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elevated carbon dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820945/a-chiral-gas-hydrate-structure-common-to-the-carbon-dioxide-water-and-hydrogen-water-systems
#1
Dan Amos, Mary-Ellen Donnelly, Pattanasak Teeratchanan, Craig L Bull, Andrzej Falenty, Werner F Kuhs, Andreas Hermann, John Loveday
We present diffraction studies and full in-situ structural solutions of carbon dioxide hydrate-II and hydrogen hydrate $C_0$ at elevated pressures. We find both hydrates adopt a common water network structure. The structure exhibits several features not previously found in hydrates, most notably it is chiral and has large open spiral channels along which the guest molecules are free to move. It has a network that is unrelated to any experimentally known ice, silica or zeolite network but is instead related to two Zintl compounds...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812653/adaptation-of-phytoplankton-to-a-decade-of-experimental-warming-linked-to-increased-photosynthesis
#2
C-Elisa Schaum, Samuel Barton, Elvire Bestion, Angus Buckling, Bernardo Garcia-Carreras, Paula Lopez, Chris Lowe, Samraat Pawar, Nicholas Smirnoff, Mark Trimmer, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
Phytoplankton photosynthesis is a critical flux in the carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide fixed globally on an annual basis and fuelling the productivity of aquatic food webs. However, rapid evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming remain largely unexplored, particularly outside the laboratory, where multiple selection pressures can modify adaptation to environmental change. Here, we use a decade-long experiment in outdoor mesocosms to investigate mechanisms of adaptation to warming (+4 °C above ambient temperature) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in naturally assembled communities...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801632/stimulation-in-primary-and-secondary-metabolism-by-elevated-carbon-dioxide-alters-green-tea-quality-in-camellia-sinensis-l
#3
Xin Li, Lan Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Zhi-Xin Li, Ji-Peng Wei, Chen Shen, Peng Yan, Li-Ping Zhang, Wen-Yan Han
Rising CO2 concentration, a driving force of climate change, is impacting global food security by affecting plant physiology. Nevertheless, the effects of elevated CO2 on primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) still remain largely unknown. Here we showed that exposure of tea plants to elevated CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1) for 24 d) remarkably improved both photosynthesis and respiration in tea leaves. Furthermore, elevated CO2 increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, starch and total carbon, but decreased the total nitrogen concentration, resulting in an increased carbon to nitrogen ratio in tea leaves...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798386/centennial-scale-reductions-in-nitrogen-availability-in-temperate-forests-of-the-united-states
#4
K K McLauchlan, L M Gerhart, J J Battles, J M Craine, A J Elmore, P E Higuera, M C Mack, B E McNeil, D M Nelson, N Pederson, S S Perakis
Forests cover 30% of the terrestrial Earth surface and are a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Humans have doubled the amount of global reactive nitrogen (N), increasing deposition of N onto forests worldwide. However, other global changes-especially climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations-are increasing demand for N, the element limiting primary productivity in temperate forests, which could be reducing N availability. To determine the long-term, integrated effects of global changes on forest N cycling, we measured stable N isotopes in wood, a proxy for N supply relative to demand, on large spatial and temporal scales across the continental U...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791296/metabolomics-and-proteomics-of-brassica-napus-guard-cells-in-response-to-low-co2
#5
Sisi Geng, Bing Yu, Ning Zhu, Craig Dufresne, Sixue Chen
Stomatal guard cell response to various stimuli is an important process that balances plant carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and water transpiration. Elevated CO2 induces stomatal closure, while low CO2 promotes stomatal opening. The signaling process of elevated CO2 induced stomatal closure has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the mechanism of low CO2 induced stomatal opening is not fully understood. Here we report metabolomic and proteomic responses of Brassica napus guard cells to low CO2 using hyphenated mass spectrometry technologies...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774953/cerebrovascular-and-ventilatory-responses-to-acute-normobaric-hypoxia-in-girls-and-women
#6
Laura E Morris, Daniela Flück, Philip N Ainslie, Ali M McManus
Physiological responses to hypoxia in children are incompletely understood. We aimed to characterize cerebrovascular and ventilatory responses to normobaric hypoxia in girls and women. Ten healthy girls (9.9 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SD; Tanner stage 1 and 2) and their mothers (43.9 ± 3.5 years) participated. Internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) velocity, diameter and flow (Duplex ultrasound) was recorded pre- and post-1 h of hypoxic exposure (FIO2 = 0.126;~4000 m) in a normobaric chamber...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769857/hyperventilation-therapy-for-control-of-posttraumatic-intracranial-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Ali Seifi, David Garza, Santiago Lubillo-Montenegro, Francisco Murillo-Cabezas
During traumatic brain injury, intracranial hypertension (ICH) can become a life-threatening condition if it is not managed quickly and adequately. Physicians use therapeutic hyperventilation to reduce elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) by manipulating autoregulatory functions connected to cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. Inducing hypocapnia via hyperventilation reduces the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which incites vasoconstriction in the cerebral resistance arterioles. This constriction decrease cerebral blood flow, which reduces cerebral blood volume and, ultimately, decreases the patient's ICP...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769823/elevated-carbon-dioxide-alleviates-aluminum-toxicity-by-decreasing-cell-wall-hemicellulose-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#8
Xiao Fang Zhu, Xu Sheng Zhao, Bin Wang, Qi Wu, Ren Fang Shen
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is involved in plant growth as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses; however, it remains unclear whether CO2 is involved in the response of rice (Oryza sativa) to aluminum (Al) toxicity. In the current study, we discovered that elevated CO2 (600 μL·L(-1)) significantly alleviated Al-induced inhibition of root elongation that occurred in ambient CO2 (400 μL·L(-1)). This protective effect was accompanied by a reduced Al accumulation in root apex. Al significantly induced citrate efflux and the expression of OsALS1, but elevated CO2 had no further effect...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756890/protein-separations-using-enhanced-fluidity-liquid-chromatography
#9
Raffeal Bennett, Susan V Olesik
Enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) methods using methanol/H2O/CO2 and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) were explored for the separation of proteins and peptides. EFLC is a separation mode that uses a mobile phase made of conventional solvents combined with liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) in subcritical conditions. The addition of liquid CO2 enhances diffusivity and decreases viscosity while maintaining mixture polarity, which typically results in reduced time of analysis. TFA additive and elevated temperature were leveraged as key factors in the separation of a 13-analyte intact protein mixture in under 5min...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746734/spatial-evaluation-of-indonesia-s-2015-fire-affected-area-and-estimated-carbon-emissions-using-sentinel-1
#10
Sandra Lohberger, Matthias Stängel, Elizabeth C Atwood, Florian Siegert
Fires raged once again across Indonesia in the latter half of 2015, creating a state of emergency due to poisonous smoke and haze across Southeast Asia as well as incurring great financial costs to the government. A strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) led to drought in many parts of Indonesia, resulting in elevated fire occurrence comparable with the previous catastrophic event in 1997/98. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data promise to provide improved detection of land use and land cover changes in the tropics as compared to methodologies dependent upon cloud and haze free images...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743311/hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-during-pregnancy-due-to-polymyositis-related-respiratory-muscle-weakness-a-case-report
#11
Husain Shabbir Ali, Ibrahim Fawzy Hassan, Saibu George, Abdalrazig Elsadig Fadlelmula
BACKGROUND: Polymyositis is a rare medical disorder complicating pregnancy. Ventilatory muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure is an uncommon manifestation of this autoimmune disease. We report a case of life-threatening hypercapnic respiratory failure due to polymyositis-related respiratory muscle weakness in a pregnant woman. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old, African woman in her second trimester of pregnancy presented to the emergency department with fever, shortness of breath and muscle weakness...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736477/long-term-exposure-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-does-not-alter-activity-levels-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-response-to-predator-chemical-cues
#12
Josefin Sundin, Mirjam Amcoff, Fernando Mateos-González, Graham D Raby, Fredrik Jutfelt, Timothy D Clark
ABSTRACT: Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732305/association-between-gaseous-air-pollutants-and-inflammatory-hemostatic-and-lipid-markers-in-a-cohort-of-midlife-women
#13
Xiangmei May Wu, Rupa Basu, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Keita Ebisu, Ellen B Gold, Lihong Qi, Carol Derby, Rochelle S Green
BACKGROUND: Exposures to ambient gaseous pollutants have been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the biological mechanisms remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in CVD marker levels resulting from elevated exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants in midlife women. METHODS: Annual repeated measurements of several inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid makers were obtained from 2306 midlife women enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) between 1999 and 2004...
July 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715112/effects-of-free-air-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-face-on-nitrogen-assimilation-and-growth-of-winter-wheat-under-nitrate-and-ammonium-fertilization
#14
Markus Dier, Rieke Meinen, Martin Erbs, Lena Kollhorst, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, David Kaufholdt, Martin Kücke, Hans-Joachim Weigel, Christian Zörb, Robert Hänsch, Remy Manderscheid
A two year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted with winter wheat. It was investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) inhibit nitrate assimilation and whether better growth and nitrogen acquisition under e[CO2 ] can be achieved with an ammonium based fertilization as it was observed in hydroponic culture with wheat. Under e[CO2 ] a decrease of nitrate assimilation has been discussed as the cause for observed declines in protein concentration in C3 cereals. Wheat was grown under ambient [CO2 ] and e[CO2 ] (600 ppm) with three levels (deficiency, optimal and excessive) of nitrate based fertilization (calcium ammonium nitrate; CAN) or with optimal ammonium based fertilization...
July 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708460/tolerance-to-hypercarbia-is-repeatable-and-related-to-a-component-of-the-metabolic-phenotype-in-a-freshwater-fish
#15
Caleb T Hasler, Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski
Freshwater fish may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of several actions, including anesthesia and high levels of aquatic respiration and potentially as the result of using high-CO2 plumes as a barrier to the movements of invasive fishes. Metabolic phenotype can potentially drive how freshwater fish respond to high CO2. We therefore quantified how tolerance (measured using time to equilibrium loss [ELT]) was driven by metabolic phenotype in a cosmopolitan freshwater fish species, Micropterus salmoides...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707996/effect-of-the-degree-of-head-elevation-on-the-incidence-and-severity-of-venous-air-embolism-in-cranial-neurosurgical-procedures-with-patients-in-the-semisitting-position
#16
Hatice Türe, M Volkan Harput, Nural Bekiroğlu, Özgül Keskin, Özge Köner, Uğur Türe
OBJECTIVE The semisitting position of a patient confers numerous advantages in various neurosurgical procedures, but venous air embolism is one of the associated complications of this position. To date, no prospective studies of the relationship between the degree of head elevation and the rate and severity of venous air embolism for patients undergoing a procedure in this position have been performed. In this study, the authors compared changes in the severity of venous air embolism according to the degree of head elevation (30° or 45°) in patients undergoing an elective cranial neurosurgical procedure in the semisitting position...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694487/evidence-for-rapid-weathering-response-to-climatic-warming-during-the-toarcian-oceanic-anoxic-event
#17
Theodore R Them, Benjamin C Gill, David Selby, Darren R Gröcke, Richard M Friedman, Jeremy D Owens
Chemical weathering consumes atmospheric carbon dioxide through the breakdown of silicate minerals and is thought to stabilize Earth's long-term climate. However, the potential influence of silicate weathering on atmospheric pCO2 levels on geologically short timescales (10(3)-10(5) years) remains poorly constrained. Here we focus on the record of a transient interval of severe climatic warming across the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event or T-OAE from an open ocean sedimentary succession from western North America...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684156/virus-incidence-in-wheat-increases-under-elevated-co2-a-4-year-study-of-yellow-dwarf-viruses-from-a-free-air-carbon-dioxide-facility
#18
Piotr Trębicki, Narelle Nancarrow, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Brendan Rodoni, Mohammad Aftab, Angela Freeman, Alan Yen, Glenn Fitzgerald
The complexities behind the mechanisms associated with virus-host-vector interactions of vector-transmitted viruses, and their consequences for disease development need to be understood to reduce virus spread and disease severity. Climate has a substantial effect on viruses, vectors, host plants and their interactions. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is predicted to impact the interactions between them. This study, conducted under ambient and elevated CO2 (550μmolmol(-1)), in the Australian Grains Free Air Carbon Enrichment facility reports on natural yellow dwarf virus incidence on wheat (including Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV))...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667347/clinical-analysis-of-diabetic-combined-pulmonary-mucormycosis
#19
Yu-Hong Li, Peng Sun, Jian-Chao Guo
OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding of diabetic combined pulmonary mucormycosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical data of twelve patients diagnosed as diabetic combined pulmonary mucormycosis were analyzed by the clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Patients from January 1999 to June 2015 in our hospital had poor blood glucose control and varying degrees of diabetic chronic complications with an on average of diabetes 8...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666176/nitrous-oxide-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-patterns-and-dynamics-from-an-experimental-pig-mass-grave
#20
M Dalva, T R Moore, M Kalacska, G Leblanc
The objective of the three-year study was to examine spatial and temporal patterns of fluxes and soil pore air concentrations of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from an experimental mass grave located in a temperate environment. The mass grave (5×10m) contained twenty pig carcasses at a depth of approximately 1m was compared to a plot of the same dimensions containing only disturbed soil, as well as an undisturbed plot. Soil pore air CH4 concentrations were sub-ambient (<1.8ppm) except at 75 and 100cm depths at the mass grave in years 1 and 2 but decreased in year 3...
June 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
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