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leaf litter

W Hao, Timothy D Miles, Frank N Martin, Greg Browne, Helga Forster, James E Adaskaveg
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate the risk of exporting a quarantine pathogen, the distribution and frequency of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of oranges in major growing areas of California was investigated. Symptomatic fruit were collected from navel (winter to late spring) and Valencia (late spring to summer) orange orchards from 2013 to 2015...
October 20, 2017: Phytopathology
Rebecca A Senior, Jane K Hill, Suzan Benedick, David P Edwards
Tropical rainforests are subject to extensive degradation by commercial selective logging. Despite pervasive changes to forest structure, selectively logged forests represent vital refugia for global biodiversity. The ability of these forests to buffer temperature-sensitive species from climate warming will be an important determinant of their future conservation value, although this topic remains largely unexplored. Thermal buffering potential is broadly determined by: (i) the difference between the "macroclimate" (climate at a local scale, m to ha) and the "microclimate" (climate at a fine-scale, mm to m, that is distinct from the macroclimate); (ii) thermal stability of microclimates (e...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ryan M Burrows, Helen Rutlidge, Nick R Bond, Stefan M Eberhard, Alexandra Auhl, Martin S Andersen, Dominic G Valdez, Mark J Kennard
Organic carbon cycling is a fundamental process that underpins energy transfer through the biosphere. However, little is known about the rates of particulate organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams, which is often the only wetted environment remaining when surface flows cease. We used leaf litter and cotton decomposition assays, as well as rates of microbial respiration, to quantify rates of organic carbon processing in surface and hyporheic environments of intermittent and perennial streams under a range of substrate saturation conditions...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang, Hongguang Xiao, Daolin Du
Soil fungal communities may play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of the co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities by using high-throughput sequencing. The invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis exert positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon's diversity index, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE index), and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities but exhibit negative effects on the Simpson index...
October 14, 2017: Plant Biology
Jessica I Grant, William O Lamp
Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Anbalagan Sankarappan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Balasubramanian Chelliah, Krishnan Muthukalingan
Adult black flies (Simuliidae) are medically important insects and they are the sole vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Immature black flies are major components of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams and play a vital role in nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined effect of hierarchical dynamics (spatio-temporal pattern) on the distribution of immature black flies in South Indian streams. The sampling was done in streams of Western Ghats, South India. A total of 16 species belong to two subgenera: Simulium (10 species) and Gowmphostilbia (6 species) of Simulium were observed...
October 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
Nicolas Fanin, Nathalie Fromin, Sandra Barantal, Stephan Hättenschwiler
Heterotrophic microorganisms are commonly thought to be stoichiometrically homeostatic but their stoichiometric plasticity has rarely been examined, particularly in terrestrial ecosystems. Using a fertilization experiment in a tropical rainforest, we evaluated how variable substrate stoichiometry may influence the stoichiometry of microbial communities in the leaf litter layer and in the underlying soil. C:N:P ratios of the microbial biomass were higher in the organic litter layer than in the underlying mineral soil...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Giuliano Bonanomi, Francesca Ippolito, Gaspare Cesarano, Bruno Nanni, Nadia Lombardi, Angelo Rita, Antonio Saracino, Felice Scala
Biochar is nowadays largely used as a soil amendment and is commercialized worldwide. However, in temperate agro-ecosystems the beneficial effect of biochar on crop productivity is limited, with several studies reporting negative crop responses. In this work, we studied the effect of 10 biochar and 9 not pyrogenic organic amendments (NPOA), using pure and in all possible combinations on lettuce growth (Lactuca sativa). Organic materials were characterized by (13)C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis (pH, EC, C, N, C/N and H/C ratios)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Biying Zhao, Peng Xing, Qinglong L Wu
Knowledge of aquatic microbes involved in macrophyte leaf litter decomposition is still scarce in freshwater lakes. In situ experiments (150 days) were conducted to study the decomposition processes of macrophyte leaf litters: Zizania latifolia (Zl), Hydrilla verticillata (Hv), and Nymphoides peltata (Np). The decomposition of Np leaf litter was fastest whereas Zl was slowest. The alpha diversity of both bacterial and fungal communities significantly increased, and their community structures showed significant variations over time...
September 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Margarida Soares, Emma S Kritzberg, Johannes Rousk
Microbial decomposers colonising submerged leaf litter are in close spatial proximity with periphytic algae and can use carbon (C) exudates released during photosynthesis. We investigated whether labile C delivered as algal exudates could affect the microbial colonisation and decomposition of leaf litter. Using microcosms, we submerged leaf litter in pond water and monitored fungal and bacterial growth over time and tested the effect of algal photosynthetic exudates by comparing microcosms in light and dark...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Rachael A Collett, Diana O Fisher
Pitfall trapping is the standard technique to estimate activity and relative abundance of leaf litter arthropods. Pitfall trapping is not ideal for long-term sampling because it is lethal, labor-intensive, and may have taxonomic sampling biases. We test an alternative sampling method that can be left in place for several months at a time: verticallyplaced time-lapse camera traps that have a short focal distance, enabling identification of small arthropods. We tested the effectiveness of these time-lapse cameras, and quantified escape and avoidance behavior of arthropod orders encountering pitfall traps by placing cameras programed with a range of sampling intervals above pitfalls, to assess numerical, taxonomic, and body size differences in samples collected by the two methods...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Iman Arbi, Songlin Liu, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu, Xiaoping Huang
The pathways of terrigenous and marine organic matter originating into Daya Bay intertidal habitats were investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Spatiotemporal (sites, seasons and tidal levels) variations in isotopic ratios of basal food sources and macrobenthic consumers, and also the contribution of sources to the diet of representative species and the whole macrobenthic biomass were estimated using Isosource mixing model. Results showed the anthropogenic impacts on benthic and pelagic organic matter as well as macrobenthos, depending on the spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Emmanuel O Oyelude, Johannes A M Awudza, Sylvester K Twumasi
Low-cost teak leaf litter powder (TLLP) was prepared as possible substitute for activated carbon. The feasibility of using the adsorbent to remove eosin yellow (EY) dye from aqueous solution was investigated through equilibrium adsorption, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. The removal of dye from aqueous solution was feasible but influenced by temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Variation in the initial concentration of dye did not influence the equilibrium contact time. Optimum adsorption of dye occurred at low adsorbent dosages, alkaline pH and high temperatures...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zander R Human, Casparus J Crous, Francois Roets, Stephanus N Venter, Michael J Wingfield, Z Wilhelm de Beer
Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees...
September 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mia R Maltz, Kathleen K Treseder, Krista L McGuire
Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity and function within a fragmented shrubland in southern California. Using fluorimetric techniques, we assayed enzymes from plant litter collected from fragments of varying sizes to investigate enzymatic responses to fragmentation...
2017: PloS One
Guangqi Zhang, Ping Zhang, Shouzhang Peng, Yunming Chen, Yang Cao
The nutrient ecological stoichiometry of plants and soil is important for the growth and dynamics of species, but the stoichiometric relationships among leaf, litter, and soil remain poorly understood. We analyzed the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of the leaves, litter, and soil for 31 species at 140 sites in warm temperate forests in northwestern China to document the patterns of nutrient traits and their relationships with climatic factors. The average concentrations of C, N, and P in the combined forests were 462...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jochen P Zubrod, Rebecca Bundschuh, Dominic Englert, Markus Rohrberg, Matthias V Wieczorek, Nikita Bakanov, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. In situ measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting in situ bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum, and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
N A Rossiter-Rachor, S A Setterfield, L B Hutley, D McMaster, S Schmidt, M M Douglas
The African grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is invading Australian savannas, altering their ecological and biogeochemical function. To assess impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, we quantified litter decomposition and N dynamics of grass litter in native grass and A. gayanus invaded savanna using destructive in situ grass litter harvests and litterbag incubations (soil surface and aerial position). Only 30% of the A. gayanus in situ litter decomposed, compared to 61% of the native grass litter, due to the former being largely comprised of highly resistant A...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sofia Duarte, Juanita Mora-Gómez, Anna M Romaní, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal
A consequence of drought in streams is the emersion of decomposing leaf litter, which may alter organic matter recycling. We assessed the effects of emersion on decomposition of black poplar leaves and associated microbes (microbial biomass, extracellular enzyme activities and microbial diversity) in two streams with distinct characteristics, in particular nutrients, temperature and oxygen levels. Leaf decomposition rates, fungal biomass and extracellular enzyme activities were lower in the most impacted stream (high nutrients and temperature, low oxygen)...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
David W P Manning, Amy D Rosemond, Vladislav Gulis, Jonathan P Benstead, John S Kominoski
Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co-occurring global-change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across seasonal temperature gradients before (PRE) and after (ENR1, ENR2) experimental nutrient (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) additions to five forest streams...
September 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
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