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leaf litter decomposition

Huiyan Li, Zishang Wei, Chaohe Huangfu, Xinwei Chen, Dianlin Yang
In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Sara L Jackrel, Timothy C Morton, J Timothy Wootton
Resource patchiness influences consumer foraging, movement, and physiology. Fluxes across ecosystem boundaries can extend these effects to otherwise distinct food webs. Intraspecific diversity of these cross-ecosystem subsidies can have large consequences for recipient systems. Here, we show intraspecific variation in leaf defensive chemistry of riparian trees drives local adaptation among terrestrial and riverine decomposers that consume shed leaf litter. We found extensive geographic structuring of ellagitannins, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids in red alder trees...
August 2016: Ecology
Jes Hines, Marta Reyes, Mark O Gessner
Smaller invertebrate body mass is claimed to be a universal response to climate warming. It has been suggested that body mass could also predict consumer influences on ecosystem processes in a warmer world because generalized rules describe relationships between body mass, temperature, and metabolism. However, the utility of this suggestion remains tenuous because the nutritional and physiological constraints underlying relationships between body mass and consumer-driven processes are highly variable in realistic settings...
July 2016: Ecology
Aaron B Stoler, David J Burke, Rick A Relyea
Research suggests that a positive relationship exists between diversity and ecological function, yet the multi-trophic effects of biodiversity remain poorly understood. The resource complementarity hypothesis suggests that increasing the trait diversity of resources provides a more complete diet for consumers, elevating consumer feeding rates. Whereas previous tests of this mechanism have measured trait diversity as the variation of single traits or the richness of functional groups, we employed a multivariate trait index to manipulate the chemical diversity of temperate tree litter species in outdoor pond mesocosms...
July 2016: Ecology
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Tanvir Shahzad, Muhammad Shahid, Iqbal M I Ismail, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Talal Almeelbi
We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Yongbo Liu, Wanxiang Jiang, Yuyong Liang, Caiyun Zhao, Junsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The non-target effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in aquatic ecosystems is crucial to improve the present assessment of Bt-transgenic plants, particularly where crops are cultivated near aquatic ecosystems. We conducted decomposition experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice litter with and without insecticide application on meiobenthos communities in a field ditch. RESULTS: Community composition of meiobenthos colonized on leaf litter was not significantly different between Bt and non-Bt rice...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Wenyan Zhu, Jinzhou Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Fei Ren, Litong Chen, Jin-Sheng He
The effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on litter decomposition are poorly understood in Tibetan alpine meadows. Leaf litter was collected from plots within a factorial N × P addition experiment and allowed to decompose over 708 days in an unfertilized plot to determine the effects of N and/or P addition on litter decomposition. Results showed that nutrient addition significantly affected initial P and P-related biochemical properties of litter from all four species. However, the responses of litter N and N-related biochemical properties to nutrient addition were quite species-specific...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qingkui Wang, Tongxin He, Jing Liu
Interaction effect of temperature and litter input on SOM decomposition is poor understood, restricting accurate prediction of the dynamics and stocks of soil organic carbon under global warming. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an incubation experiment by adding (13)C labeled leaf-litter into a coniferous forest (CF) soil and a broadleaved forest (BF) soil. In this experiment, response of the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of SOM decomposition to the increase in litter input was investigated. The temperature dependences of priming effect (PE) and soil microbial community were analyzed...
2016: Scientific Reports
D Rivas, A Ginebreda, A Elosegi, J Pozo, S Pérez, C Quero, D Barceló
Characterization of river ecosystems must take into consideration both structural and functional aspects. For the latter, a convenient and simple approach for routine monitoring is based on the decomposition of organic matter measured in terms of breakdown of natural organic substrates like leaf litter, wood sticks. Here we extended the method to a synthetic organic material using polymer probes characterized by MALDI-TOF/MS. We first characterized several commercial available polymers, and finally selected polycaprolactonediol 1250 (PCP 1250), a polyester oligomer, as the most convenient for further studies...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Vojtěch Tláskal, Jana Voříšková, Petr Baldrian
The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Encarnación Fenoy, J Jesús Casas, Manuel Díaz-López, Juan Rubio, J Luís Guil-Guerrero, Francisco J Moyano-López
Abiotic factors, substrate chemistry and decomposers community composition are primary drivers of leaf litter decomposition. In soil, much of the variation in litter decomposition is explained by climate and substrate chemistry, but with a significant contribution of the specialisation of decomposer communities to degrade specific substrates (home-field advantage, HFA). In streams, however, HFA effects on litter decomposition have not been explicitly tested. We evaluated responses of microbial decomposition and β-glucosidase activity to abiotic factors, substrate and decomposer assemblages, using a reciprocal litter transplant experiment: 'ecosystem type' (mountain vs lowland streams) × 'litter chemistry' (alder vs reed)...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Silvia Monroy, Margarita Menéndez, Ana Basaguren, Javier Pérez, Arturo Elosegi, Jesús Pozo
Drought, an important environmental factor affecting the functioning of stream ecosystems, is likely to become more prevalent in the Mediterranean region as a consequence of climate change and enhanced water demand. Drought can have profound impacts on leaf litter decomposition, a key ecosystem process in headwater streams, but there is still limited information on its effects at the regional scale. We measured leaf litter decomposition across a gradient of aridity in the Ebro River basin. We deployed coarse- and fine-mesh bags with alder and oak leaves in 11 Mediterranean calcareous streams spanning a range of over 400km, and determined changes in discharge, water quality, leaf-associated macroinvertebrates, leaf quality and decomposition rates...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li-li Su, Sheng Xu, Wei Fu, Xing-yuan He, Wei Chen, Yi Zhao, Qin Ping
The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Tingting Xiang, Yuqi Ying, Jiangnan Teng, Zhangting Huang, Jiasen Wu, Cifu Meng, Peikun Jiang, Caixian Tang, Jianmin Li, Rong Zheng
Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) with high resistance against decomposition is an important carbon (C) sink in many ecosystems. This study compared concentrations of phytolith in plants and the PhytOC production of seven sympodial bamboo species in southern China, aiming to provide the information for the managed bamboo plantation and selection of bamboo species to maximize phytolith C sequestration. Leaf litters and living leaves of seven sympodial bamboo species were collected from the field sites. Concentrations of phytoliths, silicon (Si), and PhytOC in leaf litters and living leaves were measured...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Witoon Purahong, Tesfaye Wubet, Guillaume Lentendu, Michael Schloter, Marek J Pecyna, Danuta Kapturska, Martin Hofrichter, Dirk Krüger, François Buscot
Microorganisms play a crucial role in the biological decomposition of plant litter in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the permanently changing litter quality during decomposition, studies of both fungi and bacteria at a fine taxonomic resolution are required during the whole process. Here we investigated microbial community succession in decomposing leaf litter of temperate beech forest using pyrotag sequencing of the bacterial 16S and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes. Our results reveal that both communities underwent rapid changes...
August 2016: Molecular Ecology
Mikhail V Kozlov, Vitali Zverev, Elena L Zvereva
Leaf-eating insects can influence decomposition processes by modifying quality of leaf litter, and this impact can be especially pronounced in habitats where leaf-eating insects reach high densities, for example in heavily polluted areas. We hypothesized that the decomposition rate is faster for shelters of leaf-tying larvae than for leaves damaged by free-living insects, in particular due to the accumulation of larval frass within shelters. We exposed litter bags containing samples of three different compositions (shelters built by moth larvae, leaves damaged by free-living insects and intact leaves of mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Juanita Mora-Gómez, Arturo Elosegi, Sofia Duarte, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal, Anna M Romaní
Microorganisms are key drivers of leaf litter decomposition; however, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of different microbial groups are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation and invertebrates on fungal and bacterial dynamics, and on leaf litter decomposition. We followed the decomposition of Populus nigra litter in a Mediterranean stream through an annual cycle, using fine and coarse mesh bags. Irrespective of the season, microbial decomposition followed two stages. Initially, bacterial contribution to total microbial biomass was higher compared to later stages, and it was related to disaccharide and lignin degradation; in a later stage, bacteria were less important and were associated with hemicellulose and cellulose degradation, while fungi were related to lignin decomposition...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Flavia Pinzari, Andrea Ceci, Nadir Abu-Samra, Loredana Canfora, Oriana Maggi, Annamaria Persiani
Fungi cover a range of important ecological functions associated with nutrient and carbon cycling in leaf litter and soil. As a result, research on existing relationships between fungal functional diversity, decomposition rates and competition is of key interest. Indeed, availability of nutrients in soil is largely the consequence of organic matter degradation dynamics. The Biolog(®) Phenotype MicroArrays™ (PM) system allows for the testing of fungi against many different carbon sources at any one time. The use and potential of the PM system as a tool for studying niche overlap and catabolic versatility of saprotrophic fungi is discussed here, and examples of its application are provided...
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
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