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elevated carbon dioxide

Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
Liina Pajusalu, Georg Martin, Tiina Paalme, Arno Põllumäe
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
Chen Xu, Hai-Dong Kan, Yan-Ni Fan, Ren-Jie Chen, Jiang-Hong Liu, Ya-Fei Li, Yao Zhang, Ai-Ling Ji, Tong-Jian Cai
The correlation between enteritis, a common digestive disease, and exposure to ambient air pollutants has not been examined in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association between short-term air pollution exposure and outpatient visits for enteritis in Xi'an, China, occurred using a time-series investigation. Daily baseline data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, were obtained. The overdispersed Poisson generalized additive model was used to analyze the association between air pollutant levels and frequency of enteritis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Amelia Pollard, Freya Shephard, James Freed, Susan Liddell, Lisa Chakrabarti
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle...
October 10, 2016: Aging
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate McCulloh
Here we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture, and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend toward an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers the results are mixed, some species showing minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Amine Farias Costa, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Antônio Cm Ponce de Leon
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. OBJECTIVES: To quantify mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. METHODS: We performed a daily time series of non-accidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Astrid Balança
OBJECTIVE: We report an emphysematous cystitis in a diabetic patient complicated by peritonitis. OBSERVATIONS: A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency with septic shock. Patient's history: poorly controlled diabetes and prostate adenoma. Clinical examination revealed a surgical abdomen and signs of shock. Blood sugar was 6g/L. CRP 274mg/L. The abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed a perforated bladder with emphysema of the bladder wall and endoluminal air bubbles...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Naveen Kumar, Irani Mukherjee, Bipasa Sarkar, Ranjit Kumar Paul
Pesticide persistence and degradation in soil are influenced by factors like soil characteristics, light, moisture etc. Persistence of tricyclazole was studied under different soil moisture regimes viz., dry, field capacity and submerged in two different soil types viz., Inceptisol and Ultisol from Delhi and Karnataka, respectively. Tricyclazole dissipated faster in submerged (t1/2 160.22-177.05d) followed by field capacity (t1/2 167.17-188.07d) and dry (t1/2 300.91-334.35d) in both the soil types. Half-life of tricyclazole in Delhi field capacity soil amended with Blue Green Algae (BGA), was 150...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Frederick A Zeiler, Nicholas Sader, Michael West, Lawrence M Gillman
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate for intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction in patients with neurologic illness. METHODS: Data sources: articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to April 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. DATA EXTRACTION: 2 reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Fabrice Gritti, Michael Fogwill, Martin Gilar, Joseph A Jarrell
The performance of a 3.0mm×150mm column packed with 1.8μm fully porous HSS-SB-C18 particles was investigated in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with low-density, highly expansible carbon dioxide. These conditions are selected for the analysis of semi-volatile compounds. Elevated temperatures (>100°C) were then combined with low column back pressures (<100bar). In this work, the inlet temperature of pure carbon dioxide was set at 107°C, the active back pressure regulator (ABPR) pressure was fixed at 100bar, and the flow rate was set at 2...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nithin Jayan, Jaya Susan Jacob, Mohan Mathew, Roy Joy Mukkada
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a safe and minimally invasive modality regarded as the first-line management of all types of achalasia. POEM is performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation using an orally inserted flexible fiberscope. The aim of this study is to describe the anesthetic management of POEM for achalasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A chart review of 21 patients who underwent POEM for achalasia at our center from March 2013 to June 2015 was performed...
July 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Heather C McCaig, Amanda Stockton, Candice Crilly, Shirley Chung, Isik Kanik, Ying Lin, Fang Zhong
UNLABELLED: The analysis of the organic compounds present in the martian regolith is essential for understanding the history and habitability of Mars, as well as studying the signs of possible extant or extinct life. To date, pyrolysis, the only technique that has been used to extract organic compounds from the martian regolith, has not enabled the detection of unaltered native martian organics. The elevated temperatures required for pyrolysis extraction can cause native martian organics to react with perchlorate salts in the regolith and possibly result in the chlorohydrocarbons that have been detected by in situ instruments...
September 2016: Astrobiology
Ulla Anttalainen, Mirja Tenhunen, Ville Rimpilä, Olli Polo, Esa Rauhala, Sari-Leena Himanen, Tarja Saaresranta
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea-hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Sharon B Gray, Orla Dermody, Stephanie P Klein, Anna M Locke, Justin M McGrath, Rachel E Paul, David M Rosenthal, Ursula M Ruiz-Vera, Matthew H Siebers, Reid Strellner, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Carl J Bernacchi, Stephen P Long, Donald R Ort, Andrew D B Leakey
Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is widely expected to counteract crop losses that are due to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulation and year-to-year variation in weather conditions at a unique open-air field facility to show that the stimulation of soybean yield by elevated [CO2] diminished to zero as drought intensified...
2016: Nature Plants
Alexander Hinz, Axel Schulz, Alexander Villinger
The Group 15 open-shell singlet biradicaloid [P(μ-NTer)]2 (Ter=2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phenyl) was utilized in the activation of stable small molecules. Fast reactions with H2 , CO2 , and NH3 were observed. Dihydrogen easily added to [P(μ-NTer)]2  , yielding [HP(μ-NTer)]2 under ambient conditions whereas reversible release of molecular hydrogen was observed at slightly elevated temperatures (T>60 °C). As [P(μ-NTer)]2 is a species with phosphorus in the unusual formal oxidation state +II, it is capable of reducing carbon dioxide to afford a zwitterionic compound, [OP(μ-NTer)2 P], and carbon monoxide...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Emilio Garcia-Robledo, Lars D M Ottosen, Niels V Voigt, M W Kofoed, Niels P Revsbech
Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander Watson-Lazowski, Yunan Lin, Franco Miglietta, Richard J Edwards, Mark A Chapman, Gail Taylor
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) directly determines the rate of plant photosynthesis and indirectly effects plant productivity and fitness and may therefore act as a selective pressure driving evolution, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Using Plantago lanceolata L. seed collected from a naturally high CO2 spring and adjacent ambient CO2 control site, we investigated multigenerational response to future, elevated atmospheric CO2 . Plants were grown in either ambient or elevated CO2 (700 μmol mol(-1) ), enabling for the first time, characterization of the functional and population genomics of plant acclimation and adaptation to elevated CO2 ...
August 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
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