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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#1
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#2
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324279/soil-organic-matter-as-sole-indicator-of-soil-degradation
#3
S E Obalum, G U Chibuike, S Peth, Y Ouyang
Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#4
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319994/growth-of-bacterial-phytopathogens-in-animal-manures
#5
Wojciech Sledz, Sabina Zoledowska, Agata Motyka, Leszek Kadziński, Bogdan Banecki
Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319716/multiple-stressors-in-sediments-impact-adjacent-hard-substrate-habitats-and-across-biological-domains
#6
Jasmin C Lawes, Katherine A Dafforn, Graeme F Clark, Mark V Brown, Emma L Johnston
Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by human activities. While the direct effects of individual contaminants have been investigated, the potential for multiple contaminants to impact adjacent hard substrate habitats is poorly understood. Sediment-bound contaminants pose a risk to water column organisms through resuspension and the fluxing of dissolved nutrients and metals. This study experimentally manipulated contaminated coastal sediments in mesocosms with additions of a common fertiliser to investigate the impact on both bacterial biofilms and macrofouling communities on nearby hard substrates...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319709/towards-an-integrated-understanding-of-how-micro-scale-processes-shape-groundwater-ecosystem-functions
#7
Susanne I Schmidt, Mark O Cuthbert, Marc Schwientek
Micro scale processes are expected to have a fundamental role in shaping groundwater ecosystems and yet they remain poorly understood and under-researched. In part, this is due to the fact that sampling is rarely carried out at the scale at which microorganisms, and their grazers and predators, function and thus we lack essential information. While set within a larger scale framework in terms of geochemical features, supply with energy and nutrients, and exchange intensity and dynamics, the micro scale adds variability, by providing heterogeneous zones at the micro scale which enable a wider range of redox reactions...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319048/amino-acid-insensitive-mtorc1-regulation-enables-nutritional-stress-resilience-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#8
Demetrios Kalaitzidis, Dongjun Lee, Alejo Efeyan, Youmna Kfoury, Naema Nayyar, David B Sykes, Francois E Mercier, Ani Papazian, Ninib Baryawno, Gabriel D Victora, Donna Neuberg, David M Sabatini, David T Scadden
The mTOR pathway is a critical determinant of cell persistence and growth wherein mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) mediates a balance between growth factor stimuli and nutrient availability. Amino acids or glucose facilitates mTORC1 activation by inducing RagA GTPase recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal outer surface, enabling activation of mTOR by the Ras homolog Rheb. Thereby, RagA alters mTORC1-driven growth in times of nutrient abundance or scarcity. Here, we have evaluated differential nutrient-sensing dependence through RagA and mTORC1 in hematopoietic progenitors, which dynamically drive mature cell production, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide a quiescent cellular reserve...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318695/monitoring-water-quality-in-toronto-s-urban-stormwater-ponds-assessing-participation-rates-and-data-quality-of-water-sampling-by-citizen-scientists-in-the-freshwater-watch
#9
Andrew B Scott, Paul C Frost
From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318006/inhibiting-the-bfrb-bfd-interaction-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causes-irreversible-iron-accumulation-in-bacterioferritin-and-iron-deficiency-in-the-bacterial-cytosol
#10
Kate Eshelman, Huili Yao, Achala N D Punchi Hewage, Jacqueline J Deay, Josephine R Chandler, Mario Rivera
Iron is an essential nutrient for bacteria but the reactivity of Fe(2+) and the insolubility of Fe(3+) present significant challenges to bacterial cells. Iron storage proteins contribute to ameliorating these challenges by oxidizing Fe(2+) using O2 and H2O2 as electron acceptors, and by compartmentalizing Fe(3+). Two types of iron-storage proteins coexist in bacteria, the ferritins (Ftn) and the heme-containing bacterioferritins (Bfr), but the reasons for their coexistence are largely unknown. P. aeruginosa cells harbor two iron storage proteins (FtnA and BfrB), but nothing is known about their relative contributions to iron homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303015/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-a-planktonic-system-and-chlorophyll-distribution-in-a-2d-spatial-domain-matching-model-and-data
#11
Davide Valenti, Giovanni Denaro, Rosalia Ferreri, Simona Genovese, Salvatore Aronica, Salvatore Mazzola, Angelo Bonanno, Gualtiero Basilone, Bernardo Spagnolo
Field data on chlorophyll distribution are investigated in a two-dimensional spatial domain of the Mediterranean Sea by using for phytoplankton abundances an advection-diffusion-reaction model, which includes real values for physical and biological variables. The study exploits indeed hydrological and nutrients data acquired in situ, and includes intraspecific competition for limiting factors, i.e. light intensity and phosphate concentration. As a result, the model allows to analyze how both the velocity field of marine currents and the two components of turbulent diffusivity affect the spatial distributions of phytoplankton abundances in the Modified Atlantic Water, the upper layer of the water column of the Mediterranean Sea...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301562/diversity-and-community-structure-of-cyanobacteria-and-other-microbes-in-recycling-irrigation-reservoirs
#12
Ping Kong, Patricia Richardson, Chuanxue Hong
Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs) are emerging aquatic environments of global significance to crop production, water conservation and environmental sustainability. This study characterized the diversity and population structure of cyanobacteria and other detected microbes in water samples from eight RIRs and one adjacent runoff-free stream at three ornamental crop nurseries in eastern (VA1 and VA3) and central (VA2) Virginia after cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene targeting cyanobacteria and chloroplast of eukaryotic phytoplankton...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301475/multiple-ecosystem-services-in-a-working-landscape
#13
Danny J Eastburn, Anthony T O'Geen, Kenneth W Tate, Leslie M Roche
Policy makers and practitioners are in need of useful tools and models for assessing ecosystem service outcomes and the potential risks and opportunities of ecosystem management options. We utilize a state-and-transition model framework integrating dynamic soil and vegetation properties to examine multiple ecosystem services-specifically agricultural production, biodiversity and habitat, and soil health-across human created vegetation states in a managed oak woodland landscape in a Mediterranean climate. We found clear tradeoffs and synergies in management outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298355/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-human-health-and-disease-an-introduction-for-clinicians
#14
REVIEW
Vincent B Young
Research into the microbiome-the indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit-has changed clinicians' ideas about microbes in human health and disease. Perhaps the most radical change is the realization that most of the microbes that inhabit our body supply crucial ecosystem services that benefit the entire host-microbe system. These services include the production of important resources, bioconversion of nutrients, and protection against pathogenic microbes. Thus disease can result from a loss of beneficial functions or the introduction of maladaptive functions by invading microbes...
March 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297744/a-permanent-multilevel-monitoring-and-sampling-system-in-the-coastal-groundwater-mixing-zones
#15
Xin Luo, King Lun Kwok, Yi Liu, Jimmy Jiao
To study the spatial and temporal variability of water dynamics and chemical reactions within the coastal groundwater mixing zones (CGMZs), high-resolution periodical and spatial groundwater sampling within CGMZs is needed. However, current samplers and sampling systems may require heavy driving machines to install. There is also possible contamination from the metal materials for current samplers and sampling systems. Here, a permanent multilevel sampling system is designed to sample coastal groundwater within CGMZs...
March 15, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297706/phytoplankton-can-actively-diversify-their-migration-strategy-in-response-to-turbulent-cues
#16
Anupam Sengupta, Francesco Carrara, Roman Stocker
Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295633/neural-tube-closure-and-embryonic-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Yoshifumi Yamaguchi, Hidenobu Miyazawa, Masayuki Miura
Neural tube closure (NTC) is an embryonic process during formation of the mammalian central nervous system. Disruption of the dynamic, sequential events of NTC can cause neural tube defects (NTD) leading to spina bifida and anencephaly in the newborn. NTC is affected by inherent factors such as genetic mutation or if the mother is exposed to certain environmental factors such as intake of harmful chemicals, maternal infection, irradiation, malnutrition, and inadequate or excessive intake of specific nutrients...
March 13, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294997/marine-prasinoviruses-and-their-tiny-plankton-hosts-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Karen D Weynberg, Michael J Allen, William H Wilson
Viruses play a crucial role in the marine environment, promoting nutrient recycling and biogeochemical cycling and driving evolutionary processes. Tiny marine phytoplankton called prasinophytes are ubiquitous and significant contributors to global primary production and biomass. A number of viruses (known as prasinoviruses) that infect these important primary producers have been isolated and characterised over the past decade. Here we review the current body of knowledge about prasinoviruses and their interactions with their algal hosts...
March 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293825/water-quality-of-a-coastal-lagoon-es-brazil-abiotic-aspects-cytogenetic-damage-and-phytoplankton-dynamics
#19
Ian Drumond Duarte, Nayara Heloisa Vieira Fraga Silva, Iara da Costa Souza, Larissa Bassani de Oliveira, Lívia Dorsch Rocha, Mariana Morozesk, Marina Marques Bonomo, Thaís de Almeida Pereira, Mauro Cesar Dias, Valéria de Oliveira Fernandes, Silvia Tamie Matsumoto
Assessment of water resources requires interdisciplinary studies that include multiple ecosystem aspects. This study evaluated the water quality of Juara Lagoon (ES, Brazil) based on physical and chemical variables, cytogenetic responses in Allium cepa and phytoplankton dynamics. Three sampling sites were defined and water samples were collected during two sampling periods. Analyses such as determination of photic zone, conductivity, and concentrations of nutrients and metals were conducted as well as cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic potentials using A...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293813/pesticide-and-nitrate-transport-in-an-agriculturally-influenced-stream-in-indiana
#20
Daniel Elias, Melody J Bernot
Agrochemicals can be transported from agricultural fields into streams where they might have adverse effects on water quality and ecosystems. Three enrichment experiments were conducted in a central Indiana stream to quantify pesticide and nitrogen transport dynamics. In an enrichment experiment, a compound solution is added at a constant rate into a stream to increase compound background concentration. A conservative tracer (e.g., bromide) is added to determine discharge. Water and sediment samples are taken at several locations downstream to measure uptake metrics...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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