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leaf litter

Kamyar Aram, David M Rizzo
Phytophthora spp. are regularly recovered from streams but their ecology in aquatic environments is not well understood. Phytophthora ramorum, invasive in California forests, persists in streams at times when sporulation in the canopy is absent, suggesting that it reproduces in the water. Streams are also inhabited by resident, clade 6 Phytophthora spp., believed to be primarily saprotrophic. We conducted experiments to determine if differences of trophic specialization exist between these two taxa, and investigated how this may affect their survival and competition on stream leaf litter...
February 14, 2018: Phytopathology
Xiaoxiong Wang, Yim Tong Szeto, Chengchun Jiang, Xiaojun Wang, Yi Tao, Jianguo Tu, Jing Chen
This study investigated the use of Dracontomelon duperreanum leaf litter extract (DDLLE) in inhibiting the growth and photosynthesis of the algae Microcystis aeruginosa. The goal of the study was to evaluate a potential solution for cyanobacterial bloom prevention. M. aeruginosa was exposed to extract concentrations from 0.4 to 2.0 g L-1. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content and photosynthesis levels were assessed using pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry phytoplankton analyzer. Results suggested that the extract could efficiently suppress M...
February 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Javier Pérez, Aingeru Martínez, Enrique Descals, Jesús Pozo
Aquatic hyphomycetes represent a large component of the microbial assemblage that decomposes submerged leaf-litter in fluvial ecosystems. The structure and activity of these fungal decomposers depend on environmental factors. Fungal communities may adapt to local habitat conditions; however, little is known about how fungal communities respond to abrupt changes in factors such as nutrient availability and temperature. To respond to this question, we carried out a cross-transplantation experiment, which assessed the decomposer activity and structure of this microbial community on decaying leaves transplanted from a cold and oligotrophic stream (S1) to a warmer and nitrogen-richer one (S2) and vice versa...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Alexandre K Monro, Nadia Bystriakova, Longfei Fu, Fang Wen, Yigang Wei
Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment...
2018: PloS One
Juha Mikola, Tarja Silfver, Ulla Paaso, Boy J M H Possen, Matti Rousi
Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H2 = 0...
February 7, 2018: Ecology
Nancy E Karraker, Samantha Fischer, Anchalee Aowphol, Jennifer Sheridan, Sinlan Poo
Background: Lowland areas in tropical East and Southeast Asia have a long history of conversion from forestland to agricultural land, with many remaining forests being chronically degraded by wood cutting, livestock grazing, and burning. Wetland-breeding amphibians that have evolved in lowland forests in the region have adjusted to changes in habitat composition caused by humans' activities, and populations continue to persist. However, we have little understanding of the impacts of forest disturbance on these species beyond assessments of abundance and distribution, and species considered to be common and widespread have been largely neglected...
2018: PeerJ
Tyler D Sowers, Jason W Stuckey, Donald L Sparks
Sequestration of organic carbon (OC) in environmental systems is critical to mitigating climate change. Organo-mineral associations, especially those with iron (Fe) oxides, drive the chemistry of OC sequestration and stability in soils. Short-range-ordered Fe oxides, such as ferrihydrite, demonstrate a high affinity for OC in binary systems. Calcium commonly co-associates with OC and Fe oxides in soils, though the bonding mechanism (e.g., cation bridging) and implications of the co-association for OC sequestration remain unresolved...
February 3, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Syrie M Hermans, Hannah L Buckley, Gavin Lear
Using environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the distribution of micro- and macro-organisms is becoming increasingly popular. However, the comparability and reliability of these studies is not well understood as we lack evidence on how different DNA extraction methods affect the detection of different organisms, and how this varies among sample types. Our aim was to quantify biases associated with six DNA extraction methods, and identify one which is optimal for eDNA research targeting multiple organisms and sample types...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Claire Dillenbeck, Devon Lewis, Cindy Rivera, Luis Mario Romero, Luis Fernando Chaves
Mosquito sampling using efficient traps that can assess species diversity and/or presence of dominant vectors is important for understanding the entomological risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of mosquito species sampled with ovitraps in a neotropical rainforest of Costa Rica. We found the method to be an efficient sampling tool. With a total sampling effort of 29 traps, we collected 157 fourth-instar larvae and three pupae belonging to eight mosquito taxonomic units (seven species and individuals from a homogenous taxonomic unit identified to the genus level)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
M T Hall, A C Briley, E J Lindroth, J D Fajardo, J E Cilek, A G Richardson
Larvicidal oils can be used to control immature Aedes aegypti and other pestiferous mosquitoes. To test whether oil-based larvicides also act as oviposition deterrents, indoor and semi-field trials were conducted at the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence in Jacksonville, FL. In both studies, treatment cages consisted of oviposition cups lined with seed germination paper as an oviposition substrate and filled with 1-wk-old southern live oak ( Quercus virginiana) leaf litter-infused water. Treatment cages consisted of 2 cups treated with CocoBear™ Mosquito Larvicidal Oil, while 2 cups were untreated...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Antoine Boyer, Paris Ning, Doug Killey, Martin Klukas, David Rowan, Andre J Simpson, Elodie Passeport
Strontium (Sr) is a chemical element that is often used as a tracer in hydrogeochemical studies, and is ubiquitously distributed as a radioactive contaminant in nuclear sites in the form of strontium-90 (Sr-90). At the interface between groundwater and surface water, wetlands possess unique hydrogeochemical properties whose impact on Sr transport has not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, the adsorption and desorption of Sr was investigated on six natural wetland substrates and two mixes of exogenous media and wetland sediment: winter and summer wetland sediments, decayed cattails, wood, leaf litter, moss, bone charcoal, and clinoptilolite...
January 11, 2018: Water Research
Ingrid R Caton, Todd M Caton, Mark A Schneegurt
Small streams exert great influences on the retention and attenuation of nitrogen (N) within stream networks. Human land use can lead to increased transport of dissolved inorganic N compounds and downstream eutrophication. Microbial activity in streams is important for maintaining an actively functioning N cycle. Chronically high N loading in streams affects the rates of the central processes of the N cycle by increasing rates of nitrification and denitrification, with biota exhibiting decreased efficiency of N use...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Doreen E Davis, Sara A Gagné
Background: Few studies of edge effects on wildlife objectively identify habitat edges or explore non-linear responses. In this paper, we build on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) research that has begun to address these domains by using triangulation wombling to identify boundaries in beetle community structure and composition at the edges of forest patches with residential developments. We hypothesized that edges are characterized by boundaries in environmental variables that correspond to marked discontinuities in vegetation structure between maintained yards and forest...
2018: PeerJ
Steven D Allison, Adriana L Romero-Olivares, Ying Lu, John W Taylor, Kathleen K Treseder
The magnitude and direction of carbon cycle feedbacks under climate warming remain uncertain due to insufficient knowledge about the temperature sensitivities of soil microbial processes. Enzymatic rates could increase at higher temperatures, but this response could change over time if soil microbes adapt to warming. We used the Arrhenius relationship, biochemical transition state theory, and thermal physiology theory to predict the responses of extracellular enzyme Vmax and Km to temperature. Based on these concepts, we hypothesized that Vmax and Km would correlate positively with each other and show positive temperature sensitivities...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Yanyu Song, Changchun Song, Jiusheng Ren, Wenwen Tan, Shaofei Jin, Lei Jiang
Nitrogen (N) availability affects litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics, especially in N-limited ecosystems. We investigated the response of litter decomposition to N additions in Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum peatlands. These two species dominate peatlands in Northeast China. In 2012, mesh bags containing senesced leaf litter of Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum were placed in N addition plots and sprayed monthly for two years with NH4NO3 solution at dose rates of 0, 6, 12, and 24gNm-2year-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3, respectively)...
January 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael R McLaren, Benjamin J Callahan
Microbial ecology has been transformed by the advent of high-throughput marker gene and metagenomic sequencing methods. These tools provide expansive descriptions of microbial communities, but the descriptions are framed in terms of molecular objects, such as 97% ribosomal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), rather than biological objects, such as species. A recent study by A. B. Chase and colleagues (mBio 8:e01809-17, 2017, explores the so-called microdiversity within the Curtobacterium OTU, the most abundant OTU in a leaf litter community...
January 2, 2018: MBio
Jayanthi Abraham, Ritika Chauhan
Actinomycetes strain was isolated from leaf litter soil sample and was identified as Streptomyces sp. by conventional and molecular approaches. The biologically active compound responsible for antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the strain JAR6 was elucidated by solid state fermentation followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. Extraction, purification and structural confirmation of red pigment metabolite viz undecylprodigiosin were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparing the data from the literature...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Madeline Brown, Timothy McLellan, Huili Li, Samantha C Karunarathna
Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Management
Daan Blok, Samuel Faucherre, Imre Banyasz, Riikka Rinnan, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
Kana Higaki, Kento Rammitsu, Yumi Yamashita, Tomohisa Yukawa, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Mycoheterotrophic plants are one of the most difficult plant groups to conserve because they are entirely dependent on symbiotic fungi. Establishment of viable culture systems would greatly aid their conservation. We describe a simple culture system for the mycoheterotrophic orchid, Gastrodia pubilabiata, that does not require laboratory facilities. The orchid is symbiotic with leaf-litter-decomposing fungi. RESULTS: Gastrodia pubilabiata seeds were incubated in plastic boxes or glass bottles filled with leaf litter collected from the natural habitat of the species...
December 8, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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