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leaf litter decomposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324829/interactive-effects-of-an-insecticide-and-a-fungicide-on-different-organism-groups-and-ecosystem-functioning-in-a-stream-detrital-food-web
#1
Mohab Dawoud, Mirco Bundschuh, Willem Goedkoop, Brendan G McKie
Freshwater ecosystems are often affected by cocktails of multiple pesticides targeting different organism groups. Prediction and evaluation of the ecosystem-level effects of these mixtures is complicated by the potential not only for interactions among the pesticides themselves, but also for the pesticides to alter biotic interactions across trophic levels. In a stream microcosm experiment, we investigated the effects of two pesticides targeting two organism groups (the insecticide lindane and fungicide azoxystrobin) on the functioning of a model stream detrital food web consisting of a detritivore (Ispoda: Asellus aquaticus) and microbes (an assemblage of fungal hyphomycetes) consuming leaf litter...
March 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303178/composition-of-riparian-litter-input-regulates-organic-matter-decomposition-implications-for-headwater-stream-functioning-in-a-managed-forest-landscape
#2
Johan Lidman, Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Mirco Bundschuh, Ryan A Sponseller
Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285374/antibiotic-mixture-effects-on-growth-of-the-leaf-shredding-stream-detritivore-gammarus-fossarum
#3
Mirco Bundschuh, Torsten Hahn, Mark O Gessner, Ralf Schulz
Pharmaceuticals contribute greatly to human and animal health. Given their specific biological targets, pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk by affecting organisms and ecosystem processes, including leaf-litter decomposition. Although litter decomposition is a central process in forest streams, the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals remain poorly known. The present study assessed the impact of antibiotics as an important class of pharmaceuticals on the growth of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum over 24 days...
March 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263375/shrub-encroachment-in-arctic-tundra-betula-nana-effects-on-above-and-below-ground-litter-decomposition
#4
Jennie R McLaren, Kate M Buckeridge, Martine J van de Weg, Gaius R Shaver, Joshua P Schimel, Laura Gough
Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254725/how-do-physicochemical-properties-influence-the-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-freshwater-decomposers-of-plant-litter-in-streams
#5
Daniela Batista, Cláudia Pascoal, Fernanda Cássio
AgNP physicochemical properties may affect AgNP toxicity, but their effects on plant litter decomposition and the species driving this key ecosystem process in freshwaters have been poorly investigated. We assessed the impacts of AgNPs with different size and surface coating (100nm PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-dispersant, 50-60nm and 35nm uncoated) on freshwater decomposers of leaf litter by exposing leaf associated microbial assemblages to increasing concentrations of AgNPs (up to 200mgL(-1)) and of AgNO3 (up to 25mgL(-1))...
February 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243679/ligninolytic-activity-at-0%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-of-fungi-on-oak-leaves-under-snow-cover-in-a-mixed-forest-in-japan
#6
Toshizumi Miyamoto, Keiichi Koda, Arata Kawaguchi, Yasumitsu Uraki
Despite the importance of litter decomposition under snow cover in boreal forests and tundra, very little is known regarding the characteristics and functions of litter-decomposing fungi adapted to the cold climate. We investigated the decomposition of oak leaves in a heavy snowfall forest region of Japan. The rate of litter weight loss reached 26.5% during the snow cover period for 7 months and accounted for 64.6% of the annual loss (41.1%). Although no statistically significant lignin loss was detected, decolourization portions of oak leaf litter, which was attributable to the activities of ligninolytic fungi, were observed during snow cover period...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215078/contribution-of-leaf-litter-to-nutrient-export-during-winter-months-in-an-urban-residential-watershed
#7
Anika R Bratt, Jacques C Finlay, Sarah E Hobbie, Benjamin D Janke, Adam C Worm, Kathrine L Kemmitt
Identification of nonpoint sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in urban systems is imperative to improving water quality and better managing eutrophication. Winter contributions and sources of annual N and P loads from urban watersheds are poorly characterized in northern cities because monitoring is often limited to warm-weather periods. To determine the winter export of N and P, we monitored stormwater outflow in a residential watershed in Saint Paul, Minnesota during 2012-2014. Our data demonstrate that winter melt events contribute a high percentage of annual N and P export (50%)...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182638/effect-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-on-growth-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-of-quercus-acutissima-and-fraxinus-rhynchophylla
#8
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176855/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#9
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM-) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160498/long-term-effects-of-fungicides-on-leaf-associated-microorganisms-and-shredder-populations-an-artificial-stream-study
#10
Jochen P Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Lüderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms and macroinvertebrate leaf shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, however, such chronic exposures have not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic (lasting up to 8 wk) exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration 20 μg/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf shredder Gammarus fossarum were therefore assessed...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124839/tea-polyphenols-dominate-the-short-term-tea-camellia-sinensis-leaf-litter-decomposition
#11
Dong-Mei Fan, Kai Fan, Cui-Ping Yu, Ya-Ting Lu, Xiao-Chang Wang
Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074270/tree-leaf-litter-composition-drives-temporal-variation-in-aquatic-beetle-colonization-and-assemblage-structure-in-lentic-systems
#12
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater systems are a major resource and primary drivers of ecosystem processes and structure. Spatial variation in tree species distributions and forest composition control litter inputs across landscapes, but inputs to individual lentic habitat patches are determined by adjacent plant communities. In small, ephemeral, fishless ponds, resource quality and abundance can be the most important factor affecting habitat selection preferences of colonizing animals. We used a landscape of experimental mesocosms to assess how natural populations of aquatic beetles respond over time to variation in tree leaf litter composition (pine or hardwood)...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994976/diversity-taxonomic-composition-and-functional-aspects-of-fungal-communities-in-living-senesced-and-fallen-leaves-at-five-sites-across-north-america
#13
Jana M U'Ren, A Elizabeth Arnold
BACKGROUND: Fungal endophytes inhabit symptomless, living tissues of all major plant lineages to form one of earth's most prevalent groups of symbionts. Many reproduce from senesced and/or decomposing leaves and can produce extracellular leaf-degrading enzymes, blurring the line between symbiotrophy and saprotrophy. To better understand the endophyte-saprotroph continuum we compared fungal communities and functional traits of focal strains isolated from living leaves to those isolated from leaves after senescence and decomposition, with a focus on foliage of woody plants in five biogeographic provinces ranging from tundra to subtropical scrub forest...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983721/fungal-bacterial-dynamics-and-their-contribution-to-terrigenous-carbon-turnover-in-relation-to-organic-matter-quality
#14
Jenny Fabian, Sanja Zlatanovic, Michael Mutz, Katrin Premke
Ecological functions of fungal and bacterial decomposers vary with environmental conditions. However, the response of these decomposers to particulate organic matter (POM) quality, which varies widely in aquatic ecosystems, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated how POM pools of substrates of different qualities determine the relative contributions of aquatic fungi and bacteria to terrigenous carbon (C) turnover. To this end, surface sediments were incubated with different POM pools of algae and/or leaf litter...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896463/litter-mixture-dominated-by-leaf-litter-of-the-invasive-species-flaveria-bidentis-accelerates-decomposition-and-favors-nitrogen-release
#15
Huiyan Li, Zishang Wei, Chaohe Huangfu, Xinwei Chen, Dianlin Yang
In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859211/intraspecific-leaf-chemistry-drives-locally-accelerated-ecosystem-function-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-communities
#16
Sara L Jackrel, Timothy C Morton, J Timothy Wootton
Resource patchiness influences consumer foraging, movement, and physiology. Fluxes across ecosystem boundaries can extend these effects to otherwise distinct food webs. Intraspecific diversity of these cross-ecosystem subsidies can have large consequences for recipient systems. Here, we show intraspecific variation in leaf defensive chemistry of riparian trees drives local adaptation among terrestrial and riverine decomposers that consume shed leaf litter. We found extensive geographic structuring of ellagitannins, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids in red alder trees...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859157/density-constrains-cascading-consequences-of-warming-and-nitrogen-from-invertebrate-growth-to-litter-decomposition
#17
Jes Hines, Marta Reyes, Mark O Gessner
Smaller invertebrate body mass is claimed to be a universal response to climate warming. It has been suggested that body mass could also predict consumer influences on ecosystem processes in a warmer world because generalized rules describe relationships between body mass, temperature, and metabolism. However, the utility of this suggestion remains tenuous because the nutritional and physiological constraints underlying relationships between body mass and consumer-driven processes are highly variable in realistic settings...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859152/litter-chemistry-and-chemical-diversity-drive-ecosystem-processes-in-forest-ponds
#18
Aaron B Stoler, David J Burke, Rick A Relyea
Research suggests that a positive relationship exists between diversity and ecological function, yet the multi-trophic effects of biodiversity remain poorly understood. The resource complementarity hypothesis suggests that increasing the trait diversity of resources provides a more complete diet for consumers, elevating consumer feeding rates. Whereas previous tests of this mechanism have measured trait diversity as the variation of single traits or the richness of functional groups, we employed a multivariate trait index to manipulate the chemical diversity of temperate tree litter species in outdoor pond mesocosms...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810328/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-affect-carbon-and-nitrogen-mineralization-of-phoenix-dactylifera-leaf-litter-in-a-sandy-soil
#19
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Tanvir Shahzad, Muhammad Shahid, Iqbal M I Ismail, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Talal Almeelbi
We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776303/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-affect-microbial-colonization-and-enzymatic-activity-throughout-the-decomposition-of-alder-leaves-in-freshwater-microcosms
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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