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leaf litter decomposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182638/effect-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-on-growth-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-of-quercus-acutissima-and-fraxinus-rhynchophylla
#1
Sangsub Cha, Hee-Myung Chae, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Kuk Shim
The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176855/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#2
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM-) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160498/long-term-effects-of-fungicides-on-leaf-associated-microorganisms-and-shredder-populations-an-artificial-stream-study
#3
Jochen P Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Lüderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms as well as macroinvertebrate leaf-shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, such chronic exposures have, however, not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic, up to 8 wk lasting exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration: 20 µg/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf-shredder Gammarus fossarum were, therefore, assessed...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124839/tea-polyphenols-dominate-the-short-term-tea-camellia-sinensis-leaf-litter-decomposition
#4
Dong-Mei Fan, Kai Fan, Cui-Ping Yu, Ya-Ting Lu, Xiao-Chang Wang
Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074270/tree-leaf-litter-composition-drives-temporal-variation-in-aquatic-beetle-colonization-and-assemblage-structure-in-lentic-systems
#5
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater systems are a major resource and primary drivers of ecosystem processes and structure. Spatial variation in tree species distributions and forest composition control litter inputs across landscapes, but inputs to individual lentic habitat patches are determined by adjacent plant communities. In small, ephemeral, fishless ponds, resource quality and abundance can be the most important factor affecting habitat selection preferences of colonizing animals. We used a landscape of experimental mesocosms to assess how natural populations of aquatic beetles respond over time to variation in tree leaf litter composition (pine or hardwood)...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994976/diversity-taxonomic-composition-and-functional-aspects-of-fungal-communities-in-living-senesced-and-fallen-leaves-at-five-sites-across-north-america
#6
Jana M U'Ren, A Elizabeth Arnold
BACKGROUND: Fungal endophytes inhabit symptomless, living tissues of all major plant lineages to form one of earth's most prevalent groups of symbionts. Many reproduce from senesced and/or decomposing leaves and can produce extracellular leaf-degrading enzymes, blurring the line between symbiotrophy and saprotrophy. To better understand the endophyte-saprotroph continuum we compared fungal communities and functional traits of focal strains isolated from living leaves to those isolated from leaves after senescence and decomposition, with a focus on foliage of woody plants in five biogeographic provinces ranging from tundra to subtropical scrub forest...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983721/fungal-bacterial-dynamics-and-their-contribution-to-terrigenous-carbon-turnover-in-relation-to-organic-matter-quality
#7
Jenny Fabian, Sanja Zlatanovic, Michael Mutz, Katrin Premke
Ecological functions of fungal and bacterial decomposers vary with environmental conditions. However, the response of these decomposers to particulate organic matter (POM) quality, which varies widely in aquatic ecosystems, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated how POM pools of substrates of different qualities determine the relative contributions of aquatic fungi and bacteria to terrigenous carbon (C) turnover. To this end, surface sediments were incubated with different POM pools of algae and/or leaf litter...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896463/litter-mixture-dominated-by-leaf-litter-of-the-invasive-species-flaveria-bidentis-accelerates-decomposition-and-favors-nitrogen-release
#8
Huiyan Li, Zishang Wei, Chaohe Huangfu, Xinwei Chen, Dianlin Yang
In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859211/intraspecific-leaf-chemistry-drives-locally-accelerated-ecosystem-function-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-communities
#9
Sara L Jackrel, Timothy C Morton, J Timothy Wootton
Resource patchiness influences consumer foraging, movement, and physiology. Fluxes across ecosystem boundaries can extend these effects to otherwise distinct food webs. Intraspecific diversity of these cross-ecosystem subsidies can have large consequences for recipient systems. Here, we show intraspecific variation in leaf defensive chemistry of riparian trees drives local adaptation among terrestrial and riverine decomposers that consume shed leaf litter. We found extensive geographic structuring of ellagitannins, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids in red alder trees...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859157/density-constrains-cascading-consequences-of-warming-and-nitrogen-from-invertebrate-growth-to-litter-decomposition
#10
Jes Hines, Marta Reyes, Mark O Gessner
Smaller invertebrate body mass is claimed to be a universal response to climate warming. It has been suggested that body mass could also predict consumer influences on ecosystem processes in a warmer world because generalized rules describe relationships between body mass, temperature, and metabolism. However, the utility of this suggestion remains tenuous because the nutritional and physiological constraints underlying relationships between body mass and consumer-driven processes are highly variable in realistic settings...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859152/litter-chemistry-and-chemical-diversity-drive-ecosystem-processes-in-forest-ponds
#11
Aaron B Stoler, David J Burke, Rick A Relyea
Research suggests that a positive relationship exists between diversity and ecological function, yet the multi-trophic effects of biodiversity remain poorly understood. The resource complementarity hypothesis suggests that increasing the trait diversity of resources provides a more complete diet for consumers, elevating consumer feeding rates. Whereas previous tests of this mechanism have measured trait diversity as the variation of single traits or the richness of functional groups, we employed a multivariate trait index to manipulate the chemical diversity of temperate tree litter species in outdoor pond mesocosms...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810328/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-affect-carbon-and-nitrogen-mineralization-of-phoenix-dactylifera-leaf-litter-in-a-sandy-soil
#12
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Tanvir Shahzad, Muhammad Shahid, Iqbal M I Ismail, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Talal Almeelbi
We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776303/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-affect-microbial-colonization-and-enzymatic-activity-throughout-the-decomposition-of-alder-leaves-in-freshwater-microcosms
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740610/microbial-legacies-alter-decomposition-in-response-to-simulated-global-change
#14
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717164/no-effect-of-bt-transgenic-rice-litter-on-the-meiobenthos-community-in-field-ditches
#15
Yongbo Liu, Wanxiang Jiang, Yuyong Liang, Caiyun Zhao, Junsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The non-target effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in aquatic ecosystems is crucial to improve the present assessment of Bt-transgenic plants, particularly where crops are cultivated near aquatic ecosystems. We conducted decomposition experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of Bt-transgenic rice litter with and without insecticide application on the meiobenthos communities in a field ditch. RESULTS: The community composition of meiobenthos colonised on leaf litter was not significantly different between Bt and non-Bt rice...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694948/changes-in-litter-quality-induced-by-nutrient-addition-alter-litter-decomposition-in-an-alpine-meadow-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#16
Wenyan Zhu, Jinzhou Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Fei Ren, Litong Chen, Jin-Sheng He
The effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on litter decomposition are poorly understood in Tibetan alpine meadows. Leaf litter was collected from plots within a factorial N × P addition experiment and allowed to decompose over 708 days in an unfertilized plot to determine the effects of N and/or P addition on litter decomposition. Results showed that nutrient addition significantly affected initial P and P-related biochemical properties of litter from all four species. However, the responses of litter N and N-related biochemical properties to nutrient addition were quite species-specific...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644258/litter-input-decreased-the-response-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-to-warming-in-two-subtropical-forest-soils
#17
Qingkui Wang, Tongxin He, Jing Liu
Interaction effect of temperature and litter input on SOM decomposition is poor understood, restricting accurate prediction of the dynamics and stocks of soil organic carbon under global warming. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an incubation experiment by adding (13)C labeled leaf-litter into a coniferous forest (CF) soil and a broadleaved forest (BF) soil. In this experiment, response of the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of SOM decomposition to the increase in litter input was investigated. The temperature dependences of priming effect (PE) and soil microbial community were analyzed...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575360/using-a-polymer-probe-characterized-by-maldi-tof-ms-to-assess-river-ecosystem-functioning-from-polymer-selection-to-field-tests
#18
D Rivas, A Ginebreda, A Elosegi, J Pozo, S Pérez, C Quero, D Barceló
Characterization of river ecosystems must take into consideration both structural and functional aspects. For the latter, a convenient and simple approach for routine monitoring is based on the decomposition of organic matter measured in terms of breakdown of natural organic substrates like leaf litter, wood sticks. Here we extended the method to a synthetic organic material using polymer probes characterized by MALDI-TOF/MS. We first characterized several commercial available polymers, and finally selected polycaprolactonediol 1250 (PCP 1250), a polyester oligomer, as the most convenient for further studies...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543318/bacterial-succession-on-decomposing-leaf-litter-exhibits-a-specific-occurrence-pattern-of-cellulolytic-taxa-and-potential-decomposers-of-fungal-mycelia
#19
Vojtěch Tláskal, Jana Voříšková, Petr Baldrian
The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515735/temperature-and-substrate-chemistry-as-major-drivers-of-interregional-variability-of-leaf-microbial-decomposition-and-cellulolytic-activity-in-headwater-streams
#20
Encarnación Fenoy, J Jesús Casas, Manuel Díaz-López, Juan Rubio, J Luís Guil-Guerrero, Francisco J Moyano-López
Abiotic factors, substrate chemistry and decomposers community composition are primary drivers of leaf litter decomposition. In soil, much of the variation in litter decomposition is explained by climate and substrate chemistry, but with a significant contribution of the specialisation of decomposer communities to degrade specific substrates (home-field advantage, HFA). In streams, however, HFA effects on litter decomposition have not been explicitly tested. We evaluated responses of microbial decomposition and β-glucosidase activity to abiotic factors, substrate and decomposer assemblages, using a reciprocal litter transplant experiment: 'ecosystem type' (mountain vs lowland streams) × 'litter chemistry' (alder vs reed)...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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