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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641321/identifying-and-acting-on-potentially-inappropriate-care-inadequacy-of-current-hospital-coding-for-this-task
#1
P David Cooper, David R Smart
INTRODUCTION: Recent Australian attempts to facilitate disinvestment in healthcare, by identifying instances of 'inappropriate' care from large Government datasets, are subject to significant methodological flaws. Amongst other criticisms has been the fact that the Government datasets utilized for this purpose correlate poorly with datasets collected by relevant professional bodies. Government data derive from official hospital coding, collected retrospectively by clerical personnel, whilst professional body data derive from unit-specific databases, collected contemporaneously with care by clinical personnel...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641304/hyperemesis-gravidarum-a-review-of-recent-literature
#2
Viktoriya London, Stephanie Grube, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: In the United States, hyperemesis gravidarum is the most common cause of hospitalization during the first half of pregnancy and is second only to preterm labor for hospitalizations in pregnancy overall. In approximately 0.3-3% of pregnancies, hyperemesis gravidarum is prevalent and this percentage varies on account of different diagnostic criteria and ethnic variation in study populations. Despite extensive research in this field, the mechanism of the disease is largely unknown...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641221/a-curse-of-knowledge-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-people-misattribute-fluency-when-judging-how-common-knowledge-is-among-their-peers
#3
Susan A J Birch, Patricia E Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock, Siba E Ghrear
Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641219/comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-antiepileptic-drug-adverse-event-reporting-rates-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#4
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Annya V Plotkina, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David Page, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. METHODS: Events reported to the U...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640935/additive-effect-of-radiosensitization-by-2-deoxy-d-glucose-delays-dna-repair-kinetics-and-suppresses-cell-proliferation-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Mayumi Kawata, Kazuhiro Ogi, Koyo Nishiyama, Sho Miyamoto, Takafumi Nakagaki, Makoto Shimanishi, Akihiro Miyazaki, Hiroyoshi Hiratsuka
BACKGROUND: It has well known that, compared to normal cells, tumor cells have a different manner of energy metabolism, which influences the sensitivity of radiotherapy (RT). However, whether inhibition of glycolysis enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy is a matter of debate in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to characterize whether the combination of radiotherapy with the glucose inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) affected DNA repair kinetics. METHODS: To compare the synergistic effect of 2-DG, we examined the cell survival after treatment with radiation, 2-DG and a combination of the two in 5 OSCC cell lines and one lip fibroblast cell line, determined using clonogenic survival assay...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640890/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-initial-management-of-pneumothorax-in-adults-intercostal-tube-drainage-versus-other-invasive-methods
#6
Min Joung Kim, Incheol Park, Joon Min Park, Kyung Hwan Kim, Junseok Park, Dong Wun Shin
OBJECTIVES: The ideal invasive management as initial approach for pneumothorax (PTX) is still under debate. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of intercostal tube drainage and other various invasive methods as the initial approach to all subtypes of PTX in adults. METHODS: Three databases were searched from inception to May 29, 2016: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane CENTRAL. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated intercostal tube drainage as the control and various invasive methods as the intervention for the initial approach to PTX in adults were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640816/topographic-independent-component-analysis-reveals-random-scrambling-of-orientation-in-visual-space
#7
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Luis M Martinez, Jesús Malo
Neurons at primary visual cortex (V1) in humans and other species are edge filters organized in orientation maps. In these maps, neurons with similar orientation preference are clustered together in iso-orientation domains. These maps have two fundamental properties: (1) retinotopy, i.e. correspondence between displacements at the image space and displacements at the cortical surface, and (2) a trade-off between good coverage of the visual field with all orientations and continuity of iso-orientation domains in the cortical space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640673/the-end-of-written-informed-consent-for-hiv-testing-not-with-a-bang-but-a-whimper
#8
Ronald Bayer, Morgan Philbin, Robert H Remien
In 2014, only two states in the United States still mandated specific written informed consent for HIV testing and, after years of controversy, New York ended this requirement, leaving only Nebraska. New York's shift to opt-out testing meant that a singular feature of what had characterized the exceptionalism surrounding HIV testing was eliminated. We trace the history of debates on written informed consent nationally and in New York State. Over the years of dispute from when HIV testing was initiated in 1985 to 2014, the evidence about the benefits and burdens of written informed consent changed...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637223/millions-of-years-behind-slow-adaptation-of-ruminants-to-grasslands
#9
Olja Toljagic, Kjetil L Voje, Michael Matschiner, Lee Hsiang Liow, Thomas F Hansen
The Late-Cretaceous appearance of grasses, followed by the Cenozoic advancement of grasslands as dominant biomes, has contributed to the evolution of a range of specialized herbivores adapted to new diets, as well as to increasingly open and arid habitats. Many mammals including ruminants, the most diversified ungulate suborder, evolved high-crowned (hypsodont) teeth as an adaptation to tooth-wearing diets and habitats. The impact of different causes of tooth wear is still a matter of debate, and the temporal pattern of hypsodonty evolution in relation to the evolution of grasslands remains unclear...
June 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637063/exploring-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications-of-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-in-eus-staged-t2-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#10
Annieke W Gotink, Manon C W Spaander, Michael Doukas, Thjon J Tang, Paul Didden, Bas P L Wijnhoven, Marco J Bruno, Arjun D Koch
Background and study aims Treatment strategies for clinical (c)T2N0M0 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are subject to debate owing to the relative inaccuracy of tumor staging by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), with profound implications in overstaged patients. We aimed to evaluate the final histological diagnosis of patients initially staged as having a cT2 tumor by EUS, and to assess the value of endoscopic reassessment by an interventional endoscopist, followed by an endoscopic resection when deemed feasible...
June 21, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636936/strong-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling-prohibits-thymic-development-of-il-17a-secreting-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#11
Nital Sumaria, Capucine L Grandjean, Bruno Silva-Santos, Daniel J Pennington
Despite a growing appreciation of γδ T cell contributions to numerous immune responses, the mechanisms that underpin their thymic development remain poorly understood. Here, using precursor/product relationships, we identify thymic stages in two distinct developmental pathways that generate γδ T cells pre-committed to subsequent secretion of either IL-17A or IFNγ. Importantly, this framework for tracking γδ T cell development has permitted definitive assessment of TCRγδ signal strength in commitment to γδ T cell effector fate; increased TCRγδ signal strength profoundly prohibited the development of all IL-17A-secreting γδ T cells, regardless of Vγ usage, but promoted the development of γδ progenitors along the IFNγ pathway...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636879/delineating-neuroinflammation-parasite-cns-invasion-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-murine-model-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#12
Jean Rodgers, Barbara Bradley, Peter G E Kennedy
Although Trypanosoma brucei spp. was first detected by Aldo Castellani in CSF samples taken from sleeping sickness patients over a century ago there is still a great deal of debate surrounding the timing, route and effects of transmigration of the parasite from the blood to the CNS. In this investigation, we have applied contrast-enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the effects of trypanosome infection on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the well-established GVR35 mouse model of sleeping sickness...
June 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636514/duration-of-dual-anti-platelet-therapy-state-of-the-art-after-the-dapt-and-pegasus-timi-54-trials
#13
Charles Pirlet, Victor Legrand, Astrid Nyssen, Luc Pierard, Olivier Gach
Dual anti-platelet therapy is prescribed in the setting of coronary heart disease for the prevention of stent thrombosis and acute thrombotic events. The optimal duration of dual anti-platelet therapy is still under debate as numerous trials have shown non-inferiority of a strategy of early cessation of one of the agents as compared to the standard practice whereas two larger trials have demonstrated benefit of prolonging dual anti-platelet therapy.
March 21, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636428/fk506-binding-proteins-12-and-12-6-fkbps-as-regulators-of-cardiac-ryanodine-receptors-insights-from-new-functional-and-structural-knowledge
#14
Luis Alberto Gonano, Peter P Jones
Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are intracellular Ca(2+) channels that mediate Ca(2+) flux from the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum in many cell types. The interaction of RyRs with FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) has been proposed as an important regulatory mechanism, where the loss of this interaction leads to channel dysfunction. In the heart, phosphorylation of RyR has been suggested to disrupt the RyR-FKBP interaction promoting altered Ca(2+) signalling, heart failure and arrhythmias. However, the functional result of FKBP interaction with RyR and how this interaction is regulated remains highly controversial...
June 21, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635990/neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-the-head-and-neck-and-olfactory-neuroblastoma-diagnosis-and-classification
#15
S Uccella, G Ottini, C Facco, R Maragliano, S Asioli, F Sessa, S La Rosa
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the head and neck are a rare group of heterogeneous epithelial neoplastic proliferations arising in virtually all of the different organs of this region, particularly in the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, the larynx, the salivary glands, and the middle ear. They encompass a wide spectrum of entities ranging from very indolent neuroendocrine tumors to highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinomas. They may represent a challenge for radiologists, oncologists, and pathologists and a correct diagnosis is crucial for the management of patients...
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635513/evaluation-of-platelet-indices-and-red-cell-distribution-width-as-new-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-appendicitis
#16
Noha Boshnak, Mohamed Boshnaq, Hatem Elgohary
BACKGROUND: Debate around the value of laboratory tests in establishing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) still continues. This prospective study aimed to investigate the changes in mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and red cell distribution width (RDW) with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. METHOD: 200 patients who underwent emergency appendectomy were included. According to postoperative histology, patients were divided into three groups: acute non-complicated, acute complicated appendicitis (positive appendicectomy groups), and negative appendectomy group...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635412/gamete-donors-reasons-for-and-expectations-and-experiences-of-registration-with-a-voluntary-donor-linking-register
#17
Eric Blyth, Marilyn Crawshaw, Lucy Frith, Olga van den Akker
This paper reports on a study of the views and experiences of 21 sperm donors and five egg donors registered with UK DonorLink (UKDL), a voluntary DNA-based contact register established to facilitate contact between adults who wish to identify and locate others to whom they are genetically related following donor conception. Specifically, the paper examines donors' reasons for searching for, or making information about themselves available to donor-conceived offspring. Their expectations of registration with UKDL, experiences of being registered and finally, the experiences of those who had contacted donor-conceived offspring and other genetic relatives are investigated...
February 21, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635274/oxidation-state-dependent-binding-properties-of-the-active-site-in-a-mo-containing-formate-dehydrogenase
#18
William E Robinson, Arnau Bassegoda, Erwin Reisner, Judy Hirst
Molybdenum-containing formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli (EcFDH-H) is a powerful model system for studies of the reversible reduction of CO2 to formate. However, the mechanism of FDH catalysis is currently debated, and whether the primary Mo coordination sphere remains saturated or one of the ligands dissociates to allow direct substrate binding during turnover is disputed. Here, we describe how oxidation state-dependent changes at the active site alter its inhibitor binding properties. Using protein film electrochemistry we show that formate oxidation by EcFDH-H is inhibited strongly and competitively by N3-, OCN-, SCN-, NO2- and NO3-, whereas CO2 reduction is inhibited only weakly and not competitively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#19
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634844/thrombospondin-1-production-regulates-the-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#20
Tian Xing, Yao Wang, Wen-Jie Ding, Yuan-Ling Li, Xiao-Dong Hu, Cong Wang, Ao Ding, Ji-Long Shen
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is upregulated in several inflammatory diseases. Recent data have shown that macrophages from TSP-1-deficient mice have a reduced inflammatory phenotype, suggesting that TSP-1 plays a part in macrophage activation. DNA microarray approach revealed that Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS) may induce the enhanced TSP-1 expression in human monocytes, suggesting a role of TSP-1-mediated pathogenesis in periodontitis. Until recently, the function of TSP-1 has been a matter of debate...
June 20, 2017: Inflammation
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