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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926994/the-metabolic-response-to-stress-and-infection-in-critically-ill-children-the-opportunity-of-an-individualized-approach
#1
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#2
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926101/the-metabolic-cross-talk-between-epithelial-cancer-cells-and-stromal-fibroblasts-in-ovarian-cancer-progression-autophagy-plays-a-role
#3
REVIEW
Chanitra Thuwajit, Alessandra Ferraresi, Rossella Titone, Peti Thuwajit, Ciro Isidoro
Cancer and stromal cells, which include (cancer-associated) fibroblasts, adipocytes, and immune cells, constitute a mixed cellular ecosystem that dynamically influences the behavior of each component, creating conditions that ultimately favor the emergence of malignant clones. Ovarian cancer cells release cytokines that recruit and activate stromal fibroblasts and immune cells, so perpetuating a state of inflammation in the stroma that hampers the immune response and facilitates cancer survival and propagation...
September 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924217/global-transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-genes-involved-in-nutrients-accumulation-during-seed-development-of-rice-tartary-buckwheat-fagopyrum-tararicum
#4
Juan Huang, Jiao Deng, Taoxiong Shi, Qijiao Chen, Chenggang Liang, Ziye Meng, Liwei Zhu, Yan Wang, Fengli Zhao, Shizhou Yu, Qingfu Chen
Tartary buckwheat seeds are rich in various nutrients, such as storage proteins, starch, and flavonoids. To get a good knowledge of the transcriptome dynamics and gene regulatory mechanism during the process of seed development and nutrients accumulation, we performed a comprehensive global transcriptome analysis using rice tartary buckwheat seeds at different development stages, namely pre-filling stage, filling stage, and mature stage. 24 819 expressed genes, including 108 specifically expressed genes, and 11 676 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924189/communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-enhances-viral-infection-of-a-cosmopolitan-alga
#5
Daniella Schatz, Shilo Rosenwasser, Sergey Malitsky, Sharon G Wolf, Ester Feldmesser, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in the marine environment has immense ecological impact by mediating trophic-level interactions and thus determining community structure (1) . Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by bacteria (2,3) , archaea (4) , protists (5) and metazoans, and can mediate pathogenicity (6) or act as vectors for intercellular communication. However, little is known about the involvement of EVs in microbial interactions in the marine environment (7) . Here we investigated the signalling role of EVs produced during interactions between the cosmopolitan alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae) (8) , which leads to the demise of these large-scale oceanic blooms (9,10) ...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924160/the-coupling-of-leaf-litter-and-soil-nutrients-in-warm-temperate-forests-in-northwestern-china
#6
Guangqi Zhang, Ping Zhang, Shouzhang Peng, Yunming Chen, Yang Cao
The nutrient ecological stoichiometry of plants and soil is important for the growth and dynamics of species, but the stoichiometric relationships among leaf, litter, and soil remain poorly understood. We analyzed the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of the leaves, litter, and soil for 31 species at 140 sites in warm temperate forests in northwestern China to document the patterns of nutrient traits and their relationships with climatic factors. The average concentrations of C, N, and P in the combined forests were 462...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923365/mitochondrial-dynamics-at-the-interface-of-immune-cell-metabolism-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Angelika S Rambold, Erika L Pearce
Immune cell differentiation and function are crucially dependent on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including the generation of ATP from the oxidation of nutrients and supplying precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and post-translational modifications. The many processes that occur in mitochondria are intimately linked to their morphology that is shaped by opposing fusion and fission events. Exciting evidence is now emerging that demonstrates reciprocal crosstalk between mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921625/solving-doubts-about-l-ornithine-l-aspartate-for-overt-he-whom-and-how-to-treat
#8
EDITORIAL
Piero Amodio, Javier Ampuero
Randomized controlled trials about the treatment of bouts of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) are difficult to design and interpret, since bouts of OHE i) are relatively short episodes in which the dynamic of the response to treatment is relevant, ii) their occurrence and treatment is frequently linked to precipitating events. The study by Sidhu et al. in this issue of Hepatology is a model of proper design and provides evidence that L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusion for 5 days is an effective add on treatment to speed up recovery from bouts of OHE in comparison with a placebo treatment that does not contain amino acid nutrients...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919900/preliminary-studies-to-characterize-the-temporal-variation-of-micronutrient-composition-of-the-above-ground-organs-of-maize-and-correlated-uptake-rates
#9
Karla Vilaça Martins, Durval Dourado-Neto, Klaus Reichardt, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, José Laércio Favarin, Felipe Fadel Sartori, Guilherme Felisberto, Simone da Costa Mello
The improvement of agronomic practices and the use of high technology in field crops contributes for significant increases in maize productivity, and may have altered the dynamics of nutrient uptake and partition by the plant. Official recommendations for fertilizer applications to the maize crop in Brazil and in many countries are based on critical soil nutrient contents and are relatively outdated. Since the factors that interact in an agricultural production system are dynamic, mathematical modeling of the growth process turns out to be an appropriate tool for these studies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919635/aspergillus-fumigatus-morphology-and-dynamic-host-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918902/mtor-controls-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-cell-survival-via-mtfp1
#11
Masahiro Morita, Julien Prudent, Kaustuv Basu, Vanessa Goyon, Sakie Katsumura, Laura Hulea, Dana Pearl, Nadeem Siddiqui, Stefan Strack, Shawn McGuirk, Julie St-Pierre, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic, Hojatollah Vali, Heidi M McBride, John J Bergeron, Nahum Sonenberg
The mechanisms that link environmental and intracellular stimuli to mitochondrial functions, including fission/fusion, ATP production, metabolite biogenesis, and apoptosis, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the nutrient-sensing mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates translation of mitochondrial fission process 1 (MTFP1) to control mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Expression of MTFP1 is coupled to pro-fission phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of the fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916839/study-of-tissue-level-hypoxic-response-in-microfluidic-environment
#12
Adnan Morshed, Prashanta Dutta
Availability of essential species like oxygen is critical in shaping the dynamics of tumor growth. When the intracellular oxygen level falls below normal, it initiates major cascades in cellular dynamics leading to tumor cell survival. In a cellular block with cells growing away from the blood vessel, the scenario can be aggravated for the cells further inside the block. In this study, the dynamics of intracellular species inside a colony of tumor cells are investigated by varying the cell block thickness and cell types in a microfluidic cell culture device...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912757/in-situ-occurrence-prevalence-and-dynamics-of-parvilucifera-parasitoids-during-recurrent-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum
#13
Elisabet Alacid, Albert Reñé, Jordi Camp, Esther Garcés
Dinoflagellate blooms are natural phenomena that often occur in coastal areas, which in addition to their large number of nutrient-rich sites are characterized by highly restricted hydrodynamics within bays, marinas, enclosed beaches, and harbors. In these areas, massive proliferations of dinoflagellates have harmful effects on humans and the ecosystem. However, the high cell density reached during blooms make them vulnerable to parasitic infections. Under laboratory conditions parasitoids are able to exterminate an entire host population...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904772/carbon-and-nitrogen-allocation-shifts-in-plants-and-soils-along-aridity-and-fertility-gradients-in-grasslands-of-china
#14
Wentao Luo, Mai-He Li, Jordi Sardans, Xiao-Tao Lü, Chao Wang, Josep Peñuelas, Zhengwen Wang, Xing-Guo Han, Yong Jiang
Plant carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry play an important role in the maintenance of ecosystem structure and function. To decipher the influence of changing environment on plant C and N stoichiometry at the subcontinental scale, we studied the shoot and root C and N stoichiometry in two widely distributed and dominant genera along a 2,200-km climatic gradient in China's grasslands. Relationships between C and N concentrations and soil climatic variables factors were studied. In contrast to previous theory, plant C concentration and C:N ratios in both shoots and roots increased with increasing soil fertility and decreased with increasing aridity...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898848/comparative-evaluation-of-piggery-wastewater-treatment-in-algal-bacterial-photobioreactors-under-indoor-and-outdoor-conditions
#15
Dimas García, Esther Posadas, Carlos Grajeda, Saúl Blanco, Sonia Martínez-Páramo, Gabriel Acién, Pedro García-Encina, Silvia Bolado, Raúl Muñoz
This work evaluated the performance of four open algal-bacterial photobioreactors operated at ≈26days of hydraulic retention time during the treatment of 10 (×10) and 20 (×20) times diluted piggery wastewater (PWW) under indoor (I) and outdoor (O) conditions for four months. The removal efficiencies (REs) of organic matter, nutrients and zinc from PWW, along with the dynamics of biomass concentration and structure of algal-bacterial population were assessed. The highest TOC-RE, TP-RE and Zn-RE (94±1%, 100% and 83±2%, respectively) were achieved indoors in ×10 PWW, while the highest TN-RE (72±8%) was recorded outdoors in ×10 PWW...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898756/bioreactor-culture-duration-of-engineered-constructs-influences-bone-formation-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Debika Mitra, Jacklyn Whitehead, Osamu W Yasui, J Kent Leach
Perfusion culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in biomaterial scaffolds provides nutrients for cell survival, enhances extracellular matrix deposition, and increases osteogenic cell differentiation. However, there is no consensus on the appropriate perfusion duration of cellular constructs in vitro to boost their bone forming capacity in vivo. We investigated this phenomenon by culturing human MSCs in macroporous composite scaffolds in a direct perfusion bioreactor and compared their response to scaffolds in continuous dynamic culture conditions on an XYZ shaker...
September 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898262/climate-and-air-pollution-impacts-on-habitat-suitability-of-austrian-forest-ecosystems
#17
Thomas Dirnböck, Ika Djukic, Barbara Kitzler, Johannes Kobler, Janet P Mol-Dijkstra, Max Posch, Gert Jan Reinds, Angela Schlutow, Franz Starlinger, Wieger G W Wamelink
Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+) together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS) to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites) protected under the EU Directive in Austria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895534/molecular-conservation-of-marsupial-and-eutherian-placentation-and-lactation
#18
Michael W Guernsey, Edward B Chuong, Guillaume Cornelis, Marilyn B Renfree, Julie C Baker
Eutherians are often mistakenly termed 'placental mammals', but marsupials also have a placenta to mediate early embryonic development. Lactation is necessary for both infant and fetal development in eutherians and marsupials, although marsupials have a far more complex milk repertoire that facilitates morphogenesis of developmentally immature young. In this study, we demonstrate that the anatomically simple tammar placenta expresses a dynamic molecular program that is reminiscent of eutherian placentation, including both fetal and maternal signals...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894646/canopy-soil-bacterial-communities-altered-by-severing-host-tree-limbs
#19
Cody R Dangerfield, Nalini M Nadkarni, William J Brazelton
Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890723/dynamics-of-short-term-phosphorus-uptake-by-intact-mycorrhizal-and-non-mycorrhizal-maize-plants-grown-in-a-circulatory-semi-hydroponic-cultivation-system
#20
Mónica Garcés-Ruiz, Maryline Calonne-Salmon, Katia Plouznikoff, Coralie Misson, Micaela Navarrete-Mier, Sylvie Cranenbrouck, Stéphane Declerck
A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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