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elevated carbon dioxide

Antoine Boullis, Solène Blanchard, Frédéric Francis, François Verheggen
Honeydew is considered a cornerstone of the interactions between aphids and their natural enemies. Bacteria activity occurring in aphid honeydew typically results in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by the natural enemies of aphids to locate their prey. Because atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration directly impacts the physiology of plants, we raise the hypothesis that elevated CO₂ concentrations impact the quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, as well as the diversity and quantity of honeydew VOCs, leading to cascade effects on the foraging behavior of aphids' natural enemies...
April 20, 2018: Insects
Young Jin Choi, Hae Rin Oh, Jae Won Oh, Kyu Rang Kim, Mi Jin Kim, Baek Jo Kim, Won Gi Baek
Although atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) has no apparent direct effect on human health, it does have direct effects on plants. The present study evaluated the influence of increased CO₂ levels on the concentration of allergens from common ragweed pollen by setting up a chamber study to model future air conditions and a field study to evaluate current air conditions. For the chamber study, we established 20 ragweed plants in an open-top chamber under different CO₂ levels (380-400, 500-520, 600-620, and 1,000-1,100 parts per million [ppm])...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Tali D Lee, Melissa A Pastore
Theory predicts and evidence shows that plant species that use the C4 photosynthetic pathway (C4 species) are less responsive to elevated carbon dioxide ( e CO2 ) than species that use only the C3 pathway (C3 species). We document a reversal from this expected C3 -C4 contrast. Over the first 12 years of a 20-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment with 88 C3 or C4 grassland plots, we found that biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C3 but not C4 plots, as expected. During the subsequent 8 years, the pattern reversed: Biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C4 but not C3 plots...
April 20, 2018: Science
J Piot, A Hébrard, M Durand, J F Payen, P Albaladejo
Following cardiac surgery, hyperlactatemia due to anaerobic metabolism is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality. We previously found that an elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) predicts anaerobic metabolism. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate that it is also associated with poor outcome following cardiac surgery. This single institution, prospective, observational study includes all those patients that were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, that had also been monitored using pulmonary artery catheter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Josefin Sundin, Fredrik Jutfelt
Behavioural abnormality in fishes has been proposed as a significant consequence of the increasing levels of carbon dioxide occurring in the oceans. Negative effects of elevated CO2 have been reported for behaviours such as predator-prey interactions, foraging, hearing and behavioural lateralization. Importantly, the effects vary greatly both within and between species, and some recent studies have shown minimal effects of CO2 on behaviour. Whether the effect of CO2 also varies between males and females is, however, virtually unexplored...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jie-Xia Liu, Kai Feng, Guang-Long Wang, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an important regulator of plant growth and development, and its proportion in the atmosphere continues to rise now. Lignin is one of the major secondary products in plants with vital biological functions. However, the relationship between CO2 level and xylogenesis in celery is still unknown. In order to investigate the effects of increasing CO2 concentration on lignin accumulation in celery, 'Jinnanshiqin' were exposed to two CO2 applications, 400 (e0 ) and 1000 μmol mol-1 (e1 ), respectively...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Emad Ibrahim, Pavel Dobeš, Martin Kunc, Pavel Hyršl, Dalibor Kodrík
This study examined how adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine affect defense responses in Drosophila melanogaster larvae infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora). Three loss-of-function mutant larvae were tested: Akh1 , AdoR1 (adenosine receptor), and Akh1 AdoR1 . Mortality decreased in all mutants post-EPN infection compared with the control (w1118 ). Additionally, co-application of external AKH with EPN significantly increased mortality beyond rates observed in EPN-only treatment, while also elevating carbon dioxide production, a measure of metabolism...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Soad Al Jaouni, Ahmed M Saleh, Mohammed A M Wadaan, Wael N Hozzein, Samy Selim, Hamada AbdElgawad
Many studies have discussed the influence of elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 ) on modeling and crop plants. However, much less effort has been dedicated to herbal plants. In this study, a robust monitoring for the levels of 94 primary and secondary metabolites and minerals in two medicinal herbs, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), grwon under both ambient (aCO2 , 360 ppm) and eCO2 (620 ppm) was performed. We also assessed how the changes in herbal tissue chemistry affected their biological activity...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Verónica Molina, Yoanna Eissler, Marcela Cornejo, Pierre E Galand, Cristina Dorador, Martha Hengst, Camila Fernandez, Jean Pierre Francois
Northern Chile harbors different bioclimatic zones including hyper-arid and arid ecosystems and hotspots of microbial life, such as high altitude wetlands, which may contribute differentially to greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). In this study, we explored ground level GHG distribution and the potential role of a wetland situated at 3800 m.a.s.l, and characterized by high solar radiation < 1600 W m-2 , extreme temperature ranges (-12 to 24 °C) and wind stress (< 17 m s-1 )...
April 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Dananjali Gamage, Michael Thompson, Mark Sutherland, Naoki Hirotsu, Amane Makino, Saman Seneweera
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) significantly influences plant growth, development and biomass. Increased photosynthesis rate, together with lower stomatal conductance, have been identified as the key factors that stimulate plant growth at elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]). However, variations in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance alone cannot fully explain the dynamic changes in plant growth. Stimulation of photosynthesis at e[CO2 ] is always associated with post-photosynthetic secondary metabolic processes that include carbon and nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle functions and hormonal regulation...
April 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Namraj Dhami, David T Tissue, Christopher I Cazzonelli
Carotenoids contribute to photosynthesis, photoprotection, phytohormone and apocarotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Carotenoid-derived metabolites control plant growth, development and signaling processes and their accumulation can depend upon changes in the environment. Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 ) often enhances carbon assimilation, early growth patterns and overall plant biomass, and may increase carotenoid accumulation due to higher levels of precursors from isoprenoid biosynthesis. Variable effects of eCO2 on carotenoid accumulation in leaves have been observed for different plant species...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Amro S Elhag, Chang Da, Yunshen Chen, Nayan Mukherjee, Jose A Noguera, Shehab Alzobaidi, Prathima P Reddy, Ali M AlSumaiti, George J Hirasaki, Sibani L Biswal, Quoc P Nguyen, Keith P Johnston
HYPOTHESIS: The viscosity and stability of CO2 /water foams at elevated temperature can be increased significantly with highly viscoelastic aqueous lamellae. The slow thinning of these viscoelastic lamellae leads to greater foam stability upon slowing down Ostwald ripening and coalescence. In the aqueous phase, the viscoelasticity may be increased by increasing the surfactant tail length to form more entangled micelles even at high temperatures and salinity. EXPERIMENTS: Systematic measurements of the steady state shear viscosity of aqueous solutions of the diamine surfactant (C16-18 N(CH3 )C3 N(CH3 )2 ) were conducted at varying surfactant concentrations and salinity to determine the parameters for formation of entangled wormlike micelles...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Stefania Farina, Noemi Bruno, Cecilia Agalbato, Mauro Contini, Roberto Cassandro, Davide Elia, Sergio Harari, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients show, during exercise, an excessive increase in ventilation (VE ) compared to carbon dioxide output (VCO2 ), determining a high VE /VCO2 slope. There are several possible causes, including an elevated dead space ventilation (VD ), VE /perfusion (Q) mismatch and/or an enhanced peripheral or central chemoreceptor activity. We evaluated the causes of exercise hyperventilation in PH patients. METHODS: Eighteen group I and IV PH patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test with blood gas analysis at every minute...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Guoyun Zhang, Tong Zhang, Juanjuan Liu, Jianguo Zhang, Caiyun He
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration increases every year. It is critical to understand the elevated CO2 response molecular mechanisms of plants using genomic techniques. Hippophae rhamnoides L. is a high stress resistance plant species widely distributed in Europe and Asia. However, the molecular mechanism of elevated CO2 response in H. rhamnoides has been limited. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of two sea buckthorn cultivars under different CO2 concentrations was performed, based on the next-generation illumina sequencing platform and de novo assembly...
March 21, 2018: Gene
Jennifer D Jeffrey, Kelly D Hannan, Caleb T Hasler, Cory D Suski
Multiple environmental stressors may interact in complex ways to exceed or diminish the impacts of individual stressors. In the present study, the interactive effects of two ecologically-relevant stressors (increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2 ) were assessed for freshwater mussels - a group of organisms that are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining worldwide. The individual and combined effects of elevated temperature (22-34˚C) and pCO2 (~230, 58,000 µatm) on juvenile Lampsilis siliquoidea were quantified over a 5- or 14-day period, where physiological and whole-animal responses were measured...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ibrahim B Baoua, Ousmane Bakoye, Laouali Amadou, Larry L Murdock, Dieudonne Baributsa
Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4...
March 2018: Journal of Stored Products Research
Scott N Johnson, James M W Ryalls, Andrew N Gherlenda, Adam Frew, Susan E Hartley
Many studies demonstrate that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2 ) can promote root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes such as lucerne ( Medicago sativa ). But when elevated temperature (eT) conditions are applied in tandem with eCO2 , a more realistic scenario for future climate change, the positive effects of eCO2 on nodulation and BNF in M. sativa are often much reduced. Silicon (Si) supplementation of M. sativa has also been reported to promote root nodulation and BNF, so could potentially restore the positive effects of eCO2 under eT...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kelly D Hannan, Jodie L Rummer
Aquatic acidification, caused by elevating levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is increasing in both freshwater and marine ecosystems worldwide. However, few studies have examined how acidification will affect oxygen (O2 ) transport and, therefore, performance in fishes. Although data are generally lacking, the majority of fishes investigated in this meta-analysis exhibited no effect of elevated CO2 at the level of O2 uptake, suggesting that they are able to maintain metabolic performance during a period of acidosis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Muhammad Awais, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Wajid Nasim, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mubeen, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Habib Ur Rahman, Umer Saeed, Muhammad Naveed Arshad, Jamshad Hussain
Growth, development, and economic yield of agricultural crops rely on moisture, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide concentration. However, the amount of these parameters is varying with time due to climate change. Climate change is factual and ongoing so, first principle of agronomy should be to identify climate change potential impacts and adaptation measures to manage the susceptibilities of agricultural sector. Crop models have ability to predict the crop's yield under changing climatic conditions. We used OILCROP-SUN model to simulate the influence of elevated temperature and CO2 on crop growth duration, maximum leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), and achene yield of sunflower under semi-arid conditions of Pakistan (Faisalabad, Punjab)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rushna Munir, Dennis Konnerup, Hammad A Khan, Kadambot H M Siddique, Timothy D Colmer
During soil waterlogging, plants experience O2 deficits, elevated ethylene and high CO2 in the root-zone. The effects on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) of ethylene (2 μL L-1 ), CO2 (2-20% v/v) or deoxygenated stagnant solution were evaluated. Ethylene and high CO2 reduced root growth of both species, but O2 deficiency had the most damaging effect and especially so for chickpea. Chickpea suffered root tip death when in deoxygenated stagnant solution. High CO2 inhibited root respiration and reduced growth, while sugars accumulated in root tips, of both species...
February 27, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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