374/antibiotic-mixture-effects-on-growth-of-the-leaf-shredding-stream-detritivore-gammarus-fossarum
#17
Mirco Bundschuh, Torsten Hahn, Mark O Gessner, Ralf Schulz
Pharmaceuticals contribute greatly to human and animal health. Given their specific biological targets, pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk by affecting organisms and ecosystem processes, including leaf-litter decomposition. Although litter decomposition is a central process in forest streams, the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals remain poorly known. The present study assessed the impact of antibiotics as an important class of pharmaceuticals on the growth of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum over 24 days...
May 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263375/shrub-encroachment-in-arctic-tundra-betula-nana-effects-on-above-and-belowground-litter-decomposition
#18
Jennie R McLaren, Kate M Buckeridge, Martine J van de Weg, Gaius R Shaver, Joshua P Schimel, Laura Gough
Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261329/soil-carbon-and-belowground-carbon-balance-of-a-short-rotation-coppice-assessments-from-three-different-approaches
#19
Gonzalo Berhongaray, Melanie S Verlinden, Laura S Broeckx, Ivan A Janssens, Reinhart Ceulemans
Uncertainty in soil carbon (C) fluxes across different land-use transitions is an issue that needs to be addressed for the further deployment of perennial bioenergy crops. A large-scale short-rotation coppice (SRC) site with poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) was established to examine the land-use transitions of arable and pasture to bioenergy. Soil C pools, output fluxes of soil CO 2, CH 4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile organic compounds, as well as input fluxes from litter fall and from roots, were measured over a 4-year period, along with environmental parameters...
February 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259592/ambush-behavior-of-the-tick-amblyomma-sculptum-amblyomma-cajennense-complex-acari-ixodidae-in-the-brazilian-pantanal
#20
Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos, Carolina Fonseca Osava, Ubiratan Piovezan, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning...
February 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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