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elevated carbon dioxide

Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Samir Nusair
The incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an increasingly used diagnostic method that serves to evaluate patients with chief complaint of dyspnea during exercise. Performing maximal symptom-limited CPET can show if the tested subject has a reduced exercise capacity and give clues to the mechanism of such exercise capacity reduction, cardiac, pulmonary, or pulmonary vascular source. In this review, it is suggested that the evaluation of the complex results of CPET should be performed by first determining if myocardial/circulatory insufficiency is present and second if there is gas exchange abnormality...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Juho Antti Sirviö, Juha Heiskanen
This study presents the use of a reactive deep eutectic solvent (DES) for the chemical modification of wood cellulose fibers. DES based on dimethylurea and ZnCl2 was used to synthetize cellulose methyl carbamate (CMeC). This synthesis was performed at an elevated temperature under solvent-free conditions. Chemical characterization based on FTIR and NMR indicates that methyl carbamate was successfully introduced to cellulose, and a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.17 was obtained after 3h of reaction at 150 °C...
November 15, 2016: ChemSusChem
Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Maija E Marushchak, Saara E Lind, Alexander Novakovskiy, Mika Aurela, Pertti J Martikainen, Christina Biasi
Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas...
November 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Aaron L Strong, Tera P Johnson, Nona R Chiariello, Christopher B Field
Numerous studies have demonstrated that soil respiration rates increase under experimental warming, although the long-term, multiyear dynamics of this feedback are not well constrained. Less is known about the effects of single, punctuated events in combination with other longer-duration anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of soil carbon (C) loss. In 2012 and 2013, we assessed the effects of decadal-scale anthropogenic global change - warming, increased nitrogen (N) deposition, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and increased precipitation - on soil respiration rates in an annual-dominated Mediterranean grassland...
November 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
Guoping Hu, Yankui Wu, Yumin Zhou, Zelong Wu, Liping Wei, Yuqun Li, GongYong Peng, Weiqiang Liang, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum D-dimer is elevated in respiratory disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of D-dimer on in-hospital and 1-year mortality after acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: Upon admission, we measured 343 AECOPD patients' serum D-dimer levels and arterial blood gas analysis, and recorded their clinical characteristics. The level of D-dimer that discriminated survivors and non-survivors was determined using a receiver operator curve (ROC)...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
P Saludes, L Proença, G Gruartmoner, L Enseñat, A Pérez-Madrigal, C Espinal, J Mesquida
Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (PcvaCO2) has demonstrated its prognostic value in critically ill patients suffering from shock, and current expert recommendations advocate for further resuscitation interventions when PcvaCO2 is elevated. PcvaCO2 combination with arterial-venous oxygen content difference (PcvaCO2/CavO2) seems to enhance its performance when assessing anaerobic metabolism. However, the fact that PCO2 values might be altered by changes in blood O2 content (the Haldane effect), has been presented as a limitation of PCO2-derived variables...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Linwood Pendleton, Adrien Comte, Chris Langdon, Julia A Ekstrom, Sarah R Cooley, Lisa Suatoni, Michael W Beck, Luke M Brander, Lauretta Burke, Josh E Cinner, Carolyn Doherty, Peter E T Edwards, Dwight Gledhill, Li-Qing Jiang, Ruben J van Hooidonk, Louise Teh, George G Waldbusser, Jessica Ritter
REEFS AND PEOPLE AT RISK: Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere put shallow, warm-water coral reef ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them at risk from two key global environmental stresses: 1) elevated sea surface temperature (that can cause coral bleaching and related mortality), and 2) ocean acidification. These global stressors: cannot be avoided by local management, compound local stressors, and hasten the loss of ecosystem services. Impacts to people will be most grave where a) human dependence on coral reef ecosystems is high, b) sea surface temperature reaches critical levels soonest, and c) ocean acidification levels are most severe...
2016: PloS One
Matthew Haworth, Dilek Killi, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nopparat Nasuchon, Katsuya Hirasaka, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Jiro Okada, Atsushi Ishimatsu
This study examined how contraction force and protein profiles of the tube feet of the sea urchin (Pseudocentrotus depressus) were affected when acclimated to 400 (control), 2000 and 10,000μatm CO2 for 48days. Acclimation to higher CO2 conditions significantly reduced contraction force of the tube feet. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that eight spots changed in protein volume: six up-regulated and two down-regulated. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry, three up-regulated spots (tubulin beta chain, tropomyosin fragment, and actin N-terminal fragment) and two down-regulated spots (actin C-terminal fragment and myosin light chain) were identified...
October 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Live H Hagen, Jeremy A Frank, Mirzaman Zamanzadeh, Vincent G H Eijsink, Phillip B Pope, Svein J Horn, Magnus Ø Arntzen
: In this study, we used multiple meta-omic approaches to characterize the microbial community and the active metabolic pathways of a stable industrial biogas reactor with food waste as the dominant feedstock, operating at thermophilic temperatures (60°C) and elevated levels of free ammonia (367 mg NH3-N/L). The microbial community was strongly dominated (76% of all 16S rRNA amplicon reads) by populations affiliated to the proteolytic bacterium, Coprothermobacter proteolyticus. Multiple Coprothermobacter-affiliated strains were detected, introducing an additional level of complexity seldom explored in biogas studies...
November 4, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Vicente Franco, Theodora Zacharopoulou, Jan Hammer, Helge Schmidt, Peter Mock, Martin Weiss, Zissis Samaras
Hybridisation offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is yet missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the NEDC and WLTP...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Dan Norbäck, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Gui-Hong Cai, Vinoshini Sooria, Syazwan Aizat Ismail, Gunilla Wieslander
Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhouli Liu, Wei Chen, Xingyuan He, Shilei Fu, Tao Lu
This study examined whether carbon dioxide (CO2) might alleviate ozone (O3) injury to the dominant coniferous forest species of northern China, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. After 90 days O3 exposure, biomass and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased significantly by 24.44 % and 42.89 % compared with the control. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was shown, suggesting cell membrane damage and oxidative stress. However, the positive responses of biomass dry weight, antioxidative enzymes and soluble sugar contents under elevated CO2 alone and the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 were observed, indicating that CO2 could ameliorate O3-induced injury...
December 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Erin A Riley, Timothy Gould, Kris Hartin, Scott A Fruin, Christopher D Simpson, Michael G Yost, Timothy Larson
Ultrafine particle number (UFPN) and size distributions, black carbon, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured downwind of two of the busiest airports in the world, Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL - Atlanta, GA) using a mobile monitoring platform. Transects were located between 5 km and 10 km from the ATL and LAX airports. In addition, measurements were taken at 43 additional urban neighborhood locations in each city and on freeways. We found a 3-5 fold increase in UFPN concentrations in transects under the landing approach path to both airports relative to surrounding urban areas with similar ground traffic characteristics...
August 2016: Atmospheric Environment
Simone Fatichi, Sebastian Leuzinger, Athanasios Paschalis, J Adam Langley, Alicia Donnellan Barraclough, Mark J Hovenden
Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration (ET), ultimately driving changes in plant growth, hydrology, and the global carbon balance. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, whereas indirect effects, although documented, elude explicit quantification in experiments. Here, we used a mechanistic model to investigate the relative contributions of direct (through carbon assimilation) and indirect (via soil moisture savings due to stomatal closure, and changes in leaf area index) effects of elevated CO2 across a variety of ecosystems...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C Wigand, K Sundberg, A Hanson, E Davey, R Johnson, E Watson, J Morris
Climate change is altering sea level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0...
2016: PloS One
J A Tix, C T Hasler, C Sullivan, J D Jeffrey, C D Suski
The current study investigated the behavioural response of Lepomis macrochirus following exposures to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ). For this, L. macrochirus were held at ambient pCO2 (160 μatm pCO2 ) for 7 days, then exposed to elevated pCO2 (8300 μatm pCO2 ) for 5 days, and then returned to ambient conditions for a further 5 days to recover. At the end of each exposure period, several behavioural metrics were quantified (boldness, lateralization and activity). Data showed no change in lateralization and most metrics associated with performance and boldness...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Hannah E Aichelman, Joseph E Townsend, Travis A Courtney, Justin H Baumann, Sarah W Davies, Karl D Castillo
Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have caused global average sea surface temperature (SST) to increase by approximately 0.11°C per decade between 1971 and 2010 - a trend that is projected to continue through the 21st century. A multitude of research studies have demonstrated that increased SSTs compromise the coral holobiont (cnidarian host and its symbiotic algae) by reducing both host calcification and symbiont density, among other variables. However, we still do not fully understand the role of heterotrophy in the response of the coral holobiont to elevated temperature, particularly for temperate corals...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Fabrice Gritti, Michael Fogwill, Martin Gilar, Joseph A Jarrell
The rapid and complete baseline separation of both volatile (C5 to C16 alkanes in gasoline or terpenes in plant extracts) and non-volatile (>C20 alkanes) organic compounds was achieved by combining (1) low-density fluid chromatography (LDFC) using carbon dioxide at elevated temperature (>90°C) and low pressure (1500psi) designed to increase the retention of the most volatile compounds and (2) high-vacuum technology (<10(-4)Torr) in order to preserve the maximum efficiency of short analytical columns (3...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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