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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644397/relationship-between-remote-sensing-data-plant-biomass-and-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-under-controlled-conditions
#1
Christoph Knoblauch, Conor Watson, Clara Berendonk, Rolf Becker, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Florian Wichern
The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642785/potassium-starvation-limits-soybean-growth-more-than-the-photosynthetic-processes-across-co2-levels
#2
Shardendu K Singh, Vangimalla R Reddy
Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) often enhances plant photosynthesis, growth, and productivity. However, under nutrient-limited conditions the beneficial effects of high CO2 are often diminished. To evaluate the combined effects of potassium (K) deficiency and eCO2 on soybean photosynthesis, growth, biomass partitioning, and yields, plants were grown under controlled environment conditions with an adequate (control, 5.0 mM) and two deficient (0.50 and 0.02 mM) levels of K under ambient CO2 (aCO2; 400 μmol mol(-1)) and eCO2 (800 μmol mol(-1))...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639043/ultrasonographic-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-for-predicting-elevated-intracranial-pressure-during-laparoscopic-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Eun Jung Kim, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Seung Ho Choi, Kyoungun Park, Min-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery involves the creation of a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum to facilitate a clear surgical view, which may result in an elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Depending on the surgical area, steep Trendelenburg positioning may be used as well, further increasing the ICP. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of laparoscopic surgery on changes in ICP assessed by ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), which is a generally accepted simple, reliable, and non-invasive ICP measurement technique...
June 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630580/the-effect-of-upper-body-anaerobic-pre-loading-on-2000-m-ergometer-rowing-performance-in-college-level-male-rowers
#4
Priit Purge, Peter Hofmann, Rait Merisaar, Alexander Mueller, Gerhard Tschakert, Jarek Mäestu, Jaak Jürimäe
Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise (HIE) added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise. Nine well-trained college level male rowers (24.6 ± 7.1 yrs; 1.87 ± 0.07 m; 88.9 ± 9.8 kg; 18.5 ± 3.7% body fat) volunteered to participate in the study...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627298/a-prospective-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-based-evaluation-of-the-acute-and-cumulative-effects-of-sport-related-concussion-on-neurovascular-coupling-response-dynamics
#5
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Paul van Donkelaar
Sport-related concussion has been shown to alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) both acutely and chronically, and may exert cumulative effects across multiple injuries. Such dysfunction may be mediated by trauma-induced deficits to CBF control mechanisms, though our understanding of these effects is limited, including dynamics of neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses (i.e. CBF responses to neurologic demand). 179 junior-level contact sport athletes completed preseason testing - 42 reported never having experienced a concussion (Hx-) while 31 had endured three or more (Hx3+)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623835/life-cycle-assessment-of-treatment-and-handling-options-for-a-highly-saline-brine-extracted-from-a-potential-co2-storage-site
#6
Hafiz H Salih, Jiaxing Li, Ruth Kaplan, Seyed A Dastgheib
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in deep saline aquifers is a promising option for CO2 geological sequestration. However, brine extraction may be necessary to control the anticipated increase in reservoir pressure resulting from CO2 injection. The extracted brines usually have elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants and require proper handling or treatment. Different options for the handling or treatment of a high-TDS brine extracted from a potential CO2 sequestration site (Mt...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607068/how-temporal-patterns-in-rainfall-determine-the-geomorphology-and-carbon-fluxes-of-tropical-peatlands
#7
Alexander R Cobb, Alison M Hoyt, Laure Gandois, Jangarun Eri, René Dommain, Kamariah Abu Salim, Fuu Ming Kai, Nur Salihah Haji Su'ut, Charles F Harvey
Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the Laplacian of the peat surface elevation) that specifies, under a given rainfall regime, the ultimate, stable morphology, and hence carbon storage, of a tropical peatland within a network of rivers or canals...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598271/short-term-effects-of-ozone-air-pollution-on-hospital-admissions-for-myocardial-infarction-a-time-stratified-case-crossover-study-in-taipei
#8
Hui-Fen Chiu, Yi-Hao Weng, Ya-Wen Chiu, Chun-Yuh Yang
This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between ambient ozone (O3) levels and number of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588583/hypercapnia-impairs-enac-cell-surface-stability-by-promoting-phosphorylation-polyubiquitination-and-endocytosis-of-%C3%AE-enac-in-a-human-alveolar-epithelial-cell-line
#9
Paulina Gwoździńska, Benno A Buchbinder, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Rory E Morty, Werner Seeger, István Vadász
Acute lung injury is associated with formation of pulmonary edema leading to impaired gas exchange. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require mechanical ventilation to improve oxygenation; however, the use of relatively low tidal volumes (to minimize further injury of the lung) often leads to further accumulation of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). Hypercapnia has been shown to impair alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), thereby causing retention of pulmonary edema, and may lead to worse outcomes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587448/from-si-ii-to-si-iv-and-back-reversible-intramolecular-carbon-carbon-bond-activation-by-an-acyclic-iminosilylene
#10
Daniel Wendel, Amelie Porzelt, Fabian A D Herz, Debotra Sarkar, Christian Jandl, Shigeyoshi Inoue, Bernhard Rieger
Reversibility is fundamental for transition metal catalysis, but equally for main group chemistry and especially low-valent silicon compounds, the interplay between oxidative addition and reductive elimination is key for a potential catalytic cycle. Herein, we report a highly reactive acyclic iminosilylsilylene 1, which readily performs an intramolecular insertion into a C═C bond of its aromatic ligand framework to give silacycloheptatriene (silepin) 2. UV-vis studies of this Si(IV) compound indicated a facile transformation back to Si(II) at elevated temperatures, further supported by density functional theory calculations and experimentally demonstrated by isolation of a silylene-borane adduct 3 following addition of B(C6F5)3...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573022/ocean-acidification-impacts-spine-integrity-but-not-regenerative-capacity-of-spines-and-tube-feet-in-adult-sea-urchins
#11
Chloe E Emerson, Helena C Reinardy, Nicholas R Bates, Andrea G Bodnar
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) for eight weeks...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560485/evaluation-of-end-tidal-co2-pressure-at-the-anaerobic-threshold-for-detecting-and-assessing-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
Akifumi Higashi, Yoshihiro Dohi, Sayuri Yamabe, Hiroki Kinoshita, Yoshiharu Sada, Toshiro Kitagawa, Takayuki Hidaka, Satoshi Kurisu, Hideya Yamamoto, Yuji Yasunobu, Yasuki Kihara
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is useful for the evaluation of patients with suspected or confirmed pulmonary hypertension (PH). End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) during exercise is reduced with elevated pulmonary artery pressure. However, the utility of ventilatory parameters such as CPET for detecting PH remains unclear. We conducted a review in 155 patients who underwent right heart catheterization and CPET. Fifty-nine patients had PH [mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg]...
May 30, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558015/effects-of-tio2-nanoparticles-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-cultivated-under-super-elevated-and-normal-co2-conditions
#13
Fuping Jiang, Yunze Shen, Chuanxin Ma, Xiaowen Zhang, Weidong Cao, Yukui Rui
Concerns over the potential risks of nanomaterials to ecosystem have been raised, as it is highly possible that nanomaterials could be released to the environment and result in adverse effects on living organisms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main greenhouse gases. The level of CO2 keeps increasing and subsequently causes a series of environmental problems, especially for agricultural crops. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TiO2 NPs on wheat seedlings cultivated under super-elevated CO2 conditions (5000 mg/L CO2) and under normal CO2 conditions (400 mg/L CO2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557350/interactive-effects-of-seasonal-drought-and-elevated-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-concentration-on-prokaryotic-rhizosphere-communities
#14
Barbara Drigo, Uffe N Nielsen, Thomas C Jeffries, Nathalie J A Curlevski, Brajesh K Singh, Remko A Duursma, Ian C Anderson
Global change models indicate that rainfall patterns are likely to shift towards more extreme events concurrent with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]). Both changes in [CO2 ] and rainfall regime are known to impact above- and belowground communities, but the interactive effects of these global change drivers have not been well explored, particularly belowground. In this experimental study, we examined the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (ambient + 240 ppm; [eCO2 ]) and changes in rainfall patterns (seasonal drought) on soil microbial communities associated with forest ecosystems...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544108/elevated-intrathoracic-co2-pressure-during-thoracoscopic-surgery-decreases-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-in-neonates-and-infants-a-pilot-study
#15
Felix Neunhoeffer, Steven W Warmann, Michael Hofbeck, Alisa Müller, Frank Fideler, Guido Seitz, Martin U Schuhmann, Hans-Joachim Kirschner, Matthias Kumpf, Jörg Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypercapnia and acidosis are risk factors during thoracoscopy in neonates and infants. METHODS: In a prospective pilot study, we evaluated the effects of thoracoscopy in neonates and infants on cerebral microcirculation, oxygen saturation, and oxygen consumption. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation and blood flow were measured noninvasively using a new device combining laser Doppler flowmetry and white light spectrometry. Additionally, cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction and approximated oxygen consumption were calculated...
July 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539199/respiratory-severity-score-and-extubation-readiness-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#16
Maroun J Mhanna, Narayan P Iyer, Scott Piraino, Mohit Jain
BACKGROUND: The respiratory severity score (RSS) is a byproduct of mean airway pressure (MAP) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). We sought to determine whether RSS could be used as a screening tool to predict extubation readiness in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all VLBW infants admitted to our unit (6/1/09-2/28/12) were reviewed for infants' demographics, prenatal characteristics, and medication use...
May 10, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516355/valve-movement-of-three-species-of-north-american-freshwater-mussels-exposed-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide
#17
Caleb T Hasler, Kelly D Hannan, Jennifer D Jeffrey, Cory D Suski
Freshwater mussels are at-risk taxa and may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of the potential use of CO2 to control the movement of invasive aquatic fish species. One potential behavioral response to a change in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) may be altered valve movement. In this study, three species of mussels were fitted with modified sensors and exposed to two regimes of pCO2 to define thresholds of impaired valve movement. The first experiment demonstrated that Pyganodon grandis were much more tolerant to rising pCO2 relative to Lampsilis siliquoidea (acute closure at ∼200,000 μatm in comparison to ∼80,000 μatm)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507099/carbon-dioxide-dependent-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-family-members-relb-and-p100-gives-molecular-insight-into-co2-dependent-immune-regulation
#18
Ciara E Keogh, Carsten C Scholz, Javier Rodriguez, Andrew C Selfridge, Alexander von Kriegshiem, Eoin P Cummins
CO2 is a physiological gas normally produced in the body during aerobic respiration. Hypercapnia (elevated blood pCO2 > ≈ 50mmHg) is a feature of several lung pathologies e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypercapnia is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and suppression of inflammatory signaling. The NF-κB pathway has been implicated in these effects, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning cellular sensitivity of the NF-κB pathway to CO2 is not fully elucidated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495847/inflammatory-responses-to-acute-elevations-of-carbon-dioxide-in-mice
#19
Stephen R Thom, Veena M Bhopale, Jingping Hu, Ming Yang
Health risks are described from elevated indoor air carbon dioxide (CO2), which often ranges from 1000 to 4000 parts per million (ppm), but mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mice exposed for 2 hours to 2000 or 4000 ppm CO2 exhibit, respectively, 3.4 + 0.9 (SE, n=6) and 4.1 + 0.7 (n=10)-fold elevations in circulating microparticles (MPs); neutrophil and platelet activation and vascular leak in brain, muscle and distal colon. Interleukin (IL)-1β content of MPs also increases after 2000 ppm by 3...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494170/why-high-intensity-nppv-is-favourable-to-low-intensity-nppv-clinical-and-physiological-reasons
#20
S B Schwarz, F S Magnet, W Windisch
High-intensity non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was originally described for chronic hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in 2009, and refers to a specific ventilatory approach whereby NPPV settings are aimed at achieving the lowest arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) values possible. Thus, high-intensity NPPV requires ventilator settings to be increased in a stepwise approach to either an individually tolerated maximum, or to the levels necessary to achieve normocapnia...
May 11, 2017: COPD
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