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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212807/the-independent-and-interactive-effects-of-incremental-heat-strain-orthostatic-stress-and-mild-hypohydration-on-cerebral-perfusion
#1
Rebekah A I Lucas, Luke C Wilson, Philip N Ainslie, Jui-Lin Fan, Kate N Thomas, James D Cotter
The purpose of this study was to identify the dose-dependent effects of heat strain and orthostasis (via lower-body negative pressure; LBNP), with and without mild hypohydration, on systemic function and cerebral perfusion. Eleven males (Mean ±SD: 27 ±7 y; body mass 77 ±6 kg), resting supine in a water-perfused suit, underwent progressive passive heating [0.5°C increments in core temperature (Tc, oesophageal to +2.0°C)] whilst euhydrated (EUH) or hypohydrated (HYPO, 1.5-2% body mass deficit). At each thermal state, mean cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean, Transcranial Doppler), partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, photoplethysmography) were measured continuously during LBNP (0, -15, -30, -45 mm Hg)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196091/minimally-invasive-percutaneous-transluminal-renal-artery-stenting
#2
Ken Kongoji, Takanobu Mitarai, Mizuho Kasahara, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Yuki Ishibashi, Kohei Koyama, Kihei Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Tanabe, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Hideaki Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (MIPTRS) is a method that prevents complications to the greatest extent possible. The present study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of MIPTRS performed in cases of renal artery stenosis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≤45mL/min. METHODS: Cases of patients who underwent MIPTRS at our hospital between December 2010 and June 2015 in whom eGFR was ≤45mL/min were retrospectively analysed...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190826/biological-responses-of-the-marine-diatom-chaetoceros-socialis-to-changing-environmental-conditions-a-laboratory-experiment
#3
Xuefeng Li, Nathalie Roevros, Frank Dehairs, Lei Chou
Diatoms constitute a major group of phytoplankton, accounting for ~20% of the world's primary production. It has been shown that iron (Fe) can be the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth, in particular, in the HNLC (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll) regions. Iron plays thus an essential role in governing the marine primary productivity and the efficiency of biological carbon pump. Oceanic systems are undergoing continuous modifications at varying rates and magnitudes as a result of changing climate. The objective of our research is to evaluate how changing environmental conditions (dust deposition, ocean warming and acidification) can affect marine Fe biogeochemistry and diatom growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190723/effects-of-increasing-temperature-and-co2-on-quality-of-litter-shredders-and-microorganisms-in-amazonian-aquatic-systems
#4
Renato Tavares Martins, Renan de Souza Rezende, José Francisco Gonçalves Júnior, Aline Lopes, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Heloide de Lima Cavalcante, Neusa Hamada
Climate change may affect the chemical composition of riparian leaf litter and, aquatic organisms and, consequently, leaf breakdown. We evaluated the effects of different scenarios combining increased temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on leaf detritus of Hevea spruceana (Benth) Müll. and decomposers (insect shredders and microorganisms). We hypothesized that simulated climate change (warming and elevated CO2) would: i) decrease leaf-litter quality, ii) decrease survival and leaf breakdown by shredders, and iii) increase microbial leaf breakdown and fungal biomass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178978/the-association-between-exposure-to-air-pollutants-including-pm10-pm2-5-ozone-carbon-monoxide-sulfur-dioxide-and-nitrogen-dioxide-concentration-and-the-relative-risk-of-developing-stemi-a-case-crossover-design
#5
Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Isa Khaheshi, Amirsina Sharifi, Negin Yousefi, Mohammadreza Naderian, Mohammad Hasan Namazi, Morteza Safi, Hossein Vakili, Habibollah Saadat, Saeed Alipour Parsa, Negin Nickdoost
BACKGROUND: Unfavorable associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction are broadly investigated in recent studies and some of them revealed considerable associations; however, controversies exists between these investigations with regard to culprit components of air pollution and significance of correlation between myocardial infarction risk and air pollution. METHODS: The association between exposure to PM10, PM2.5, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide concentration of background air that residents of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, which is ranked as the most air polluted city of Iran and the relative risk of developing ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were investigated by a case-crossover design...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175086/re-examining-permissive-hypercapnia-in-ards-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Tavish Barnes, Vasileios Zochios, Ken Parhar
Lung protective ventilation has become the cornerstone of management in patients with ARDS. A subset of patients are unable to tolerate lung protective ventilation without significant carbon dioxide elevation. In these patients permissive hypercapnia is used. Although thought to be benign, it is becoming increasingly evident that elevated carbon dioxide levels have significant physiological effects. In this narrative review, we highlight clinically relevant end organ effects in both animal models and clinical studies...
November 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167180/asymmetry-of-inverted-topology-repeats-in-the-ae1-anion-exchanger-suggests-an-elevator-like-mechanism
#7
Emel Ficici, José D Faraldo-Gómez, Michael L Jennings, Lucy R Forrest
The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined...
November 22, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161700/association-between-environmental-particulate-matter-and-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#8
Cheng-Hao Weng, Ching-Chih Hu, Tzung-Hai Yen, Wen-Hung Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The deposition of β2-microglobulin induced by reactive inflammation causing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the complications of dialysis-related amyloidosis in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Air pollution levels, especially particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 mm (PM2.5), have significantly been associated with the elevation of systemic inflammatory markers. There is no previous research on possible associations between CTS and PM2...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150517/multi-omics-reveal-the-lifestyle-of-the-acidophilic-mineral-oxidizing-model-species-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-t
#9
Stephan Christel, Malte Herold, Sören Bellenberg, Mohamed El Hajjami, Antoine Buetti-Dinh, Igor V Pivkin, Wolfgang Sand, Paul Wilmes, Ansgar Poetsch, Mark Dopson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal rich environments where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of this model species' type strain is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) DSM 14647 obtained by PacBio SMRT long read sequencing for use as a high quality reference...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150502/hyperthermophilic-carbamate-kinase-stability-and-anabolic-in-vitro-activity-at-alkaline-ph
#10
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145459/the-construction-of-ventilation-turrets-in-atta-vollenweideri-leaf-cutting-ants-carbon-dioxide-levels-in-the-nest-tunnels-but-not-airflow-or-air-humidity-influence-turret-structure
#11
Florian Halboth, Flavio Roces
Nest ventilation in the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is driven via a wind-induced mechanism. On their nests, workers construct small turrets that are expected to facilitate nest ventilation. We hypothesized that the construction and structural features of the turrets would depend on the colony's current demands for ventilation and thus might be influenced by the prevailing environmental conditions inside the nest. Therefore, we tested whether climate-related parameters, namely airflow, air humidity and CO2 levels in the outflowing nest air influenced turret construction in Atta vollenweideri...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137091/the-effects-of-hypervolemic-infusion-on-microcirculation-perfusion-of-patients-during-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yunxin Deng, Qianlin Zhu, Buwei Yu, Minhua Zheng, Jue Jin
The aim of this study is to assess the effects of hypervolemic infusion with different solutions on microcirculation perfusion during laparoscopic colorectal surgery.Thirty-six patients were randomly divided into Ringer lactate solution [RL] group, succinylated gelatin injection [Gel] group, and hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection [HS] group. Hypervolemic infusion was performed during the induction period of general anesthesia. Arterial blood-gas parameters, noninvasive hemodynamics, gastric tonometry values, and central venous pressure (CVP) were compared at baseline (T1); the end of hypervolemic infusion (T2); 5 min (T3), 15 min (T4), 30 min (T5), and 60 min (T6) during pneumoperitoneum; 5 min (T7), 15 min (T8), and 25 min (T9) after pneumoperitoneum...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132006/ocean-acidification-dampens-physiological-stress-response-to-warming-and-contamination-in-a-commercially-important-fish-argyrosomus-regius
#13
Eduardo Sampaio, Ana R Lopes, Sofia Francisco, Jose R Paula, Marta Pimentel, Ana L Maulvault, Tiago Repolho, Tiago F Grilo, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, António Marques, Rui Rosa
Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases emissions are changing ocean temperature and carbonate chemistry (warming and acidification, respectively). Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of highly toxic and persistent contaminants, such as methylmercury, will play a key role in further shaping the ecophysiology of marine organisms. Despite recent studies reporting mostly additive interactions between contaminant and climate change effects, the consequences of multi-stressor exposure are still largely unknown...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130541/depression-social-support-and-clinical-outcomes-following-lung-transplantation
#14
Patrick J Smith, Laurie D Snyder, Scott M Palmer, Benson M Hoffman, Gregory L Stonerock, Krista K Ingle, Caroline K Saulino, James A Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have examined social support as a potential protective factor. We therefore examined the association between pre-transplant depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a large sample of lung transplant recipients...
November 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120078/high-carbon-dioxide-concentration-and-elevated-temperature-impact-the-growth-of-weeds-but-do-not-change-the-efficacy-of-glyphosate
#15
Khawar Jabran, Mehmed Nedim Doğan
BACKGROUND: Global climate changes may impact the growth and management of weed species. This work was aimed at evaluating the impact of recent climate changes on growth of weeds and herbicide efficacy. The effects of temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and herbicide on growth and control of Bromus tectorum L., Hordeum murinum L., and Lactuca serriola L. were studied. Treatments included: 1) Control or ambient environment (CO2 =400-450 ppm; temperature 20/10 °C day/night); 2) Elevated temperature (CO2 =400-450 ppm; temperature 25/15 °C day/night); 3) High CO2 and elevated temperature (CO2 =800-900 ppm; temperature 25/15 °C day/night); 4) High CO2 (CO2 =800-900 ppm; temperature 20/10 °C day/night)...
November 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116768/greenhouse-gas-dynamics-in-a-salt-wedge-estuary-revealed-by-high-resolution-cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy-observations
#16
Douglas R Tait, Damien T Maher, WeiWen Wong, Isaac R Santos, Mahmood Sadat-Noori, Ceylena Holloway, Perran L M Cook
Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115769/importance-of-measuring-lactate-levels-in-children-with-sepsis
#17
Nisha Anil
Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis...
October 10, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110424/increasing-drought-and-diminishing-benefits-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-for-soybean-yields-across-the-us-midwest
#18
Zhenong Jin, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Andrew D B Leakey, David B Lobell
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) are expected to increase C3 crop yield through the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) by stimulating photosynthesis and by reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration. The latter effect is widely believed to lead to greater benefits in dry rather than wet conditions, although some recent experimental evidence challenges this view. Here we used a process-based crop model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), to quantify the contemporary and future CFE on soybean in one of its primary production area of the US Midwest...
November 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105229/elevated-carbon-dioxide-and-warming-impact-silicon-and-phenolic-based-defences-differently-in-native-and-exotic-grasses
#19
Scott N Johnson, Susan E Hartley
Global climate change may increase invasions of exotic plant species by directly promoting the success of invasive/exotic species or by reducing the competitive abilities of native species. Changes in plant chemistry, leading to altered susceptibility to stress, could mediate these effects. Grasses are hyper-accumulators of silicon, which plays a crucial function in the alleviation of diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. It is unknown how predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and air temperature affect silicon accumulation in grasses, especially in relation to primary and secondary metabolites...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101706/will-elevated-atmospheric-co2-boost-the-growth-of-an-invasive-submerged-macrophyte-cabomba-caroliniana-under-the-interference-of-phytoplankton
#20
Xin Liu, Yanqing Han, Jinge Zhu, Jiancai Deng, Weiping Hu, Thomaz Edson Veloso da Silva
The growth of most submerged macrophytes is likely to be limited by the availability of carbon resource, and this is especially true for the obligatory carbon dioxide (CO2) users. A mesocosm experiment was performed to investigate the physiological, photophysiological, and biochemical responses of Cabomba caroliniana, an invasive macrophyte specie in the Lake Taihu Basin, to elevated atmospheric CO2 (1000 μmol mol(-1)); we also examined the possible impacts of interferences derived from the phytoplankton proliferation and its concomitant disturbances on the growth of C...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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