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Dunja Šamec, Branimir Urlić, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidence support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Heather R Gilbertson, Kristen Reed, Sarah Clark, Kate L Francis, Fergus J Cameron
To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2-17 years attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Total energy, macronutrient intake and diet quality were calculated and compared to dietary advice provided and national intake data...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Bindi Borg, Seema Mihrshahi, Mark Griffin, Daream Sok, Chamnan Chhoun, Arnaud Laillou, Jacques Berger, Frank T Wieringa
BACKGROUND: Existing ready-to-use supplementary and therapeutic foods (RUSFs and RUTFs) have had limited acceptance and effectiveness in Cambodia. This has hampered the treatment and prevention of child malnutrition. An innovative, locally produced, multiple micronutrient fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has been developed for use as an RUSF. Unlike most RUSFs, which contain milk, this product contains fish as the animal protein. Few RUSFs have been formulated using non-milk animal-source foods and they have not been widely tested...
March 16, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Marta Lonnie, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Anthony W Watson, Elizabeth A Williams, Emma J Stevenson, Simon Penson, Alexandra M Johnstone
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Noelia Lahoz-García, Antonio García-Hermoso, Marta Milla-Tobarra, Ana Díez-Fernández, Alba Soriano-Cano, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Ignacio Trucillo Silva, Hari Kishan R Abbaraju, Lynne P Fallis, Hongjun Liu, Michael Lee, Kanwarpal S Dhugga
Intracellular factors differentially affected enzyme activities of N assimilation in the roots of maize testcrosses where alanine aminotransferase and glutamate synthase were the main enzymes regulating the levels of glutamate. N is a key macronutrient for plant growth and development. Breeding maize with improved efficiency in N use could help reduce environmental contamination as well as increase profitability for the farmers. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of traits related to N metabolism in the root tissue was undertaken in a maize testcross mapping population grown in hydroponic cultures...
March 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kaihui Liu, Xiaowei Ding, Xiaofei Tang, Jianjun Wang, Wenjun Li, Qingyun Yan, Zhenghua Liu
Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity) and community compositions (beta diversity) of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline-alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Shan-Xuan Lim, Jia-Ying Toh, Linde van Lee, Wee-Meng Han, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Kok-Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paola Mattei, Alessandro Gnesini, Cristina Gonnelli, Chiara Marraccini, Grazia Masciandaro, Cristina Macci, Serena Doni, Renato Iannelli, Stefano Lucchetti, Francesco P Nicese, Giancarlo Renella
Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Laura Morlacchi, Paola Roggero, Maria Lorella Giannì, Beatrice Bracco, Debora Porri, Enrico Battiato, Camilla Menis, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Fabio Mosca
Background: Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. Objective: We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elise M Faber, Paulien M van Kampen, Agnes Clement-de Boers, Euphemia Cam Houdijk, Daniëlle Cm van der Kaay
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the order of intake of carbohydrates, protein, and fat on postprandial glucose levels in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our hypothesis was that postprandial glucose levels would be lower when fat and protein are consumed prior to carbohydrates, compared to a meal where all macronutrients are combined. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, within-subject crossover study was conducted. Twenty patients aged 7 to 17 years diagnosed with T1D for >1 year consumed 2 isocaloric meals (with similar composition) in random order...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Martine C Morrison, Robert Kleemann, Arianne van Koppen, Roeland Hanemaaijer, Lars Verschuren
Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr-/- ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J P M Eussen, Simone J S Sep, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ilja C W Arts, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin resistance. In the etiology of T2DM, BCF basically determines whether a person with a certain degree of insulin resistance develops T2DM, as β-cells are able to compensatorily increase insulin secretion. The effects of dietary intake on BCF are largely unknown. Our study aim was to investigate whether dietary macronutrient intake predicts BCF. METHODS: Prospective data (median follow-up 7 years) of 303 individuals recruited from the CODAM study population (aged 40-70 years, 39% women) were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Shengxin Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Ivonne Sluijs
PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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