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cancer and kidney allograft

Yili Hu, Xiaoyang Zhu, Ruifang Zhao, Jin Wang, Yipeng Song, Guangjun Nie, Huiru Tang, Yulan Wang
AIM: To evaluate the advantages of nanomaterial methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) encapsulated doxorubicin (D/DOX) and paclitaxel (T/TAX; mPEG-PLGA-DT) over free form of DOX and TAX (DOX/TAX). MATERIALS & METHODS: Metabonomics was conducted to characterize the systemic metabolic response of allograft breast cancer model mice to mPEG-PLGA-DT and DOX/TAX treatments. RESULTS: Breast tumor growth induced metabolic reprogram in serum and multiple organs...
March 12, 2018: Nanomedicine
Marianne Yardley, Lars Gullestad, Kari Nytrøen
One of the most important prognostic factors in heart failure patients is physical capacity. Patients with very poor physical performance and otherwise eligible, may be listed as candidates for heart transplantation (HTx). After such surgery, life-long immunosuppression therapy is needed to prevent rejection of the new heart. The dark side of immunosuppression is the increased risk of infections, kidney failure, cancer and advanced atherosclerosis (cardiac allograft vasculopathy), with the two latter conditions as the main causes of later mortality...
February 24, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
Volkan Tugcu, Abdulmuttalip Simsek, Ismail Yigitbasi, Mustafa Gurkan Yenice, Selcuk Sahin, Ali Ihsan Tasci
Background: After almost two decades, transabdominal robotic radical prostatectomy techniques have been fully developed and are widely practiced by many robotic urologists. Recently, a transperineal robotic radical prostatectomy, a technique not yet popular to many, was introduced as an alternative approach in patients with previous abdominal surgery. Here, we present our unique experience with robotic perineal radical prostatectomy (r-PRP) on a kidney transplant recipient. Case Presentation: A 71-year-old man who had a kidney transplant 4 months previously was diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) and underwent r-PRP using the da Vinci Xi robotic system...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
Francesca Jackson-Spence, Holly Gillott, Sanna Tahir, Jay Nath, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Adnan Sharif
Administrative data are frequently used for epidemiological studies but its usefulness to analyze cancer epidemiology after kidney transplantation is unclear. In this retrospective population-based cohort study, we identified every adult kidney-alone transplant performed in England (2003-2014) using administrative data from Hospital Episode Statistics. Results were compared to the hospitalized adult general population in England to calculate standardized incidence and mortality ratios. Data were analyzed for 19,883 kidney allograft recipients, with median follow-up 6...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Joseph R Leventhal, Suzanne T Ildstad
Successful solid organ transplantation currently requires the life-long use of medications to suppress the immune system in order to prevent transplant rejection. Drug-based immunosuppression significantly increases the risk of infection and cancer, as well as being very costly. Development of new therapies to minimize or eliminate entirely the need for anti-rejection drugs is of great interest to the transplant community. Therapeutic cell transfer for the control of the human immune system represents a compelling approach to reduce or eliminate the need for anti-rejection drugs...
February 2, 2018: Human Immunology
S Nagaraju, S J Grethlein, S Vaishnav, A A Sharfuddin, J A Powelson, J A Fridell
BACKGROUND: The majority of malignancies after transplantation appear to be virally mediated and of recipient origin. Donor-derived neoplasms occur early, whereas recipient-origin tumors typically occur many years after transplantation. Sarcomas are a relatively rare form of cancer. The etiology of sarcomas remains largely unknown, although some are linked to viruses, familial cancer syndromes, or therapeutic radiation exposure. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, accounting for <0...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Holly Gillott, Francesca Jackson Spence, Sanna Tahir, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Jay Nath, Adnan Sharif
OBJECTIVES: How smoking history affects kidney allograft outcomes is unclear in the contemporary era of immunosuppression. Here, we examined a broad range of outcomes after kidney transplant, stratifying patients by smoking status documented at time of transplant, in a well-characterized clinical cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center analysis (2007-2015) included 744 kidney allograft recipients who had documentation of smoking exposure (median follow-up 1327 days posttransplant)...
October 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Wai H Lim, Sunil V Badve, Germaine Wong
The excess risk for cancer in kidney transplant recipients is substantial, but the allograft and patient survivals after cancer development are under-studied. This is a population-based cohort study of all primary live and deceased donor kidney transplant recipients in Australia and New Zealand between 1990-2012. The risks of overall graft loss and death with a functioning graft in kidney transplant recipients with and without incident cancer were determined using adjusted Cox regression analysis, with incident cancer considered as a time-varying covariate in the models...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Oana Ramayana Ailioaie, Gabriel Mircescu
HIV infection has been considered for a long time an absolute contraindication to transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to improved immunovirological control and increased survival in HIV-infected patients. Renal transplantation can now be performed if these patients are on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy and achieve undetectable viral load and a sufficient CD4 level, in the absence of untreatable infections and cancers. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive medication should be maintained for life in these patients, raising the problem of multiple drugdrug interactions...
June 2017: Mædica
Romain Fournier, Ricardo Codas-Duarte, Theresa Daily, Xavier Martin, Lionel Badet, Hakim Fassi-Fehri
OBJECTIVES: To report the long-term survival of transplanted kidneys in patients with a continent urinary diversion. METHODS: Between January 1987 and July 2015, 16 patients with a median age of 37 years (range 21-63 years) underwent kidney transplantation on a continent urinary diversion. A total of 14 patients presented irreversible dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, and two patients had required radical cystectomy because of bladder cancer. All continent urinary diversions were carried out before the transplantation...
November 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
S Manohar, I J Sathick, J Grande, Z El-Zoghby, N Leung
Kidney transplant recipients are at a high risk for developing malignancies with dermatologic cancers and lymphomas making up the bulk of these. Leukemia is rare in this cohort of patients. Kidney infiltration by leukemic cells is seen in about 34% of native kidneys based on autopsy studies. But leukemia infiltration of the kidney allograft has not been described much in the literature. Here we discuss the case of a 59-year-old kidney transplant recipient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who presented with acute kidney injury and his transplant kidney biopsy showed leukemic cell infiltration of the renal cortex...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Yuksel Cetin, Zelal Adiguzel, Hivda U Polat, Tolga Akkoc, Arzu Tas, Buse Cevatemre, Gokalp Celik, Baris Carikci, Veysel T Yilmaz, Engin Ulukaya, Ceyda Acilan
The main aim of this study is to assess the safety and antitumor efficacy of a palladium(II) (Pd)-saccharinate complex with terpyridine. To characterize the Pd(II) complex in vitro, its cytotoxicity was evaluated using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt cell viability assay and the mechanism of cell death was assessed by DNA fragmentation/condensation and live cell imaging analyses. The antitumor efficacy and safety of the Pd(II) complex in-vivo were examined by analyzing reduction in tumor size, changes in body and organ weight, histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, and tumor sections, and biochemical analysis of serum in C57BL/6 mice...
September 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
Sanna Tahir, Holly Gillott, Francesca Jackson-Spence, Jay Nath, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Adnan Sharif
OBJECTIVES: Inferior outcomes for black kidney transplant recipients in the USA may not be generalisable elsewhere. In this population cohort analysis, we compared outcomes for black kidney transplant patients in England versus New York State. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative, population cohort study utilising administrative data registries. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: English data were derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, while New York State data were derived from Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
Oscar K Serrano, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David M Vock, Srinath Chinnakotla, Ty B Dunn, Erik B Finger, Raja Kandaswamy, Timothy L Pruett, John S Najarian, Arthur J Matas, Blanche M Chavers
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant malignancy (PTM) remains a concern among pediatric kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Between 1963 and 2015, 884 pediatric (age 0 to 17 years old) patients received 1,055 PKTs at our institution. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to identify risk factors for PTM after PKT with time-to-first-PTM as a primary outcome. Secondly, the hazard of death or graft loss was calculated in patients who developed PTM. RESULTS: Median patient survival was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18...
August 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Gerardo Sarno, Riccardo Nappi, Barbara Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuele Muscogiuri, Gianmaria Salvio, Stavroula A Paschou, Aristide Ferrara, Enrico Russo, Daniela Vicedomini, Cerbone Vincenzo, Andromachi Vryonidou, Silvia Della Casa, Giancarlo Balercia, Francesco Orio, Paride De Rosa
Kidney transplant is the treatment of choice for end-stage chronic kidney disease. Kidneys generate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) for circulation in the blood to regulate calcium levels. Transplant patients with low calcidiol levels have an increased risk of metabolic and endocrine problems, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor graft survival, bone disorders, cancer, and mortality rate. The recommended calcidiol level after transplant is at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L), which could require 1000-3000 IU/d vitamin D3 to achieve...
September 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Miguel López-Botet, Carlos Vilches, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Aura Muntasell, Aldi Pupuleku, José Yélamos, Julio Pascual, Marta Crespo
Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Christine Rouzioux, Christophe Legendre, Guillaume Canaud
The native kidney is a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and a site of viral replication, similar to lymphoid tissue, gut-associated lymphoid tissue or semen. The ability of the virus to persist may result from either a true latency or sequestration in an anatomic site that is not effectively exposed to antiretroviral therapy. The presence of HIV in kidney epithelial cells will lead progressively to end-stage renal disease. For decades, HIV-infected patients were excluded from consideration for kidney transplantation...
September 2017: Transplantation
Chi Yuen Cheung, Maggie Kam Man Ma, Wai Leung Chak, Ka Foon Chau, Sydney Chi Wai Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor conversion together with minimization of calcineurin inhibitor on allograft outcome and patient survival in kidney transplant recipients with post-transplant cancers. METHODS: A retrospective study of all kidney transplant recipients diagnosed to have post-transplant cancers between the period 1/1/1994 and 30/6/2015. Patients were divided into 2 groups: mTOR inhibitor group and non-conversion group...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
Francesca Jackson-Spence, Holly Gillott, Sanna Tahir, Jay Nath, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Adnan Sharif
It is unclear whether cancer-related epidemiology after kidney transplantation is translatable between countries. In this population-cohort study, we compared cancer incidence and all-cause mortality after extracting data for every kidney-alone transplant procedure performed in England and New York State (NYS) between 2003 and 2013. Data were analyzed for 18,493 and 11,602 adult recipients from England and NYS respectively, with median follow up 6.3 years and 5.5 years respectively (up to December 2014). English patients were more likely to have previous cancer at time of transplantation compared to NYS patients (5...
March 2017: Cancer Medicine
A Alaini, P Singh, R Shah, E Fischer, K Ganta, T Barrett, K Servilla
Malignancy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppression. Cancers associated with viruses such as nonmelanotic skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma occur in allograft recipients at rates that far exceed that in the general population. The increased risk and tumor type may depend not only on degree of immune system modulation but also on the type of organ transplanted. In kidney transplant recipients, the risk of cancers such as prostate and breast does not seem to be increased...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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