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leaf litter

Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, J Patrick Laceby, Jon M Olley, Stuart E Bunn
Understanding the sources of sediment, organic matter and nitrogen (N) transferred from terrestrial to aquatic environments is important for managing the deleterious off-site impacts of soil erosion. In particular, investigating the sources of organic matter associated with fine sediment may also provide insight into carbon (C) and N budgets. Accordingly, the main sources of fine sediment, organic matter (indicated by total organic carbon), and N are determined for three nested catchments (2.5km(2), 75km(2), and 3076km(2)) in subtropical Australia...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yongbo Liu, Wanxiang Jiang, Yuyong Liang, Caiyun Zhao, Junsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The non-target effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in aquatic ecosystems is crucial to improve the present assessment of Bt-transgenic plants, particularly where crops are cultivated near aquatic ecosystems. We conducted decomposition experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice litter with and without insecticide application on meiobenthos communities in a field ditch. RESULTS: Community composition of meiobenthos colonized on leaf litter was not significantly different between Bt and non-Bt rice...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Manuel A Barrios-Izás, Robert S Anderson, Juan J Morrone
We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
David C Blackburn, Christian Boix, Eli Greenbaum, Marissa Fabrezi, Danny Meirte, Andrew J Plumptre, Edward L Stanley
The species diversity of the frog genus Cardioglossa (family Arthroleptidae) is concentrated in the Lower Guinean Forest Zone of Central Africa with most of the 19 species occurring in Cameroon and neighboring countries (Amiet 1972a,b; Blackburn 2008; Hirschfeld et al. 2015). These small leaf-litter frogs are typically found in primary or secondary forest, have shrill whistling calls, are characterized by a variety of color patterns, and lay terrestrial eggs that hatch and develop into elongate, stream-adapted tadpoles (Amiet 1972a,b, 1973; Rödel et al...
September 23, 2016: Zootaxa
Vasily V Grebennikov
A male specimen of the monotypic weevil genus, Prothrombosternus Voss, 1965, so far known on the basis of only five syntypes from Mt. Meru and Mt. Hanang, Tanzania, is reported from the Rubeho Mountains, Tanzania. The lectotype of Prothrombosternus tarsalis Voss, 1965 is designated using a male from Mt. Meru. The Rubeho specimen shares the same external and genital morphological characters with the lectotype (both extensively illustrated) and, therefore, both are considered conspecific. The DNA barcode of the Rubeho specimen is publicly available at dx...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Wenyan Zhu, Jinzhou Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Fei Ren, Litong Chen, Jin-Sheng He
The effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on litter decomposition are poorly understood in Tibetan alpine meadows. Leaf litter was collected from plots within a factorial N × P addition experiment and allowed to decompose over 708 days in an unfertilized plot to determine the effects of N and/or P addition on litter decomposition. Results showed that nutrient addition significantly affected initial P and P-related biochemical properties of litter from all four species. However, the responses of litter N and N-related biochemical properties to nutrient addition were quite species-specific...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shanshan Yang, Hongling Hu, Tingxing Hu, Qian Wang, Mao Ye, Jie Luo, Yong Peng, Ruyi Zhang
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic...
October 3, 2016: Natural Product Research
Guigang Lin, M Luke McCormack, Chengen Ma, Dali Guo
Compared with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) forests are hypothesized to have higher carbon (C) cycling rates and a more open nitrogen (N) cycle. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized 645 observations, including 22 variables related to below-ground C and N dynamics from 100 sites, where AM and ECM forests co-occurred at the same site. Leaf litter quality was lower in ECM than in AM trees, leading to greater forest floor C stocks in ECM forests. By contrast, AM forests had significantly higher mineral soil C concentrations, and this result was strongly mediated by plant traits and climate...
September 28, 2016: New Phytologist
Qingkui Wang, Tongxin He, Jing Liu
Interaction effect of temperature and litter input on SOM decomposition is poor understood, restricting accurate prediction of the dynamics and stocks of soil organic carbon under global warming. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an incubation experiment by adding (13)C labeled leaf-litter into a coniferous forest (CF) soil and a broadleaved forest (BF) soil. In this experiment, response of the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of SOM decomposition to the increase in litter input was investigated. The temperature dependences of priming effect (PE) and soil microbial community were analyzed...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fabio A Hernandes, Michael J Skvarla, J Ray Fisher, Ashley P G Dowling, Ronald Ochoa, Edward A Ueckermann, Gary R Bauchan
Bdellidae (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are moderate to large sized predatory mites that inhabit soil, leaves, leaf litter, and intertidal rocks. They are readily recognized by an elongated, snout-like gnathosoma and by elbowed pedipalps bearing two (one in Monotrichobdella Baker & Balock) long terminal setae. Despite being among the first mites ever described, with species described by Carl Linnaeus, the knowledge about bdellids has never been compiled into a taxonomic catalogue. Here we present a catalogue listing 278 valid species; for each species we include distribution information, taxonomic literature, and type depository institutions...
2016: Zootaxa
Ikuko Nakamura, Seiji Yoshimura, Teruhisa Masaki, Shigehiro Takase, Keisuke Ohsumi, Michizane Hashimoto, Shigetada Furukawa, Akihiko Fujie
The novel antifungal agent ASP2397 (Vical's compound ID VL-2397) is produced by the fungal strain MF-347833 that was isolated from Malaysian leaf litter and is identified here as an Acremonium species based on its morphology, physiological properties and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence. Because of its potential importance for producing novel antifungal agents, we determined the taxonomic and biologic properties of MF-347833. We show here that ASP2397 is a cyclic hexapeptide that chelates aluminum ion and is therefore similar to ferrichrome, a hydroxamate siderophore...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
K A Kamilli, J Ofner, T Krause, T Sattler, P Schmitt-Kopplin, E Eitenberger, G Friedbacher, B Lendl, H Lohninger, H F Schöler, A Held
New particle formation was studied above salt lakes in-situ using a mobile aerosol chamber set up above the salt crust and organic-enriched layers of seven different salt lakes in Western Australia. This unique setup made it possible to explore the influence of salt lake emissions on atmospheric new particle formation, and to identify interactions of aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry. New particle formation was typically observed at enhanced air temperatures and enhanced solar irradiance. Volatile organic compounds were released from the salt lake surfaces, probably from a soil layer enriched in organic compounds from decomposed leaf litter, and accumulated in the chamber air...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Esmaeil Babaeian, Alireza Saboori, Dariusz J Gwiazdowicz, Vahid Etemad
Two new species records of Oplitidae, Oplitis exopodi Hunter & Farrier, 1975 and Oplitis sarcinulus Hunter & Farrier, 1976 are redescribed based on Iranian specimens from leaf-litter forest in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Oplitis is presented.
2016: ZooKeys
D Rivas, A Ginebreda, A Elosegi, J Pozo, S Pérez, C Quero, D Barceló
Characterization of river ecosystems must take into consideration both structural and functional aspects. For the latter, a convenient and simple approach for routine monitoring is based on the decomposition of organic matter measured in terms of breakdown of natural organic substrates like leaf litter, wood sticks. Here we extended the method to a synthetic organic material using polymer probes characterized by MALDI-TOF/MS. We first characterized several commercial available polymers, and finally selected polycaprolactonediol 1250 (PCP 1250), a polyester oligomer, as the most convenient for further studies...
August 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rebecca J Cole, Karen D Holl, Rakan A Zahawi, Philipp Wickey, Alan R Townsend
Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Katharina M Keiblinger, Stephan Fuchs, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Katharina Riedel
The increasing application of soil metaproteomics is providing unprecedented, in-depth characterization of the composition and functionality of in situ microbial communities. Despite recent advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry, soil metaproteomics still suffers from a lack of effective and reproducible protein extraction protocols and standardized data analyses. This review discusses the opportunities and limitations of selected techniques in soil-, and leaf litter metaproteomics, and presents a step-by-step guideline on their application, covering sampling, sample preparation, extraction and data evaluation strategies...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos, Sirkka Rausche, Augusta Cueva, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carlos Espinosa, Lutz Breuer
Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Vojtěch Tláskal, Jana Voříšková, Petr Baldrian
The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anne Talk, Susanne Kublik, Marie Uksa, Marion Engel, Rüdiger Berghahn, Gerhard Welzl, Michael Schloter, Silvia Mohr
In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm...
August 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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