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cancer and kidney allograft

Umberto Maggiore, Julio Pascual
Cancer immunotherapy, especially the use of checkpoint inhibitors, is expanding and can be efficacious in organ transplant recipients with malignant neoplasia. In this review, we summarize clinical findings and evolution of several patients treated with CTL4-4 or PD-1 inhibitors reported in the literature. The CTL-4 inhibitor ipilimumab has been safely used in several liver and kidney allograft recipients. PD1-inhibitors look promising for tumor shrinking, but acute rejection is the rule, so they should be avoided in recipients of life-saving organs...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Francesca Saccon, Mariele Gatto, Anna Ghirardello, Luca Iaccarino, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have been identified and classified into three subtypes according to CRD organization: prototype, tandem repeat-type and chimera-type galectins. Galectin-3 (gal-3) is the only chimera type galectin in vertebrates containing one CRD linked to an unusual long N-terminal domain which displays non-lectin dependent activities...
September 23, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
F Kleinclauss, R Thuret, T Murez, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiology and management of urologic neoplasms in renal transplant candidates and recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "neoplasms"; "prostate cancer"; "renal carcinoma"; "renal transplantation"; "transitional carcinoma"; "waiting list". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
September 21, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Sunil V Badve, Elaine M Pascoe, Michael Burke, Philip A Clayton, Scott B Campbell, Carmel M Hawley, Wai H Lim, Stephen P McDonald, Germaine Wong, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence from recently published observational studies and an individual patient data meta-analysis shows that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor use in kidney transplantation is associated with increased mortality. Therefore, all-cause mortality and allograft loss were compared between use and nonuse of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in patients from Australia and New Zealand, where mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor use has been greater because of heightened skin cancer risk...
July 21, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Jiang Qiu, Yehui Chen, Gang Huang, Zhi Zhang, Lizhong Chen, Ning Na
AIM: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel intracellular noncoding ribonucleotides regulating the genome and proteome. The lncRNA activated by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) (lncRNA-ATB) was discovered as a prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the role of lncRNA-ATB in renal transplantation. This study aimed to assess lncRNA-ATB expression in renal transplant patients with acute kidney injury and explore its role in postoperative pharmaceutical immunosuppression therapy...
July 14, 2016: Nephrology
Megan L Troxell, John P Higgins
Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of malignancy, with about 5% incidence of cancer in native end-stage kidneys. Carcinoma in the renal allograft is far less common. Prior studies have demonstrated a propensity for renal cell carcinomas of papillary subtypes in end stage kidneys, and perhaps in allograft kidneys, but most allograft studies lack detailed pathologic review and predate the current classification system. We reviewed our experience with renal carcinoma in kidney allografts at 2 academic centers applying the ISUP classification, informed by immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2016: Human Pathology
John A OʼRegan, Susan Prendeville, Jennifer Anne McCaughan, Carol Traynor, Frank J OʼBrien, Francis L Ward, Denis OʼDonovan, Claire Kennedy, Ecaterina Berzan, Sinead Kinsella, Yvonne Williams, Patrick OʼKelly, Sandy Deady, Harry Comber, Mary Leader, Peter J Conlon
BACKGROUND: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a common malignancy after renal transplantation with a high incidence of PTLD described in the first posttransplant year. We sought to determine incidence and risk determinants of PTLD in Irish kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 1996 adult first kidney transplant recipients between 1991 and 2010 in the Republic of Ireland. Recipients were cross-referenced with the National Cancer Registry to determine incidence of PTLD...
April 21, 2016: Transplantation
Fateme Shamekhi Amiri
Cancer is singled out as the biggest cause of death in the world, predicted to reach 13.1 million cancer-related deaths by the year 2030. Although there are no specific tumor markers used in cancer screening, some markers can be used to assist in making a diagnosis and determining a prognosis. They can be used to follow in cases where the diagnosis is cancer through monitoring of the disease recurrence and/or evaluating the response to therapy. These markers are not specific as the number increases in multiple cases of cancer...
2016: Renal Failure
Felix S Seibert, Christian Rosenberger, Susanne Mathia, Robert Arndt, Wolfgang Arns, Huppertz Andrea, Nikolaos Pagonas, Frederic Bauer, Walter Zidek, Timm H Westhoff
BACKGROUND: Urinary calprotectin has recently been identified as a promising biomarker for the differentiation between prerenal and intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in the nontransplant population. The present study investigates whether calprotectin is able to differentiate between these 2 entities in transplant recipients as well. METHODS: Urinary calprotectin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 328 subjects including 125 cases of intrinsic acute allograft failure, 27 prerenal graft failures, 118 patients with stable graft function, and 58 healthy controls...
February 19, 2016: Transplantation
Maria Anders, Virginia Mariana González, Juan Ruiz, Gabriel Casas, Nicolás Goldaracena, Federico Orozco, Florencia Antinucci, Margarita Larralde, Hugo Catalano, Emilio Quifionez, Lucas McCormack, Ricardo Mastai
Pancreatic panniculitis is an uncommon condition that can occur in association with pancreatic disease. Most of the cases reported to date were associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis and pancreas cancer. Recently, development has been described in kidney transplant patients and secondarily to allograft pancreatitis in a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient. Both findings suggest that immunological processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of this entity. We report for the first time a case of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreatic panniculitis in a patient who underwent a liver transplant 10 months before...
2014: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
S F Christensen, J M Hansen
BACKGROUND: The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is evident. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who was transplanted with a kidney from a deceased donor. Four days after transplantation a routine ultrasound scan revealed a 3-cm tumor in the middle-upper pole of the allograft. A biopsy showed the tumor to be papillary renal cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with radiofrequency ablation. This procedure was complicated by the development of a cutaneous fistula and open surgery was done with resection of an area of necrosis in the kidney and of the fistula...
December 2015: Transplantation Proceedings
Ryan Aston, Allison Durkin, Kristen Harris, Amanda Mace, Sierra Moore, Brittany Smith, Eric Soult, Mara Wright, Dustin Yothers, Derrick L Latos, Joseph Horzempa
The escalating amount of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) represents a significant dilemma for primary care providers. As the number of physician assistants (PAs) has been steadily increasing in primary care in the United States, the utilization of these healthcare professionals presents a solution for the care of post-kidney transplant recipients. A physician assistant (PA) is a state licensed healthcare professional who practices medicine under physician supervision and can alleviate some of the increasing demands for primary patient care...
2015: Quality in Primary Care
Weranja K B Ranasinghe, Nancy Suh, Peter D Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine the incidence and outcomes of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma in recipients of renal allografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 2000 to 2012 in the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, a binational population-based database, to identify the incidence and survival outcomes of renal transplant recipients with renal cell and transitional cell carcinoma. RESULTS: Of the 8850 renal transplants, there were 60 new diagnoses of renal cancers posttransplant, with an overall cumulative incidence of 56 per 100,000 per year...
April 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Yosu Luque, Matthieu Jamme, Marion Rabant, Susan DeWolf, Laure-Hélène Noël, Eric Thervet, Lucienne Chatenoud, Renaud Snanoudj, Dany Anglicheau, Christophe Legendre, Sophie Candon, Julien Zuber
BACKGROUND: Persistent CD4 T-cell lymphopenia after kidney transplantation has been associated with an increased occurrence of opportunistic infections, malignancies and even mortality, but studies have focussed only on the first few years after kidney transplantation. In this study, we investigated the risk factors and clinical significance of long-term profound CD4 lymphopenia detected ≥10 years after renal transplantation. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2010, 6206 CD4 T-cell counts, including 1507 counts <300/mm(3), were identified in an active cohort of 1876 kidney transplant patients...
March 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Paolo Malvezzi, Thomas Jouve, Lionel Rostaing
CONTEXT: Preventing acute rejection (AR) after kidney transplantation is of utmost importance because an AR can have a negative impact on long-term allograft survival. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science have been searched. RESULTS: At the moment this can be done by using rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (rATGs) as an induction therapy. However, because rATGs are associated with some deleterious side-effects, such as the opportunistic infections cytomegalovirus (CMV) and de novo post-transplant cancer, it is very important they are used optimally, i...
October 2015: Journal of Nephropathology
Giovanni Stallone, Barbara Infante, Giuseppe Grandaliano
The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future...
October 2015: Clinical Kidney Journal
Zargar Mohmad Arief, Abid Hussain Munshi, Abdul Sami Shawl
Epimedium L. is well known medicinal genus of Chinese pharmacopoeia. Various species are ethno-botanically used against diseases of eye and kidney, impotence, asthma, arthritis and hypertension; besides being used as analeptic, expectorant, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, vasodilator and refrigerant. Recent studies have attributed most of these medicinal properties to its flavonoid glycosides, especially Icariin which is the major pharmacologically active constituent. Icariin has been found to possess effective aphrodisiac, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, vasodilatory, antidepressant and anti-osteoporosis activities...
September 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Paolo Malvezzi, Lionel Rostaing
INTRODUCTION: Cyclosporine-A and tacrolimus are the cornerstones in modern immunosuppression after organ transplantation. They are potent inhibitors of calcineurin, that is, so-called calcineurin-inhibitors (CNIs). However, because these drugs have narrow therapeutic windows, they are associated with many side-effects, with some being dose related. AREAS COVERED: The most frequent side-effect of CNIs is nephrotoxicity, which in the long term can contribute, to allograft deterioration...
October 2015: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jasmin Straube, Alain-Dominique Gorse, Bevan Emma Huang, Kim-Anh Lê Cao
Time course 'omics' experiments are becoming increasingly important to study system-wide dynamic regulation. Despite their high information content, analysis remains challenging. 'Omics' technologies capture quantitative measurements on tens of thousands of molecules. Therefore, in a time course 'omics' experiment molecules are measured for multiple subjects over multiple time points. This results in a large, high-dimensional dataset, which requires computationally efficient approaches for statistical analysis...
2015: PloS One
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