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Endothelial function diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637783/paradoxical-suppression-of-atherosclerosis-in-the-absence-of-microrna-146a
#1
Henry S Cheng, Rickvinder Besla, Angela Li, Zhiqi Chen, Eric A Shikatani, Maliheh Nazari-Jahantigh, Adel Hammoutène, My-Anh Nguyen, Michele Geoffrion, Lei Cai, Nadiya Khyzha, Tong Li, Sonya A MacParland, Mansoor Husain, Myron I Cybulsky, Chantal M Boulanger, Ryan E Temel, Andreas Schober, Katey J Rayner, Clinton Robbins, Jason E Fish
Rationale: Inflammation is a key contributor to atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been identified as a critical brake on pro-inflammatory NF-κB signalling in several cell types, including endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived cells. Importantly, miR-146a expression is elevated in human atherosclerotic plaques, and polymorphisms in the miR-146a pre-cursor have been associated with risk of coronary artery disease. Objective: To define the role of endogenous miR-146a during atherogenesis. Methods and Results: Paradoxically, Low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)(-/-) mice deficient in miR-146a develop less atherosclerosis, despite having highly elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621447/metformin-prevents-vascular-prostanoid-release-alterations-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-rats
#2
H J Lee, S M Cantú, A S Donoso, M R Choi, H A Peredo, A M Puyó
Perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction induced by high-fat feeding leads to alterations in the modulation of inflammation, contractile activity of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function, all risk factors in the development of hypertension. Metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is an interest in actions of this drug with potential relevance in cardiovascular diseases...
June 16, 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620941/endothelial-mechanotransduction-proteins-and-vascular-function-are-altered-by-dietary-sucrose-supplementation-in-healthy-young-male-subjects
#3
Lasse Gliemann, Nicolai Rytter, Mads Lindskrog, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Lykke Sylow, Erik A Richter, Ylva Hellsten
Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616625/heterozygous-enos-deficient-mice-as-a-model-to-examine-the-effects-of-enos-haploinsufficiency-on-the-cerebral-circulation
#4
Sean P Didion
Nitric oxide derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been shown to be a major mediator of endothelium-dependent responses in cerebral blood vessels. Loss of a single eNOS gene is not associated with any apparent negative consequences on endothelial function in most blood vessels. In contrast, we have recently demonstrated that heterozygous eNOS gene deficiency in combination with a high fat diet is associated with marked impairment of endothelial function. These findings provide an important example of eNOS haploinsufficiency and one that directly impacts the cerebral vasculature...
2017: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615513/thioredoxin-plays-a-key-role-in-retinal-neuropathy-prior-to-endothelial-damage-in-diabetic-mice
#5
Xiang Ren, Chen Li, Junli Liu, Chenghong Zhang, Yuzhen Fu, Nina Wang, Haiying Ma, Heyuan Lu, Hui Kong, Li Kong
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic syndrome that results in changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. With diabetes for a long time, it increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and long-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that neuron damage occurs earlier than microvascular complications in DR patients, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy and elucidated key molecular events to identify new therapeutic targets for the clinical treatment and prevention of DR...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611124/endothelial-senescence-contributes-to-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-an-aging-mouse-model
#6
Andreas B Gevaert, Hadis Shakeri, Arthur J Leloup, Cor E Van Hove, Guido R Y De Meyer, Christiaan J Vrints, Katrien Lemmens, Emeline M Van Craenenbroeck
BACKGROUND: Because of global aging, the prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) continues to rise. Although HFpEF pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, endothelial inflammation is stated to play a central role. Cellular senescence is a process of cellular growth arrest linked with aging and inflammation. We used mice with accelerated aging to investigate the role of cellular senescence in HFpEF development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM, n=18) and control mice with normal senescence (n=15) were fed normal chow or a high-fat, high-salt diet (WD)...
June 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605158/the-effect-of-liraglutide-on-dietary-lipid-induced-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#7
Juraj Koska, Lizette Lopez, Karen D'Souza, Tracy Osredkar, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
AIMS: High saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets blunt peripheral insulin action. GLP-1 receptor agonists suppress postprandial lipids and endothelial dysfunction, which may counter SFA-induced insulin resistance. This study tested whether liraglutide suppresses postprandial elevations in lipids and thus protects against high SFA-diet induced insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study, 32 subjects with normal or mildly impaired glucose tolerance received liraglutide and placebo for 3 weeks each...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605059/amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-ameliorate-bladder-dysfunction-induced-by-chronic-bladder-ischemia-in-rat
#8
Ching-Chung Liang, Sheng-Wen Steven Shaw, Yi-Hao Lin, Tsong-Hai Lee
AIMS: This study investigated the protective effect of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) against bladder overactivity in rat model of atherosclerosis-induced chronic bladder ischemia. METHODS: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (1) Normal control with a regular diet for 8 weeks, (2) Sham-operation, (3) arterial balloon endothelial injury (AEI) of common iliac artery (AEI only), and post-AEI consecutive hAFSCs treatment for (4) 1 day, (5) 3 days, and (6) 7 days...
June 12, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596958/circulating-cellular-adhesion-molecules-and-cognitive-function-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study
#9
Cynthia Yursun Yoon, Lyn M Steffen, Myron D Gross, Lenore J Launer, Andrew Odegaard, Alexander Reiner, Otto Sanchez, Kristine Yaffe, Stephen Sidney, David R Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: Higher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance. METHOD: Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992-1993, ages 25-37) and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000-2001, ages 33-45)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595793/selenium-modulates-mmp2-expression-through-the-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad-signalling-pathway-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-and-rabbits-following-lipid-disturbance
#10
Chenggui Xu, Guihua Lu, Qinglang Li, Juhong Zhang, Zhibin Huang, Xiuren Gao
BACKGROUND: A high-fat diet is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression is changed in many cardiovascular diseases. Selenium, which is an important trace element in animals, has a close relationship with cardiovascular diseases. The TGFβ1/Smad signalling pathway is ubiquitous in diverse tissues and cells, and it is also associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine selenium's effect on lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and MMP2 expression, as well as the underlying functional mechanism...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595178/irisin-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-adiponectin-axis-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Ningning Hou, Gang Du, Fang Han, Jin Zhang, Xiaotong Jiao, Xiaodong Sun
AIMS: To determine whether irisin could improve endothelial dysfunction by regulating heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)/adiponectin axis in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in obesity. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without irisin treatment. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the thoracic aorta with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) was determined. Western blot was employed to determine the levels of HO-1 and adiponectin in PVAT...
June 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591689/detrimental-effects-of-atherogenic-and-high-fat-diet-on-bone-and-aortic-calcification-rescued-by-an-isoflavonoid-caviunin-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside
#12
Dharmendra Choudhary, Sulekha Adhikary, Jyoti Gautam, Preeti Maurya, Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kushwaha, Mohd Parvez Khan, Avinash Kumar, Manoj Barthwal, Rakesh Maurya, Ritu Trivedi
OBJECTIVE: Atherogenic diet (AD) and high fat diet (HFD) cause deleterious effect on bone micro-architecture and this phenomenon prompts aortic calcification. This study aims to show the effects of Caviunin β-d-glucopyranoside (CAFG), against bone loss and its associated aortic calcification in presence of AD and HFD challenged diets. METHODS: Five groups of C57BL/6 male mice with 8 animals in each group, comprising of chow, AD, HFD, AD+CAFG and HFD+CAFG were fed with respective diets for 16 weeks...
June 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585214/the-interactions-between-kynurenine-folate-methionine-and-pteridine-pathways-in-obesity
#13
Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin
Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue. Elevated levels of eosinophils with depression of monocyte and neutrophil indicate the deficiencies in the immune system of morbidly obese individuals. Actually, adipose tissue macrophages are functional antigen-presenting cells that promote the proliferation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Eventually, diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in visceral adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566306/association-of-dietary-nitrate-with-atherosclerotic-vascular-disease-mortality-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-older-adult-women
#14
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, Joshua R Lewis, Amanda Devine, Richard J Woodman, Kevin D Croft, Wai H Lim, Germaine Wong, Lawrence J Beilin, Richard L Prince, Jonathan M Hodgson
Background: Nitrate-rich vegetables lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function in humans. It is not known, however, whether increased consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables translates to a lower risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) mortality.Objective: The objective was to investigate the association of nitrate intake from vegetables with ASVD mortality.Design: A total of 1226 Australian women aged 70-85 y without prevalent ASVD and/or diabetes were recruited in 1998 and were studied for 15 y...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560429/modified-citrus-pectin-inhibits-galectin-3-function-to-reduce-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#15
Yonggang Lu, Mingming Zhang, Pei Zhao, Min Jia, Bing Liu, Qian Jia, Jun Guo, Lin Dou, Jian Li
Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding lectin, which has been implicated in the modulation of atherosclerotic pathophysiology, and is highly expressed in monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells within atherosclerotic plaques. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is produced from citrus pectin via pH and temperature modifications, which break it into shorter, non‑branched, galactose‑rich carbohydrate chains. MCP is able to tightly bind with galectin‑3, via recognition of its carbohydrate recognition domain, and facilitates the modulation of galectin‑3‑induced bioactivity...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560318/differential-effects-of-retinoic-acid-concentrations-in-regulating-blood-brain-barrier-properties
#16
Stephanie Bonney, Julie A Siegenthaler
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a multifaceted property of the brain vasculature that protects the brain and maintains homeostasis by tightly regulating the flux of ions, molecules, and cells across the vasculature. Blood vessels in the brain are formed by endothelial cells that acquire barrier properties, such as tight and adherens junctions, soon after the brain vasculature is formed. Endothelial WNT signaling is crucial to induce these BBB properties by regulating their expression and stabilization. Recent studies have implicated retinoic acid (RA) signaling in BBB development and shown that pharmacological concentrations of RA (≥5 µm) can induce BBB properties in cultured brain endothelial cells...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546217/increased-hepatic-expression-of-endothelial-lipase-inhibits-cholesterol-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-transgenic-rabbits
#18
Chuan Wang, Kazutoshi Nishijima, Shuji Kitajima, Manabu Niimi, Haizhao Yan, Yajie Chen, Bo Ning, Fumikazu Matsuhisa, Enqi Liu, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen, Jianglin Fan
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates...
May 25, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541356/food-and-plant-bioactives-for-reducing-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-an-evidence-based-approach
#19
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alessandro Colletti
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in Western countries. Prevention is known to be the cornerstone to lessen the incidence of CVDs and also to reduce the economic burden of both the citizen and the healthcare system. "Interventional medicine" certainly puts lifestyle modification as the first therapeutic step, including a healthy diet and physical activity. Secondly, a large body of research individuated a number of food and plant bioactives, which are potentially efficacious in preventing and reducing some highly prevalent CV risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular compliance...
May 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539257/propranolol-treatment-lowers-blood-pressure-reduces-vascular-inflammatory-markers-and-improves-endothelial-function-in-obese-mice
#20
Nathalia da Silva Franco, Camila Lubaczeuski, Daniele M Guizoni, Jamaira A Victorio, Junia C Santos-Silva, Patricia C Brum, Everardo M Carneiro, Ana P Davel
Obesity-associated hypertension is accompanied by a number of cardiovascular risk factors including vascular insulin resistance (IR) and higher sympathetic nervous activity. Therefore, autonomic blockade was demonstrated to reverse hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and IR in obese individuals. We hypothesized that β-AR blockade with propranolol would restore endothelial function and vascular insulin signaling in obesity, associated with an anti-inflammatory effect. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma biochemical parameters and aortic endothelial function were analyzed in mice fed standard diet (control group) or a high fat diet (HFD) that were treated with vehicle (water) or propranolol (10mg/kg/day) for 8weeks...
May 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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