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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108182/marine-bacterioplankton-seasonal-succession-dynamics
#1
REVIEW
Carina Bunse, Jarone Pinhassi
Bacterioplankton (bacteria and archaea) are indispensable regulators of global element cycles owing to their unique ability to decompose and remineralize dissolved organic matter. These microorganisms in surface waters worldwide exhibit pronounced seasonal succession patterns, governed by physicochemical factors (e.g., light, climate, and nutrient loading) that are determined by latitude and distance to shore. Moreover, we emphasize that the effects of large-scale factors are modulated regionally, and over shorter timespans (days to weeks), by biological interactions including molecule exchanges, viral lysis, and grazing...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102339/effects-of-increased-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-on-offspring-performance-of-two-dominant-species-in-a-temperate-steppe-ecosystem
#2
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Liuyi Yang, Linghao Li
Plants adapt to environment by plastic growth which will be transferred to offspring through transgenerational effect. Performance and response of maternal and offspring plant will affect population dynamics and community composition. However, it is scarcely understood how maternal nutrient environment affect the performance and response of offspring through transgenerational effect. Here we studied the impacts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment on maternal and offspring performances and responses of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100829/a-mathematical-model-of-tumour-angiogenesis-growth-regression-and-regrowth
#3
Guillermo Vilanova, Ignasi Colominas, Hector Gomez
Cancerous tumours have the ability to recruit new blood vessels through a process called angiogenesis. By stimulating vascular growth, tumours get connected to the circulatory system, receive nutrients and open a way to colonize distant organs. Tumour-induced vascular networks become unstable in the absence of tumour angiogenic factors (TAFs). They may undergo alternating stages of growth, regression and regrowth. Following a phase-field methodology, we propose a model of tumour angiogenesis that reproduces the aforementioned features and highlights the importance of vascular regression and regrowth...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099772/exploring-the-symbiont-diversity-of-ancient-western-redcedars-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-long-lived-hosts
#4
Monika A Gorzelak, Brian J Pickles, Miranda M Hart
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are globally distributed, monophyletic root symbionts with ancient origins. Their contribution to carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics is ecologically important, given their obligate association with over 70% of vascular plant species. Current understanding of AMF species richness and community structure is based primarily on studies of grasses, herbs, and agricultural crops, typically in disturbed environments. Few studies have considered AMF interactions with long-lived woody perennial species in undisturbed ecosystems...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093120/elucidating-rhizosphere-processes-by-mass-spectrometry-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Ariana Rugova, Markus Puschenreiter, Gunda Koellensperger, Stephan Hann
The presented review discusses state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods, which have been developed and applied for investigation of chemical processes in the soil-root interface, the so-called rhizosphere. Rhizosphere soil's physical and chemical characteristics are to a great extent influenced by a complex mixture of compounds released from plant roots, i.e. root exudates, which have a high impact on nutrient and trace element dynamics in the soil-root interface as well as on microbial activities or soil physico-chemical characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091740/controlling-eutrophication-in-a-mediterranean-shallow-reservoir-by-phosphorus-loading-reduction-the-need-for-an-integrated-management-approach
#6
Mikel Zaragüeta, Pablo Acebes
Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090075/virus-host-interactions-and-their-roles-in-coral-reef-health-and-disease
#8
Rebecca Vega Thurber, Jérôme P Payet, Andrew R Thurber, Adrienne M S Correa
Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089542/parallelization-and-high-performance-computing-enables-automated-statistical-inference-of-multi-scale-models
#9
Nick Jagiella, Dennis Rickert, Fabian J Theis, Jan Hasenauer
Mechanistic understanding of multi-scale biological processes, such as cell proliferation in a changing biological tissue, is readily facilitated by computational models. While tools exist to construct and simulate multi-scale models, the statistical inference of the unknown model parameters remains an open problem. Here, we present and benchmark a parallel approximate Bayesian computation sequential Monte Carlo (pABC SMC) algorithm, tailored for high-performance computing clusters. pABC SMC is fully automated and returns reliable parameter estimates and confidence intervals...
January 10, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078716/incorporating-food-web-dynamics-into-ecological-restoration-a-modeling-approach-for-river-ecosystems
#10
J Ryan Bellmore, Joseph R Benjamin, Michael Newsom, Jennifer A Bountry, Daniel Dombroski
Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a model that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the model to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon...
January 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078551/the-proteolysis-adaptor-nbla-binds-to-the-n-terminus-of-%C3%AE-phycocyanin-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-phycobilisome-degradation
#11
Amelia Y Nguyen, William P Bricker, Hao Zhang, Daniel A Weisz, Michael L Gross, Himadri B Pakrasi
Phycobilisome (PBS) complexes are massive light-harvesting apparati in cyanobacteria that capture and funnel light energy to the photosystem. PBS complexes are dynamically degraded during nutrient deprivation, which causes severe chlorosis, and resynthesized during nutrient repletion. PBS degradation occurs rapidly after nutrient step down, and is specifically triggered by non-bleaching protein A (NblA), a small proteolysis adaptor that facilitates interactions between a Clp chaperone and phycobiliproteins...
January 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077872/structural-basis-for-nutrient-acquisition-by-dominant-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Amy J Glenwright, Karunakar R Pothula, Satya P Bhamidimarri, Dror S Chorev, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Hongjun Zheng, Carol V Robinson, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The human large intestine is populated by a high density of microorganisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota, which has an important role in human health and nutrition. The survival of microbiota members from the dominant Gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes depends on their ability to degrade dietary glycans that cannot be metabolized by the host. The genes encoding proteins involved in the degradation of specific glycans are organized into co-regulated polysaccharide utilization loci, with the archetypal locus sus (for starch utilisation system) encoding seven proteins, SusA-SusG...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076393/alder-nitrogen-and-lake-ecology-terrestrial-aquatic-linkages-in-the-postglacial-history-of-lone-spruce-pond-southwestern-alaska
#13
Bianca B Perren, Yarrow Axford, Darrell S Kaufman
Diatoms, combined with a multiproxy study of lake sediments (organic matter, N, δ15N, δ13C, biogenic silica, grain size, Cladocera and chironomids, Alnus pollen) from Lone Spruce Pond, Alaska detail the late-glacial to Holocene history of the lake and its response to regional climate and landscape change over the last 14.5 cal ka BP. We show that the immigration of alder (Alnus viridis) in the early Holocene marks the rise of available reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the lake as well as the establishment of a primarily planktonic diatom community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074871/long-term-modis-observations-of-cyanobacterial-dynamics-in-lake-taihu-responses-to-nutrient-enrichment-and-meteorological-factors
#14
Kun Shi, Yunlin Zhang, Yongqiang Zhou, Xiaohan Liu, Guangwei Zhu, Boqiang Qin, Guang Gao
We developed and validated an empirical model for estimating chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) in Lake Taihu to generate a long-term Chla and algal bloom area time series from MODIS-Aqua observations for 2003 to 2013. Then, based on the long-term time series data, we quantified the responses of cyanobacterial dynamics to nutrient enrichment and climatic conditions. Chla showed substantial spatial and temporal variability. In addition, the annual mean cyanobacterial surface bloom area exhibited an increasing trend across the entire lake from 2003 to 2013, with the exception of 2006 and 2007...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074042/different-clades-and-traits-yield-similar-grassland-functional-responses
#15
Elisabeth J Forrestel, Michael J Donoghue, Erika J Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C O du Toit, Melinda D Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific function or response under given environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073533/effects-of-n-and-p-availability-on-carbon-allocation-in-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata
#16
Laura Pezzolesi, Silvana Vanucci, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Emma Dello Iacovo, Luciana Tartaglione, Rossella Pistocchi
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are usually associated with shallow and calm coastal waters, characterized by low nutrient concentrations. The algal cells typically cover the benthic substrates, such as the macroalgal and invertebrate communities and rocks, forming a mucilaginous film. Data reported on O. cf. ovata toxin production observed under both field and culture conditions show high variability in terms of toxic profile and cellular content; little is known about the environmental and physiological aspects which regulate the toxin dynamics...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073525/delineation-of-the-role-of-nutrient-variability-and-dreissenids-mollusca-bivalvia-on-phytoplankton-dynamics-in-the-bay-of-quinte-ontario-canada
#17
Yuko Shimoda, Sue B Watson, Michelle E Palmer, Marten A Koops, Shan Mugalingam, Andrew Morley, George B Arhonditsis
The Bay of Quinte, a Z-shaped embayment at the northeastern end of Lake Ontario, has a long history of eutrophication problems primarily manifested as spatially extensive algal blooms and predominance of toxic cyanobacteria. The purpose of this study was to identify the structural changes of the phytoplankton community induced by two environmental alterations: point-source phosphorus (P) loading reduction in the late 1970s and establishment of dreissenid mussels in the mid-1990s. A combination of statistical techniques was used to draw inference about compositional shifts of the phytoplankton assemblage, the consistency of the seasonal succession patterns along with the mechanisms underlying the algal biovolume variability in the Bay of Quinte over the past three decades...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073501/ecological-niche-partitioning-of-the-invasive-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-minimum-and-its-native-congeners-in-the-baltic-sea
#18
Irena V Telesh, Hendrik Schubert, Sergei O Skarlato
This study analyses three decades of the peculiar bloom-formation history of the potentially toxic invasive planktonic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller in the SW Baltic Sea. We tested a research hypothesis that the unexpectedly long delay (nearly two decades) in population development of P. minimum prior to its first bloom was caused by competition with one or several closely related native dinoflagellate species due to ecological niche partitioning which hampered the spread and bloom-forming potential of the invader...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073478/mitigating-cyanobacterial-harmful-algal-blooms-in-aquatic-ecosystems-impacted-by-climate-change-and-anthropogenic-nutrients
#19
REVIEW
Hans W Paerl, Wayne S Gardner, Karl E Havens, Alan R Joyner, Mark J McCarthy, Silvia E Newell, Boqiang Qin, J Thad Scott
Mitigating the global expansion of cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) is a major challenge facing researchers and resource managers. A variety of traditional (e.g., nutrient load reduction) and experimental (e.g., artificial mixing and flushing, omnivorous fish removal) approaches have been used to reduce bloom occurrences. Managers now face the additional effects of climate change on watershed hydrologic and nutrient loading dynamics, lake and estuary temperature, mixing regime, internal nutrient dynamics, and other factors...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071733/an-automated-method-for-large-scale-monitoring-of-seed-dispersal-by-ants
#20
Audrey Bologna, Etienne Toffin, Claire Detrain, Alexandre Campo
Myrmecochory is the process of seed dispersal by ants; however, it is highly challenging to study, mainly because of the small size of both partners and the comparatively large range of dispersal. The mutualistic interaction between ants and seeds involves the former retrieving diaspores, consuming their elaiosome (a nutrient-rich appendage), and the rejection of seeds from the nest. Here, we introduce a semi-automated method based on stitching high resolution images together, allowing the study of myrmecochory in a controlled environment over time...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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