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alpha-1 liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099509/a-comparative-study-on-antioxidant-system-in-fish-hepatopancreas-and-intestine-affected-by-choline-deficiency-different-change-patterns-of-varied-antioxidant-enzyme-genes-and-nrf2-signaling-factors
#1
Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Jun Jiang, Juan Zhao, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098910/hydrogen-rich-saline-improves-non%C3%A2-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-and-activating-hepatic-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#2
Xiao Zhai, Xiao Chen, Jiancan Lu, Yaping Zhang, Xuejun Sun, Qin Huang, Qijin Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of liver diseases, between steatosis and non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which are closely associated with diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress is a key factor in the development of NAFLD. Molecular hydrogen (H2) may ameliorate oxidative stress injuries by selectively neutralizing peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. The present study evaluated the effects of H2 on NAFLD in rats and concluded that H2‑rich saline had significant therapeutic effects on NAFLD induced by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088462/activation-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-subunit-pathway-in-steatotic-liver-contributes-to-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#3
Yoichiro Asai, Tetsuya Yamada, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Masamitsu Maekawa, Midori Honma, Masanori Ikeda, Keigo Murakami, Yuichiro Munakata, Yuta Shirai, Shinjiro Kodama, Takashi Sugisawa, Yumiko Chiba, Yasuteru Kondo, Keizo Kaneko, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Junta Imai, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Kozo Tanaka, Hironobu Sasano, Nariyasu Mano, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Tooru Shimosegawa, Hideki Katagiri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A) is a transcription factor that controls the cellular response to hypoxia and is activated in hepatocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases risk for cholesterol gallstone disease by unclear mechanisms. We studied the relationship between HIF1A and gallstone formation associated with liver steatosis. METHODS: We performed studies with mice with inducible disruption of Hif1a in hepatocytes, via a Cre adenoviral vector (iH-HIFKO mice), and mice without disruption of Hif1a (control mice)...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#4
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067024/treatment-with-alpha-galactosylceramide-protects-mice-from-early-onset-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-role-of-intestinal-barrier-function
#5
Anna Janina Engstler, Cathrin Sellmann, Cheng Jun Jin, Annette Brandt, Kathleen Herz, Josephine Priebs, Ina Bergheim
SCOPE: The role of invariant natural killer T cells in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not yet been fully understood. Here, the effect of the invariant natural killer T cell activator alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and intestinal barrier function was assessed in a mouse model of early Western-style diet (WSD)-induced NASH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female C57BL/6J mice were either fed a liquid control diet or a liquid fructose-enriched WSD for 6 weeks while being treated 3-times weekly with αGalCer (2 μg i...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055129/long-term-ethanol-exposure-decreases-the-endotoxin-induced-hepatic-acute-phase-response-in-rats
#6
Emilie Glavind, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbaek, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Nils Erik Magnusson, Karen Louise Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Long-term excess alcohol intake predisposes to infectious diseases. The hepatic acute phase response is a component of the innate immune system and is part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens, which may be compromised by alcohol. We aimed to investigate whether an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053854/identification-of-a-novel-alpha1-antitrypsin-variant
#7
Camille de Seynes, C Ged, H de Verneuil, N Chollet, M Balduyck, C Raherison
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic condition caused by SERPINA1 mutations, which results into decreased protease inhibitor activity in the serum and predisposes to emphysema and/or to liver disease due to accumulation of the abnormal protein in the hepatic cells. In most cases the clinical manifestations of A1ATD are associated with PIZZ (p.Glu366Lys; p.Glu366Lys (p.Glu342Lys; p.Glu342Lys)) or PISZ (p.Glu288Val; p.Glu366Lys (p.Glu264Val; p.Glu342Lys)) genotype, less frequently, deficient or null alleles may be present in compound heterozygous or homozygous A1AT deficient patients...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049244/false-positive-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-liver-resection-patients
#8
Hongeun Lee, Jeong Hee Yoon, Hyeyoung Kim, Nam Joon Yi, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Hyo Sin Kim, Sung Woo Ahn, Jin Young Choi, Youngrok Choi, Hae Won Lee, Ju Yeon Yi, Kyoung Bun Lee, Kwang Woong Lee, Kyung Suk Suh
The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based on imaging studies particularly in high-risk patients without histologic confirmation. This study evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of false-positively diagnosed HCC in a liver resection cohort for HCC. A retrospective review was performed of 837 liver resection cases for clinically diagnosed HCC between 2005 and 2010 at our institute. High-risk patients with tumors > 1 cm with one or two image findings consistent with HCC and tumors < 1 cm with two or more image findings consistent with HCC with persistently increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels above the normal range with underlying inhibited hepatitis activity underwent liver resection...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048872/we-fg-bra-10-radiodosimetry-of-a-novel-alpha-particle-therapy-targeted-to-uveal-melanoma-absorbed-dose-to-organs-in-mice
#9
Christopher J Tichacek, Narges K Tafreshi, Mikalai M Budzevich, Epifanio Ruiz, Thaddeus J Wadas, Mark L McLaughlin, Eduardo G Moros, David L Morse
PURPOSE: The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is expressed in 94% of uveal melanomas and is described as an ideal target for this untreatable disease. MC1RL is a high affinity MC1R specific peptidomimetic ligand that can serve as a scaffold for therapeutic conjugates such as alpha particle emitting isotopes. The purpose of this study was to assess normal tissue distribution and risk as a result of using the DOTA chelator conjugated to MC1RL to deliver (225) Ac: MC1RL-DOTA-(225) Ac. METHODS: 17 non-tumor bearing BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the novel MC1RL-DOTA-(225) Ac radiopharmaceutical with an average initial administered activity of 2...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045767/autophagy-in-hepatocytes-in-infants-with-alpha-1-atd-and-different-liver-disease-outcomes-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Elżbieta Czarnowska, Agnieszka Bakuła, Joanna B Bierła, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk, Piotr Socha
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether a distinct activity of pathways removing the AT protein in Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency (α1ATD) are associated with an unfavorable predisposition toliver disease in the future. The aim of this study was to determine whether liverspecific activity of AT protein disposal occurs at infancy in α1ATD with PiZZ phenotype (ATZ). METHODS: Liver samples of 17 infants with unfavorable ATZ outcome (Group I, n = 8, median age  = 0...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044208/hepatic-vagus-nerve-regulates-kupffer-cell-activation-via-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Takahiro Nishio, Kojiro Taura, Keiko Iwaisako, Yukinori Koyama, Kazutaka Tanabe, Gen Yamamoto, Yukihiro Okuda, Yoshinobu Ikeno, Kenji Yoshino, Yosuke Kasai, Masayuki Okuno, Satoru Seo, Takaki Sakurai, Masataka Asagiri, Etsuro Hatano, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Kupffer cells play a central role in promoting hepatic inflammation, which leads to the development of NASH. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of hepatic vagus-mediated stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on Kupffer cells in NASH pathogenesis. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice undergoing hepatic vagotomy (HV) were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 1 week...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033293/transarterial-embolization-chemoembolization-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-fed-by-adrenal-artery-preliminary-results
#12
Shibing Hu, Jianfei Tu, Zhongzhi Jia, Yuanquan Huang, Guomin Jiang
To assess the value of transarterial embolization/chemoembolization (TAE/TACE) therapy via adrenal artery for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC who underwent TAE/TACE therapy via adrenal artery between May 2003 and October 2015 across 4 medical centers were identified. Clinical information, procedural data, and imaging data were analyzed to assess technical success, disease control, and survival rates. A t test was used to compare the differences in serum alpha-fetoprotein before and after treatment...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031722/low-plce1-levels-are-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Ya Cheng, Song-Ge Xing, Wei-Dong Jia, Mei Huang, Na-Na Bian
BACKGROUND: Previous reports show that phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) expression is positively correlated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas; however, the expression of PLCE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with clinical outcome still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of PLCE1 in HCC tissue and to determine whether PLCE1 was a prognostic factor for HCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PLCE1 levels in 20 paired HCC tissues and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007738/malondialdehyde-as-a-prognostic-factor-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#14
Onán Pérez-Hernández, Emilio González-Reimers, Geraldine Quintero-Platt, Pedro Abreu-González, María José de la Vega-Prieto, María José Sánchez-Pérez, Candelaria Martín-González, Antonio Martínez-Riera, Francisco Santolaria-Fernández
AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe complication of alcoholism, associated with high short-term mortality. Although pathogenesis remains obscure, it is generally accepted that lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion with further generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play outstanding roles. Prognosis is uncertain, and the usually employed prognostic scores do not include variables related to ROS generation.Therefore, this study was performed to assess short-term prognostic value of cytokines, nutritional status, different scores [Maddrey, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), albumin, bilirubin, INR, creatinine index (ABIC), Lille, Glasgow, MELD-Na, Child-Pugh] and malondialdehyde (MDA, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation) at admission and after 1 week, among patients affected by severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey index >32)...
December 21, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996033/the-xbp1-arm-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-induces-fibrogenic-activity-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-through-autophagy
#15
Rosa S Kim, Daisuke Hasegawa, Nicolas Goossens, Takuma Tsuchida, Varinder Athwal, Xiaochen Sun, Christopher L Robinson, Dipankar Bhattacharya, Hsin-I Chou, David Y Zhang, Bryan C Fuchs, Youngmin Lee, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) both promote activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), however the link between the two stimuli remains unclear. Here we have explored the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), one of three UPR effector pathways and sought to establish the interdependence between autophagy and the UPR during HSC activation. XBP1 induction accompanied both culture-based HSC activation and ER stress induced by tunicamycin. Ectopic overexpression of XBP1 induced collagen 1-alpha expression in HSCs, which was inhibited by knockdown of ATG7, a critical autophagy mediator...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995906/acg-clinical-guideline-evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-chemistries
#16
Paul Y Kwo, Stanley M Cohen, Joseph K Lim
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995033/extremely-high-expression-of-serum-alpha-fetoprotein-level-of-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-rare-case-with-an-unexpected-well-prognosis
#17
Weihua Gong, Dawei Shou, Ping Gong
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer is a relatively rare form of stomach malignancy. Patients with higher serum AFP level (>300 ng/mL) will have a poorer prognosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this study, we present a case of 77-year-old woman with an extremely high expression of serum AFP level (>10,000 ng/mL) of gastric cancer. Histological examination revealed gastric adenocarcinoma (Bormann III gastric tumor) invading into the serosal layer and vessel...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938510/bile-duct-ligation-induces-atz-globule-clearance-in-a-mouse-model-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#18
Zahida Khan, Shinichiro Yokota, Yoshihiro Ono, Aaron Bell, Michael Oertel, Donna Stolz, George Michalopoulos
<p>Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, not all patients are susceptible to severe liver disease. In A1ATD, a toxic gain-of-function mutation generates insoluble ATZ "globules" in hepatocytes, overwhelming protein clearance mechanisms. The relationship between bile acids and hepatocytic autophagy is less clear, but may involve altered gene expression pathways. Based on previous findings that bile duct ligation (BDL) induces autophagy, we hypothesized that retained bile acids may have hepatoprotective effects in PiZZ transgenic mice, which model A1ATD...
18, 2016: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932120/prognostic-value-of-pre-transplantation-serum-alpha-fetoprotein-levels-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence
#19
E M Montalvá, M Cantos, A Boscà, A Rubín, C Vinaixa, P Granero, J Maupoey, R López-Andújar
Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value is still not included in the consensus guidelines to make decisions referring to liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies demonstrated the influence of high AFP level in poor prognosis after LT for HCC. We studied 301 consecutive recipients transplanted for HCC from January 2002 to December 2011. The median follow-up was 64.3 months (interquartile range, 41.6-90.8). HCC recurrence was 31.6% when AFP was >400 ng/mL and 50% when AFP was >1,000 ng/mL...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913752/expression-and-bioactivity-of-human-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-in-a-bac-to-bac-system
#20
Bo Lin, Kun Liu, Wenting Wang, Wei Li, Xu Dong, Yi Chen, Yan Lu, Junli Guo, Mingyue Zhu, Mengsen Li
α-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in foetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumour-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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