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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782156/combining-high-throughput-sequencing-of-sedadna-and-traditional-palaeolimnological-techniques-to-infer-historical-trends-in-cyanobacterial-communities
#1
Timothy J Tse, Lorne E Doig, Song Tang, Xiaohui Zhang, Weimin Sun, Steve B Wiseman, Cindy Xin Feng, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy, Markus Hecker, Paul D Jones
Freshwaters worldwide are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic activities and changing climate. Unfortunately, many inland waters lack sufficient long-term monitoring to assess environmental trends. Analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is emerging as a means to reconstruct the past occurrence of microbial communities of inland waters. The purpose of this study was to assess a combination of high-throughput sequencing (16S rRNA) of sedaDNA and traditional palaeolimnological analyses to explore multidecadal relationships among cyanobacterial community composition, the potential for cyanotoxin production and palaeoenvironmental proxies...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780173/land-use-in-mountain-grasslands-alters-drought-response-and-recovery-of-carbon-allocation-and-plant-microbial-interactions
#2
Stefan Karlowsky, Angela Augusti, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Markus Lange, Sandra Lavorel, Michael Bahn, Gerd Gleixner
Mountain grasslands have recently been exposed to substantial changes in land use and climate and in the near future will likely face an increased frequency of extreme droughts. To date, how the drought responses of carbon (C) allocation, a key process in the C cycle, are affected by land-use changes in mountain grassland is not known.We performed an experimental summer drought on an abandoned grassland and a traditionally managed hay meadow and traced the fate of recent assimilates through the plant-soil continuum...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776729/effect-of-enhancing-nutrient-balance-in-anaerobic-digester-feedstock-by-co-substrate-addition-on-the-microbial-diversity-and-energy-production-from-municipal-sewage-sludge
#3
Amel Farhat, Imène Manai, Maher Gtari, Hassib Bouallagui
Enhancement of methane production during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) could improve the energy self sufficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Therefore, mixing WAS with organic wastes improved process performance and stability. In this work, the anaerobic co-digestion of WAS combined with the olive processing wastewater (OPW) was investigated and associated with the energetic benefits and microbial populations shifts. The bio-methane potential (BMP) of various WAS and OPW mixtures corresponding to increased phenols concentrations were tested...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775654/targeting-cancer-s-metabolic-co-dependencies-a-landscape-shaped-by-genotype-and-tissue-context
#4
REVIEW
Junfeng Bi, Sihan Wu, Wenjing Zhang, Paul S Mischel
Tumors cells reprogram their metabolism to fuel rapid growth. The ability to trace nutrient fluxes in the context of specific alterations has provided new mechanistic insight into the process of oncogenic transformation. A broad array of complementary genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional and translational mechanisms has been identified, revealing a metabolic landscape of cancer. However, cancer metabolism is not a static or uniform process, including within a single tumor. Tumor cells adapt to changing environmental conditions, profoundly shaping the enzymatic dependencies of individual cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#5
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#6
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#7
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774037/plant-sediment-interactions-in-salt-marshes-an-optode-imaging-study-of-o-2-ph-and-co-2-gradients-in-the-rhizosphere
#8
Ketil Koop-Jakobsen, Peter Mueller, Robert J Meier, Gregor Liebsch, Kai Jensen
In many wetland plants, belowground transport of O2 via aerenchyma tissue and subsequent O2 loss across root surfaces generates small oxic root zones at depth in the rhizosphere with important consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling. This study demonstrates how roots of the intertidal salt-marsh plant Spartina anglica affect not only O2 , but also pH and CO2 dynamics, resulting in distinct gradients of O2 , pH, and CO2 in the rhizosphere. A novel planar optode system (VisiSens TD® , PreSens GmbH) was used for taking high-resolution 2D-images of the O2 , pH, and CO2 distribution around roots during alternating light-dark cycles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773316/rapid-recovery-of-a-coral-dominated-eastern-tropical-pacific-reef-after-experimentally-produced-anthropogenic-disturbance
#9
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Peggy Fong
Local anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment and increased sediment loading have been shown to push coral reefs toward greater dominance by algae. In a few cases this shift has been temporary, with the ability to recover to a healthy coral-dominated community after disturbance, suggesting some systems have considerable resilience. However, an understanding of the circumstances under which reefs may recover is only beginning to emerge. We monitored recovery of a coral-dominated reef in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) after cessation of a ∼6 month multiple stressor experiment (with herbivore exclosure, nutrient addition, and sediment addition)...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771502/atmospheric-co2-enrichment-and-reactive-nitrogen-inputs-interactively-stimulate-soil-cation-losses-and-acidification
#10
Li Zhang, Yunpeng Qiu, Lei Cheng, Yi Wang, Lingli Liu, Cong Tu, Dan C Bowman, Kent O Burkey, Xinmin Bian, Weijian Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Reactive N inputs (Nr) may alleviate N-limitation of plant growth and are assumed to help sustain plant responses to the rising atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). However, Nr and eCO2 may elicit a cascade reaction that alters soil chemistry and nutrient availability, shifting the limiting factors of plant growth, particularly in acidic tropical and subtropical croplands with low organic matter and low nutrient cations. Yet, few have so far examined the interactive effects of Nr and eCO2 on the dynamics of soil cation nutrients and soil acidity...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771449/intraspecific-variation-in-indirect-plant-soil-feedbacks-influences-a-wetland-plant-invasion
#11
Warwick J Allen, Laura A Meyerson, Andrew J Flick, James T Cronin
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) influence plant competition via direct interactions with pathogens and mutualists or indirectly via apparent competition/mutualisms (i.e., spillover to co-occurring plants) and soil legacy effects. It is currently unknown how intraspecific variation in PSFs interacts with the environment (e.g., nutrient availability) to influence competition between native and invasive plants. We conducted a fully crossed multi-factor greenhouse experiment to determine the effects of Phragmites australis rhizosphere soil biota, interspecific competition, and nutrient availability on biomass of replicate populations from one native and two invasive lineages of common reed (P...
May 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770456/effect-of-elevated-co-2-on-yield-intra-plant-nutrient-dynamics-and-grain-quality-of-rice-cultivars-in-eastern-india
#12
Usha Rani Jena, Dillip Kumar Swain, K K Hazra, Mrinal K Maity
BACKGROUND: Climate models predict an increase in global temperature in response to a doubling of atmospheric [CO2 ] that may impact future rice production and quality. In this study, the effect of elevated [CO2 ] on yield, nutrient acquisition and utilization, and grain quality of rice genotypes was investigated in subtropical climate of eastern India (Kharagpur). Three environments (open field, ambient, and elevated [CO2 ]) were tested using four rice cultivars of eastern India. RESULTS: Under elevated [CO2 ] (25% higher), yield of high yielding cultivars (HYCs) viz...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769529/methionine-metabolism-influences-genomic-architecture-and-gene-expression-through-h3k4me3-peak-width
#13
Ziwei Dai, Samantha J Mentch, Xia Gao, Sailendra N Nichenametla, Jason W Locasale
Nutrition and metabolism are known to influence chromatin biology and epigenetics through post-translational modifications, yet how this interaction influences genomic architecture and connects to gene expression is unknown. Here we consider, as a model, the metabolically-driven dynamics of H3K4me3, a histone methylation mark that is known to encode information about active transcription, cell identity, and tumor suppression. We analyze the genome-wide changes in H3K4me3 and gene expression in response to alterations in methionine availability in both normal mouse physiology and human cancer cells...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765633/differential-arthropod-responses-to-warming-are-altering-the-structure-of-arctic-communities
#14
Amanda M Koltz, Niels M Schmidt, Toke T Høye
The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of warming on the planet. Although many studies have documented responses to such warming by individual species, the idiosyncratic nature of these findings has prevented us from extrapolating them to community-level predictions. Here, we leverage the availability of a long-term dataset from Zackenberg, Greenland (593 700 specimens collected between 1996 and 2014), to investigate how climate parameters influence the abundance of different arthropod groups and overall community composition...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764979/the-complex-relationship-between-tfeb-transcription-factor-phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization
#15
REVIEW
Rosa Puertollano, Shawn M Ferguson, James Brugarolas, Andrea Ballabio
The MiT-TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factors includes four members: TFEB, TFE3, TFEC, and MITF Originally described as oncogenes, these factors play a major role as regulators of lysosome biogenesis, cellular energy homeostasis, and autophagy. An important mechanism by which these transcription factors are regulated involves their shuttling between the surface of lysosomes, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Such dynamic changes in subcellular localization occur in response to nutrient fluctuations and various forms of cell stress and are mediated by changes in the phosphorylation of multiple conserved amino acids...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763871/simulating-climate-change-and-socio-economic-change-impacts-on-flows-and-water-quality-in-the-mahanadi-river-system-india
#16
Li Jin, Paul G Whitehead, Harvey Rodda, Ian Macadam, Sananda Sarkar
Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760112/macronutrient-and-carbon-supply-uptake-and-cycling-across-the-antarctic-peninsula-shelf-during-summer
#17
Sian F Henley, Elizabeth M Jones, Hugh J Venables, Michael P Meredith, Yvonne L Firing, Ribanna Dittrich, Sabrina Heiser, Jacqueline Stefels, Julie Dougans
The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758858/treated-and-untreated-wastewater-effluents-alter-river-sediment-bacterial-communities-involved-in-nitrogen-and-sulphur-cycling
#18
Miren Martínez-Santos, Anders Lanzén, Jessica Unda-Calvo, Iker Martín, Carlos Garbisu, Estilita Ruiz-Romera
Studying the dynamics of nitrogen and sulphur cycling bacteria in river surface sediments is essential to better understand their contribution to global biogeochemical cycles. Evaporitic rocks settled at the headwater of the Deba River catchment (northern Spain) lead to high values of sulphate concentration in its waters. Besides, the discharge of effluents from untreated and treated residual (urban and industrial) wastewaters increases the concentration of metals, nutrients and organic compounds in its mid- and low-water courses...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758426/two-contrasted-future-scenarios-for-the-french-agro-food-system
#19
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758400/a-method-to-quantify-and-value-floodplain-sediment-and-nutrient-retention-ecosystem-services
#20
Kristina G Hopkins, Gregory B Noe, Fabiano Franco, Emily J Pindilli, Stephanie Gordon, Marina J Metes, Peter R Claggett, Allen C Gellis, Cliff R Hupp, Dianna M Hogan
Floodplains provide critical ecosystem services to local and downstream communities by retaining floodwaters, sediments, and nutrients. The dynamic nature of floodplains is such that these areas can both accumulate sediment and nutrients through deposition, and export material downstream through erosion. Therefore, estimating floodplain sediment and nutrient retention should consider the net flux of both depositional and erosive processes. An ecosystem services framework was used to quantify and value the sediment and nutrient ecosystem service provided by floodplains in the Difficult Run watershed, a small (151 km2 ) suburban watershed located in the Piedmont of Virginia (USA)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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