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Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Ariel Talavera, Jelle Hendrix, Wim Versées, Dukas Jurėnas, Katleen Van Nerom, Niels Vandenberk, Ranjan Kumar Singh, Albert Konijnenberg, Steven De Gieter, Daniel Castro-Roa, Anders Barth, Henri De Greve, Frank Sobott, Johan Hofkens, Nikolay Zenkin, Remy Loris, Abel Garcia-Pino
Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle...
March 2018: Science Advances
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Karamat Mohammad, Paméla Dakik, Younes Medkour, Mélissa McAuley, Darya Mitrofanova, Vladimir I Titorenko
The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Megan Sjodt, Ramsay Macdonald, Joanna D Marshall, Joseph Clayton, John S Olson, Martin L Phillips, David A Gell, Jeff Wereszczynski, Robert T Clubb
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections in the United States. It actively acquires the essential nutrient iron from human hemoglobin (Hb) using the iron-regulated surface-determinant (Isd) system. This process is initiated when the closely related bacterial IsdB and IsdH receptors bind to Hb and extract its hemin through a conserved tri-domain unit that contains two NEAr iron Transporter (NEAT) domains that are connected by a helical linker domain. Previously, we demonstrated that the tri-domain unit within IsdH (IsdHN2N3 ) triggers hemin release by distorting Hb's F-helix...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache, Brecht Wybouw, Wouter Smet, Bert De Rybel, Joop E M Vermeer, Niko Geldner
In vascular plants, the root endodermis surrounds the central vasculature as a protective sheath that is analogous to the polarized epithelium in animals, and contains ring-shaped Casparian strips that restrict diffusion. After an initial lag phase, individual endodermal cells suberize in an apparently random fashion to produce 'patchy' suberization that eventually generates a zone of continuous suberin deposition. Casparian strips and suberin lamellae affect paracellular and transcellular transport, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Edmund Burke, Sanjeev A Datar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The essential role of the lymphatic system in fluid homeostasis, nutrient transport, and immune trafficking is well recognized; however, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic function, particularly in the setting of critical illness. The lymphatics likely affect disease severity and progression in every condition, from severe systemic inflammatory states to respiratory failure. Here, we review structural and functional disorders of the lymphatic system, both congenital and acquired, as they relate to care of the pediatric patient in the intensive care setting, including novel areas of research into medical and procedural therapeutic interventions...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
J K Pinnegar
The damselfish Chromis chromis is typically the most abundant fish species in the rocky littoral environment of the Mediterranean Sea, where it feeds in huge shoals on incoming zooplankton and rests near the seabed each night. Research has shown that large populations of C. chromis play a fundamental role by transferring carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus directly from the pelagic system to the littoral in the form of solid and liquid wastes and therefore that this species acts as a vital conduit for nutrients...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Thais Roque, Laurent Risser, Veerle Kersemans, Sean Smart, Danny Allen, Paul Kinchesh, Stuart Gilchrist, Ana L Gomes, Julia A Schnabel, Michael A Chappell
Predicting tumor growth and its response to therapy remains a major challenge in cancer research and strongly relies on tumor growth models. In this paper, we introduce, calibrate, and verify a novel image-driven reaction-diffusion model of avascular tumor growth. The model allows for proliferation, death and spread of tumor cells, and accounts for nutrient distribution and hypoxia. It is constrained by longitudinal time series of dynamic contrast-enhancement-MRI images. Tumor specific parameters are estimated from two early time points and used to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of the tumor volume and cell densities at later time points...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Maurice Tibiru Apaliya, Hongyin Zhang, Xiangfeng Zheng, Qiya Yang, Gustav K Mahunu, Emmanuel Kwaw
BACKGROUND: Primarily, chemical pesticides are commonly used to control pre- and postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. However, there is a strong public apprehension on the probable human and environmental health problems that emanate from the residues of these chemical pesticides. As a result, biocontrol is often preferred due to its safety on humans and animals. The microbial antagonists employed are often encountered with variable climatic conditions which affect their efficacy...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shabana, Saleem U Shahid, Uzma Irfan
The human GI tract harbors a diverse and dynamic microbial community comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microbes, which varies in composition from individual to individual. A healthy microbiota metabolizes various indigestible dietary components of the host, maintains host immune homeostasis and nutrient intake, but, an imbalanced microbiota has been reported to be associated with many diseases, including obesity. Rodent studies have produced evidence in support of the causal role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity, however, such causal relationship is lacking in humans...
March 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Erika Buscardo, József Geml, Steven K Schmidt, Helena Freitas, Hillândia Brandão da Cunha, Laszlo Nagy
Most tropical evergreen rain forests are characterised by varying degrees of precipitation seasonality that influence plant phenology and litterfall dynamics. Soil microbes are sensitive to soil water:air ratio and to nutrient availability. We studied if within-year seasonality in precipitation and litterfall-derived nutrient input resulted in predictable seasonal variation in soil bacterial diversity/microbial functional groups in an Amazonian forest. We characterised the spatio-temporal dynamics of microbial communities from the plot to the stand scales and related them to precipitation seasonality and spatial variability in soil characteristics...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
David J Civitello, Brent E Allman, Connor Morozumi, Jason R Rohr
Anthropogenic resource supplementation can shape wildlife disease directly by altering the traits and densities of hosts and parasites or indirectly by stimulating prey, competitor or predator species. We first assess the direct epidemiological consequences of supplementation, highlighting the similarities and differences between food provisioning and two widespread forms of nutrient input: agricultural fertilization and aquatic nutrient enrichment. We then review an aquatic disease system and a general model to assess whether predator and competitor species can enhance or overturn the direct effects of enrichment...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tomas Strandin, Simon A Babayan, Kristian M Forbes
While urban expansion increasingly encroaches on natural habitats, many wildlife species capitalize on anthropogenic food resources, which have the potential to both positively and negatively influence their responses to infection. Here we examine how food availability and key nutrients have been reported to shape innate and adaptive immunity in wildlife by drawing from field-based studies, as well as captive and food restriction studies with wildlife species. Examples of food provisioning and key nutrients enhancing immune function were seen across the three study type distinctions, as were cases of trace metals and pharmaceuticals impairing the immunity of wildlife species...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Boris Zacchetti, Agathoklis Andrianos, Dino van Dissel, Evelien de Ruiter, Gilles P van Wezel, Dennis Claessen
BACKGROUND: Filamentous bacteria of the genus Streptomyces produce a large arsenal of industrially relevant antibiotics and enzymes. The industrial production of these molecules occurs in large fermenters, where many streptomycetes form dense mycelial networks called pellets. Pellets are characterized by slow growth and inefficient nutrient transfer and therefore regarded as undesirable from the perspective of productivity. Although non-pelleting strains have increased growth rates, their morphology also leads to a dramatic increase in the viscosity of the culture broth, which negatively impacts the process dynamics...
March 12, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Wei Xuan, Davy Opdenacker, Steffen Vanneste, Tom Beeckman
Plants have an amazing capacity to adjust their growth to environmental limitations. This is particularly relevant for the root system that tunes its developmental pattern to mine the soil for water and nutrients while avoiding patches of soil that contain biotic and abiotic stress agents. Because most developmental processes are taking place gradually while roots are growing, it is often difficult to correlate gene expression events with specific developmental processes that are not necessarily coinciding in time and space...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul Whitehead, Gianbattista Bussi, Mohammed Abed Hossain, Michaela Dolk, Partho Das, Sean Comber, Rebecca Peters, Katrina J Charles, Rob Hope, Sarwar Hossain
River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Girish Choppala, Ellen Moon, Richard Bush, Nanthi Bolan, Neil Carroll
The increased use of estuarine waters for commercial and recreational activities is one consequence of urbanisation. Western Australia's Peel-Harvey Estuary highlights the impacts of urbanisation, with a rapidly developing boating industry and periodic dredging activity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential mobility of nutrients and trace elements during dredging, and the influence of flocculation on iron and sulfur partitioning in iron monosulfide enriched sediments. Our findings indicate a short-term increase in nitrate, phosphate and ammonium, during dredging through the resuspension of sediments...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Danielle A Chisolm, Amy S Weinmann
The nutrient environment and metabolism play a dynamic role in cellular differentiation and research is elucidating the mechanisms that contribute to this process. Metabolites serve as an effective bridge that helps to translate information about nutrient states into specific interpretations of the genome. Part of this activity relates to the role for metabolites in regulating epigenetic processes as well as a newly appreciated role for metabolites in the regulation of genome organization. In this review, we will highlight recent research that has defined roles for metabolism in the organization and interpretation of the genome and how this influences cellular differentiation decisions...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
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