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leaf litter

Kana Higaki, Kento Rammitsu, Yumi Yamashita, Tomohisa Yukawa, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Mycoheterotrophic plants are one of the most difficult plant groups to conserve because they are entirely dependent on symbiotic fungi. Establishment of viable culture systems would greatly aid their conservation. We describe a simple culture system for the mycoheterotrophic orchid, Gastrodia pubilabiata, that does not require laboratory facilities. The orchid is symbiotic with leaf-litter-decomposing fungi. RESULTS: Gastrodia pubilabiata seeds were incubated in plastic boxes or glass bottles filled with leaf litter collected from the natural habitat of the species...
December 8, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Emanuele Pallozzi, Ilaria Lusini, Lucia Cherubini, Ramilla A Hajiaghayeva, Paolo Ciccioli, Carlo Calfapietra
In the Mediterranean ecosystem, wildfires are very frequent and the predicted future with a probable increase of fires could drastically modify the vegetation scenarios. Vegetation fires are an important source of gases and primary emissions of fine carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. In this paper, we present gaseous and particulate emissions data from the combustion of different plant tissues (needles/leaves, branches and needle/leaf litter), obtained from one conifer (Pinus halepensis) and one deciduous broadleaf tree (Quercus pubescens)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marlen Heinz, Dominik Zak
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of freezing and cold storage at 4 °C on bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentration and SEC fractions determined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), as well as on spectral properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) analyzed with fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to account for differences in DOM composition and source we analyzed storage effects for three different sample types, including a lake water sample representing freshwater DOM, a leaf litter leachate of Phragmites australis representing a terrestrial, 'fresh' DOM source and peatland porewater samples...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
Juanita Mora-Gómez, Sofia Duarte, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal, Anna M Romaní
Drought frequency and intensity in some temperate regions are forecasted to increase under the ongoing global change, which might expose permanent streams to intermittence and have severe repercussions on stream communities and ecosystem processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought duration on microbial decomposition of Populus nigra leaf litter in a temperate permanent stream (Oliveira, NW Portugal). Specifically, we measured the response of the structural (assemblage composition, bacterial and fungal biomass) and functional (leaf litter decomposition, extracellular enzyme activities (EEA), and fungal sporulation) parameters of fungal and bacterial communities on leaf litter exposed to emersion during different time periods (7, 14 and 21d)...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ya-Jun Xie, Yong-Hong Xie, Hua-Yun Xiao, Zheng-Miao Deng, Ying Pan, Bai-Han Pan, Jia-Yu Hu
Aromatic plants show antimicrobial activity due to their essential oils, but their effect on litter decomposition is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the biomass loss and nutrient dynamics in leaf litters of two macrophytes (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Carex brevicuspis) with and without addition of powdered material of the aromatic plant Polygonum hydropiper or the non-aromatic plant C. brevicuspis. The two powders had similar basic chemical qualities but P. hydropiperi had a higher essential oils concentration...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Renato Tavares Martins, Renan de Souza Rezende, José Francisco Gonçalves Júnior, Aline Lopes, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Heloide de Lima Cavalcante, Neusa Hamada
Climate change may affect the chemical composition of riparian leaf litter and, aquatic organisms and, consequently, leaf breakdown. We evaluated the effects of different scenarios combining increased temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on leaf detritus of Hevea spruceana (Benth) Müll. and decomposers (insect shredders and microorganisms). We hypothesized that simulated climate change (warming and elevated CO2) would: i) decrease leaf-litter quality, ii) decrease survival and leaf breakdown by shredders, and iii) increase microbial leaf breakdown and fungal biomass...
2017: PloS One
Sabine Both, Dafydd M O Elias, Ully H Kritzler, Nick J Ostle, David Johnson
In hyperdiverse tropical forests, the key drivers of litter decomposition are poorly understood despite its crucial role in facilitating nutrient availability for plants and microbes. Selective logging is a pressing land use with potential for considerable impacts on plant-soil interactions, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Here, in Borneo's tropical rainforests, we test the hypothesis that decomposition is driven by litter quality and that there is a significant "home-field advantage," that is positive interaction between local litter quality and land use...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Guillaume Patoine, Madhav P Thakur, Julia Friese, Charles Nock, Lydia Hönig, Josephine Haase, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Nico Eisenhauer
A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity...
November 2017: Pedobiologia
Alexander B Chase, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin L Brodie, Zulema Gomez-Lunar, Adam C Martiny, Jennifer B H Martiny
Much genetic diversity within a bacterial community is likely obscured by microdiversity within operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined by 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, it is unclear how variation within this microdiversity influences ecologically relevant traits. Here, we employ a multifaceted approach to investigate microdiversity within the dominant leaf litter bacterium, Curtobacterium, which comprises 7.8% of the bacterial community at a grassland site undergoing global change manipulations. We use cultured bacterial isolates to interpret metagenomic data, collected in situ over 2 years, together with lab-based physiological assays to determine the extent of trait variation within this abundant OTU...
November 14, 2017: MBio
Ri-Xin Jiang, Zi-Wei Yin
Eight new species of the genus Batrisodes Reitter are described from continental China, seven of which were found in association with ants: B. abdominalissp. n. and B. tianmuensissp. n. with an Ectomomyrmex ant from Zhejiang; B. grossussp. n. with an Odontomachus ant from Guangxi; B. simianshanussp. n. with an Aphaenogaster ant from Chongqing; B. qiuluisp. n. with a Pheidole ant, B. xuhaoisp. n. with a Lasius ant, and B. zhouchaoisp. n. with Lasius and Nylanderia ants from Sichuan. Batrisodes zethussp. n. was collected from a leaf litter sample...
2017: ZooKeys
Jessica L Deichmann, Daniel G Mulcahy, Hadrien Vanthomme, Elie Tobi, Addison H Wynn, Breda M Zimkus, Roy W McDiarmid
Development projects in west Central Africa are proceeding at an unprecedented rate, often with little concern for their effects on biodiversity. In an attempt to better understand potential impacts of a road development project on the anuran amphibian community, we conducted a biodiversity assessment employing multiple methodologies (visual encounter transects, auditory surveys, leaf litter plots and pitfall traps) to inventory species prior to construction of a new road within the buffer zone of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon...
2017: PloS One
Rachel L Wells, Serena K Murphy, Matthew D Moran
Ecosystem engineers are profoundly important in many biological communities. A Neotropical taxonomic group considered to have engineering effects is the Formicidae (ants). Leaf-cutter ants (LCAs), in particular, which form extensive colonies of millions of individuals, can be important ecosystem engineers in these environments. While the effects of LCAs on plant community structure and soil chemistry are well-studied, their effects on consumers are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the indirect effects of the LCA Atta cephalotes L...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Hui Zhang, Weihong Guo, Mukui Yu, G Geoff Wang, Tonggui Wu
Latitudinal patterns of leaf stoichiometry and nutrient resorption were not consistent among published studies, likely due to confounding effects from taxonomy (e.g., plant distribution and community composition), and environment, which is also influenced by altitude and longitude. Thus, the latitudinal patterns and environmental mechanism could be best revealed by testing a given species along a latitude gradient with similar altitude and longitude. We determined nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of green (leaf) and senesced leaves (litter) from eight Metasequoia glyptostroboides forests along the eastern coastline of China, with similar altitude and longitude...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Colin Averill, Bonnie Waring
The availability of nitrogen (N) is a critical control on the cycling and storage of soil carbon (C). Yet there are conflicting conceptual models to explain how N availability influences decomposition of organic matter by soil microbial communities. Several lines of evidence suggest that N availability limits decomposition: the earliest stages of leaf litter decay are associated with a net import of N from the soil environment, and both observations and models show that high-N organic matter decomposes more rapidly...
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
Hao Yu, Zhili He, Aijie Wang, Jianping Xie, Liyou Wu, Joy D Van Nostrand, Decai Jin, Zhimin Shao, Christopher W Schadt, Jizhong Zhou, Ye Deng
Numerous studies have shown that the continuous increase of atmosphere CO2 concentrations may have profound effects on the forest ecosystem and their functions. However, little is known about the response of belowground soil microbial communities under elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) at different soil depth profiles in forest ecosystems. Here, we examined soil microbial communities at two soil depths (0-5cm and 5-15cm) after 10-years eCO2 exposure using a high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip)...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein, Wolfgang Feichtinger, Indrajit Nanda
A 7-year cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Craugastor fitzingeri from Costa Rica and Panama revealed the existence of highly mobile nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) in their genomes. Silver (Ag)-staining of the active NORs demonstrated an exceptional interindividual pattern of NOR distribution at the telomeres of the chromosomes. All individuals examined showed a different and specific NOR location in their karyotypes. Furthermore, intraindividual variation in the NOR sites was found. This observation suggested the existence of mobile NORs in C...
October 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
W Hao, Timothy D Miles, Frank N Martin, Greg Browne, Helga Forster, James E Adaskaveg
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate the risk of exporting a quarantine pathogen, the distribution and frequency of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of oranges in major growing areas of California was investigated. Symptomatic fruit were collected from navel (winter to late spring) and Valencia (late spring to summer) orange orchards from 2013 to 2015...
October 20, 2017: Phytopathology
Rebecca A Senior, Jane K Hill, Suzan Benedick, David P Edwards
Tropical rainforests are subject to extensive degradation by commercial selective logging. Despite pervasive changes to forest structure, selectively logged forests represent vital refugia for global biodiversity. The ability of these forests to buffer temperature-sensitive species from climate warming will be an important determinant of their future conservation value, although this topic remains largely unexplored. Thermal buffering potential is broadly determined by: (i) the difference between the "macroclimate" (climate at a local scale, m to ha) and the "microclimate" (climate at a fine-scale, mm to m, that is distinct from the macroclimate); (ii) thermal stability of microclimates (e...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ryan M Burrows, Helen Rutlidge, Nick R Bond, Stefan M Eberhard, Alexandra Auhl, Martin S Andersen, Dominic G Valdez, Mark J Kennard
Organic carbon cycling is a fundamental process that underpins energy transfer through the biosphere. However, little is known about the rates of particulate organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams, which is often the only wetted environment remaining when surface flows cease. We used leaf litter and cotton decomposition assays, as well as rates of microbial respiration, to quantify rates of organic carbon processing in surface and hyporheic environments of intermittent and perennial streams under a range of substrate saturation conditions...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang, Hongguang Xiao, Daolin Du
Soil fungal communities may play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of the co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities by using high-throughput sequencing. The invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis exert positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon's diversity index, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE index), and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities but exhibit negative effects on the Simpson index...
October 14, 2017: Plant Biology
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