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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#1
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154048/hydrochemical-controls-on-reservoir-nutrient-and-phytoplankton-dynamics-under-storms
#2
Nengwang Chen, Qiongli Mo, Yi-Ming Kuo, Yuping Su, Yanping Zhong
Eutrophication and undesired algal blooms in surface water are common and have been linked to increasing nutrient loading. Effects of extreme events such as storms on reservoir nutrient and phytoplankton remain unclear. Here we carried out continuous high-frequency measurements in a long and narrow dam reservoir in southeast China during a storm period in June-July 2015. Our results show a strong nutrient-phytoplankton relationship as well as a very rapid response to storm runoff. We observed an increase in total suspended matter (TSM), ammonium (NH4-N), and dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP), with a sharp decline in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in the high flow periods...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154043/the-cause-and-effect-of-cryptococcus-interactions-with-the-host
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Ballou, Simon A Johnston
Upon Cryptococcus neoformans infection of the host lung, the fungus enters a nutrient poor environment and must adapt to a variety of host-specific stress conditions (temperature, nutrient limitation, pH, CO2). Fungal spores enter this milieu with limited nutritional reserves, germinate, and begin proliferating by budding as yeast. Although relatively little is known about the initial stages of infection, recent work has characterized changes that occur upon germination. This program and subsequent yeast-phase proliferation progress in a dynamic environment as host nutrient immunity responds to the infection via toxic accumulation or sequestration of essential micronutrients and innate immune cells are recruited to the site of infection...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152171/plant-facilitated-effects-of-exotic-earthworm-pontoscolex-corethrurus-on-the-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-and-soil-microbial-community-in-a-subtropical-field-ecosystem
#4
Jianping Wu, Weixin Zhang, Yuanhu Shao, Shenglei Fu
Earthworms and plants greatly affect belowground properties; however, their combined effects are more attractive based on the ecosystem scale in the field condition. To address this point, we manipulated earthworms (exotic endogeic species Pontoscolex corethrurus) and plants (living plants [native tree species Evodia lepta] and artificial plants) to investigate their combined effects on soil microorganisms, soil nutrients, and soil respiration in a subtropical forest. The manipulation of artificial plants aimed to simulate the physical effects of plants (e...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151143/salinity-reduces-2-4-d-efficacy-in-echinochloa-crusgalli-by-affecting-redox-balance-nutrient-acquisition-and-hormonal-regulation
#5
Faisal Islam, Yuan Xie, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Rafaqat A Gill, Jinwen Zhu, Weijun Zhou
Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes...
November 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145021/production-of-chemicals-using-dynamic-control-of-metabolic-fluxes
#6
REVIEW
Peng Xu
Engineered microbial cell factories are constantly experiencing metabolic imbalance due to nutrients depletion, metabolites buildup, evolutionary pressure or genetic instability. It is important to equip the engineered cell factory with sensor-regulator system to enable cell adjust metabolism and respond to the changing environment. Dynamically allocating cellular resources and optimally controlling pathway expression have proved as promising strategies to manage the tradeoff between cell growth and product formation as well as improve the cost-competitiveness of industrial fermentation...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143608/physical-activity-in-the-prevention-of-human-diseases-role-of-epigenetic-modifications
#7
REVIEW
Elisa Grazioli, Ivan Dimauro, Neri Mercatelli, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis, Luigi Di Luigi, Daniela Caporossi
Epigenetic modification refers to heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by alterations in the DNA sequence. The current literature clearly demonstrates that the epigenetic response is highly dynamic and influenced by different biological and environmental factors such as aging, nutrient availability and physical exercise. As such, it is well accepted that physical activity and exercise can modulate gene expression through epigenetic alternations although the type and duration of exercise eliciting specific epigenetic effects that can result in health benefits and prevent chronic diseases remains to be determined...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143261/river-sediment-metal-and-nutrient-variations-along-an-urban-agriculture-gradient-in-an-arid-austral-landscape-implications-for-environmental-health
#8
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman, Qihang Wu, William P Froneman, Olaf L F Weyl
The effect of metals on environmental health is well documented and monitoring these and other pollutants is considered an important part of environmental management. Developing countries are yet to fully appreciate the direct impacts of pollution on aquatic ecosystems and as such, information on pollution dynamics is scant. Here, we assessed the temporal and spatial dynamics of stream sediment metal and nutrient concentrations using contaminant indices (e.g. enrichment factors, pollution load and toxic risk indices) in an arid temperate environment over the wet and dry seasons...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134149/the-response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-variation-in-annual-precipitation-depends-on-soil-nutritional-status-in-an-oligotrophic-desert
#9
Cristina Montiel-González, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva
Background: Soil microbial communities (SMC) play a central role in the structure and function of desert ecosystems. However, the high variability of annual precipitation could results in the alteration of SMC and related biological processes depending on soil water potential. The nature of the physiological adjustments made by SMC in order to obtain energy and nutrients remains unclear under different soil resource availabilities in desert ecosystems. In order to examine this dynamic, the present study examined the effects of variation in annual precipitation on physiological adjustments by the SMC across two vegetation-soil systems of different soil organic matter input in an oligotrophic desert ecosystem...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133349/the-role-of-calprotectin-in-withholding-zinc-and-copper-from-candida-albicans
#10
Angelique N Besold, Benjamin A Gilston, Jana N Radin, Christian Ramsoomair, Edward M Culbertson, Cissy X Li, Brendan P Cormack, Walter J Chazin, Thomas E Kehl-Fie, Valeria C Culotta
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans acquires essential metals from the host, yet the host can sequester these micronutrients through a process known as nutritional immunity. How the host withholds metals from C. albicans was poorly understood and here we examine the role of calprotectin (CP), a transition metal binding protein. When CP depletes bioavailable Zn from the extracellular environment, C. albicans strongly upregulates ZRT1 and PRA1 for Zn import and maintains constant intracellular Zn through numerous cell divisions...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131928/n-and-o-isotope-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-18-o-%C3%AE-17-o-analyses-of-dissolved-no3-and-no2-by-the-cd-azide-reduction-method-and-n2-o-laser-spectrometry
#11
Leonard I Wassenaar, Cedric Douence, Mark Altabet, Pradeep Aggarwal
RATIONALE: The nitrogen and oxygen (δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(17) O) isotopic compositions of NO3(-) and NO2(-) are important tracers of nutrient dynamics in soil, rain, groundwater and the oceans. The Cd-azide method was used to convert NO3 or NO2 to N2 O for N and triple-O isotopic analyses by N2 O-laser spectrometry. A protocol for laser-based headspace isotope analyses was compared with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Lasers provide the ability to directly measure (17) O anomalies which can help discern atmospheric N sources...
November 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127434/brd7-regulates-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-by-increasing-phosphorylation-of-gsk3%C3%AE
#12
Lena Golick, Youngah Han, Yoo Kim, Sang Won Park
Reduced hepatic expression levels of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) have been suggested to play a role in the development of glucose intolerance in obesity. However, the molecular mechanism by which BRD7 regulates glucose metabolism has remained unclear. Here, we show that BRD7 increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in response to activation of the insulin receptor-signaling pathway shortly after insulin stimulation and the nutrient-sensing pathway after feeding. BRD7 mediates phosphorylation of GSK3β at the Serine 9 residue and this effect on GSK3β occurs even in the absence of AKT activity...
November 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125597/phage-mobility-is-a-core-determinant-of-phage-bacteria-coexistence-in-biofilms
#13
Matthew Simmons, Knut Drescher, Carey D Nadell, Vanni Bucci
Many bacteria are adapted for attaching to surfaces and for building complex communities, termed biofilms. The biofilm mode of life is predominant in bacterial ecology. So too is the exposure of bacteria to ubiquitous viral pathogens, termed bacteriophages. Although biofilm-phage encounters are likely to be common in nature, little is known about how phages might interact with biofilm-dwelling bacteria. It is also unclear how the ecological dynamics of phages and their hosts depend on the biological and physical properties of the biofilm environment...
November 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125191/dual-flow-rootchip-reveals-local-adaptations-of-roots-towards-environmental-asymmetry-at-the-physiological-and-genetic-levels
#14
Claire E Stanley, Jagriti Shrivastava, Rik Brugman, Elisa Heinzelmann, Dirk van Swaay, Guido Grossmann
Roots grow in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Biological activity as well as uneven nutrient availability or localized stress factors result in diverse microenvironments. Plants adapt their root morphology in response to changing environmental conditions, yet it remains largely unknown to what extent developmental adaptations are based on systemic or cell-autonomous responses. We present the dual-flow-RootChip, a microfluidic platform for asymmetric perfusion of Arabidopsis roots to investigate root-environment interactions under simulated environmental heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122244/bloom-dynamics-and-chemical-defenses-of-benthic-cyanobacteria-in-the-indian-river-lagoon-florida
#15
Jennifer M Sneed, Theresa Meickle, Niclas Engene, Sherry Reed, Sarath Gunasekera, Valerie J Paul
Cyanobacterial blooms are predicted to become more prominent in the future as a result of increasing seawater temperatures and the continued addition of nutrients to coastal waters. Many benthic marine cyanobacteria have potent chemical defenses that protect them from top down pressures and contribute to the persistence of blooms. Blooms of benthic cyanobacteria have been observed along the coast of Florida and within the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a biodiverse estuary system that spans 250km along Florida's east coast...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121419/nitrogen-limitation-of-decomposition-and-decay-how-can-it-occur
#16
Colin Averill, Bonnie Waring
The availability of nitrogen (N) is a critical control on the cycling and storage of soil carbon (C). Yet there are conflicting conceptual models to explain how N availability influences decomposition of organic matter by soil microbial communities. Several lines of evidence suggest that N availability limits decomposition: the earliest stages of leaf litter decay are associated with a net import of N from the soil environment, and both observations and models show that high-N organic matter decomposes more rapidly...
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121390/dynamic-preferential-allocation-to-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-explains-fungal-succession-and-coexistence
#17
Benedicte Bachelot, Charlotte T Lee
Evidence accumulates about the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in shaping plant communities, but little is known about the factors determining the biomass and coexistence of several types of AM fungi in a plant community. Here, using a consumer-resource framework that treats the relationship between plants and fungi as simultaneous, reciprocal exploitation, we investigated what patterns of dynamic preferential plant carbon allocation to empirically-defined fungal types (on-going partner choice) would be optimal for plants, and how these patterns depend on successional dynamics...
November 9, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112980/recurrence-quantification-analysis-to-characterize-cyclical-components-of-environmental-elemental-exposures-during-fetal-and-postnatal-development
#18
Paul Curtin, Austen Curtin, Christine Austin, Chris Gennings, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte, Manish Arora
Environmental exposures to essential and toxic elements may alter health trajectories, depending on the timing, intensity, and mixture of exposures. In epidemiologic studies, these factors are typically analyzed as a function of elemental concentrations in biological matrices measured at one or more points in time. Such an approach, however, fails to account for the temporal cyclicity in the metabolism of environmental chemicals, which if perturbed may lead to adverse health outcomes. Here, we conceptualize and apply a non-linear method-recurrence quantification analysis (RQA)-to quantify cyclical components of prenatal and early postnatal exposure profiles for elements essential to normal development, including Zn, Mn, Mg, and Ca, and elements associated with deleterious health effects or narrow tolerance ranges, including Pb, As, and Cr...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112372/tuning-the-color-palette-of-fluorescent-copper-sensors-through-systematic-heteroatom-substitution-at-rhodol-cores
#19
Shang Jia, Karla M Ramos-Torres, Safacan Kolemen, Cheri M Ackerman, Christopher J Chang
Copper is an essential nutrient for sustaining life, and emerging data have expanded the roles of this metal in biology from its canonical functions as a static enzyme cofactor to dynamic functions as a transition metal signal. At the same time, loosely bound, labile copper pools can trigger oxidative stress and damaging events that are detrimental if misregulated. The signal/stress dichotomy of copper motivates the development of new chemical tools to study its spatial and temporal distributions in native biological contexts such as living cells...
November 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110772/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-barriers-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#20
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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