Read by QxMD icon Read


Negiin Pourafshar, Ashkan Karimi, Xuerong Wen, Eric Sobel, Shirin Pourafshar, Nikhil Agrawal, Emma Segal, Rajesh Mohandas, Mark S Segal
Background: Monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) levels may be useful for effective mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dosing. However, whether commonly obtained trough levels are an acceptable method of surveillance remains debatable. We hypothesized that trough levels of MPA would be a poor predictor of area under the curve (AUC) for MPA. Methods: A total of 51 patients with lupus nephritis who were on MMF 1500 mg twice a day and had a 4-h AUC done were included in this study...
March 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Christian B Theodotou, George M Ghobrial, Andrew L Middleton, Michael Y Wang, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Cervical facet dislocations are among the most common traumatic spinal injuries. Posterior, anterior, and combined surgical approaches have been described and are widely debated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy in anterior-only surgical management for subaxial cervical facet dislocations. METHODS: A consistent surgical algorithm for cervical facet dislocation was applied over a 19-yr period and analyzed retrospectively in adults with acute unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Francesca Salamanna, Simona Cepollaro, Deyanira Contartese, Gianluca Giavaresi, Giovanni Barbanti Brodano, Cristiana Griffoni, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Milena Fini
STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from whole bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and MSCs derived from density-gradient centrifugation were isolated from vertebral bodies and cultured under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions to evaluate their biological characteristics and HOX and TALE signature able to improve spinal surgery procedures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The use of spinal fusion procedures has increased over the last decades; however, failed fusion still remains an important problem...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Erwan Goy, Corinne Abbadie
When ageing, cells profoundly reprogram to enter a state called senescence. Although the link between senescence and cancer is well established, the nature of this link remains unclear and debated. We will describe in this article the properties of senescent cells and make clear on how they could promote or oppose to cancer initiation and progression. We will also consider senescence as a response to classical anti-cancer therapies and discuss how to take advantage of senescence to improve the efficacy of these therapies while decreasing their toxicity...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Catherine Delves-Yates, Andrea Stockl, Jenny Moore
BACKGROUND: Concept analysis is frequently the first step novice nurse researchers take when beginning their work. However, the value of concept analysis in generating theory is debated, and although there are many models researchers can use, few provide guidance for applying them or overviews of their philosophical underpinnings. AIM: To share learning about challenges encountered when undertaking concept analysis and to present an adaptation of Rodgers ( 1989 ) model created to overcome these...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Marcella Kelly, Maura Dowling, Michelle Millar
BACKGROUND: Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. AIM: An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
David Vernez, Sandrine Fraize-Frontier, Raymond Vincent, Stéphane Binet, Christophe Rousselle
OBJECTIVES: Assessment factors (AFs) are commonly used for deriving reference concentrations for chemicals. These factors take into account variabilities as well as uncertainties in the dataset, such as inter-species and intra-species variabilities or exposure duration extrapolation or extrapolation from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to the noobserved- adverse-effect level (NOAEL). In a deterministic approach, the value of an AF is the result of a debate among experts and, often a conservative value is used as a default choice...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Natalie Jovanovski, Meagan Tyler
In this article, we use feminist critical discourse analysis to examine online brothel reviews (148 reviews and 2,424 reply posts) of sex buyers in the context of debates surrounding harm minimization. Our findings show that sex buyers actively construct and normalize narratives of sexual violation and violence against women in licensed brothels through their language, referencing objectification, unsafe sex practices, and, in more extreme cases, rape to create a sense of community with other punters. Through this analysis, we challenge existing assumptions about harm minimization in systems of prostitution, which are legalized or fully decriminalized...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Kristin Bjørnland, Maren Hinna, Gunnar Aksnes, Kjetil Juul Stensrud, Kjetil Ertresvåg, Anniken Bjørnstad-Østensen, Truls Sanengen, Pål-Dag Line, Ingegerd Aagenæs, Lars Aabakken, Ragnhild Emblem, Runar Almaas
OBJECTIVES: The importance of case load for treatment of extrahepatic biliary atresia (BA) is debated. The aim of this study was to register results of BA treatment in a small volume centre. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study of patients with BA treated from 2000 to 2017. The institutional review board approved the study. RESULTS: Forty-five babies were identified of which 42 (93%) are alive. Forty-one patients had a Kasai portoenterostomy (PE), two had a hepaticojejunostomy and two had a primary liver transplantation...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Pablo Antonio Ureña-Torres, Mario Cozzolino, Jordi Bover
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the most frequent and deleterious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). SHPT is also one of the principal components of the now called CKD-mineral and bone disorders (MBD) syndrome. It is usually prevented and treated by vitamin D derivatives. However, the rationale for the prescription of vitamin D sterols in those patients is still a matter of hotly debates, mainly because of unsatisfactory results from numerous observational and not well-controlled studies...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
T Labbé Atenas, E Ciampi Díaz, J P Cruz Quiroga, S Uribe Arancibia, C Cárcamo Rodríguez
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an advanced tool for the study of brain functions in healthy subjects and in neuropsychiatric patients. This tool makes it possible to identify and locate specific phenomena related to neuronal metabolism and activity. Starting with the detection of changes in the blood supply to a region that participates in a function, more complex approaches have been developed to study the dynamics of neuronal networks. Studies examining the brain at rest or involved in different tasks have provided evidence related to the onset, development, and/or response to treatment in various diseases...
March 12, 2018: Radiología
Carina Mihai, Vanessa Smith, Rucsandra Dobrota, Ana Maria Gheorghiu, Maurizio Cutolo, Oliver Distler
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease with high morbidity and mortality, characterized by autoimmunity, obliterative vasculopathy involving mainly the microvasculature, and fibrosis. SSc-specific nailfold capillaroscopic changes have been defined, and nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is now unequivocally accepted to be a cornerstone for the early diagnosis of SSc. However, the use of NFC in patients already diagnosed with SSc is still not standardized. Several studies have shown that NFC abnormalities correlate with disease activity and severity and are predictive for disease worsening, such as occurrence of new digital ulcers...
March 12, 2018: Microvascular Research
Nathalie Bier, Juliette Sablier, Catherine Briand, Stéphanie Pinard, Vincent Rialle, Sylvain Giroux, Hélène Pigot, Lisa Quillion Dupré, Jeremy Bauchet, Emmanuel Monfort, Esther Bosshardt, Laetitia Courbet
In this editorial, we wish to highlight and reflect on research advances presented in the articles comprising this special issue on technology and neuropsychological rehabilitation, which happens to be published more than a decade after the first special issue on the subject. In 2004, the journal recognised the great potential of information technology for increasing the support provided to people with cognitive deficits, and published emerging state-of-the art practices in the field. Since that time, research and technology have made tremendous progress, and the influence of information technology on research methods has transformed the field of neurorehabilitation...
March 16, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jens Neumann, Sophie Henneberg, Susanne von Kenne, Niklas Nolte, Andreas J Müller, Burkhart Schraven, Michael W Görtler, Klaus G Reymann, Matthias Gunzer, Monika Riek-Burchardt
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke including an acute and prolonged inflammatory process. The role of neutrophil granulocytes as first driver of the immune reaction from the blood site is under debate due to controversial findings. In bone marrow chimeric mice we were able to study the dynamics of tdTomato-expressing neutrophils and GFP-expressing microglia after photothrombosis using intravital two-photon microscopy. We demonstrate the infiltration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma and confirm a long-lasting contact between neutrophils and microglia as well as an uptake of neutrophils by microglia clearing the brain from peripheral immune cells...
2018: PloS One
Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events...
March 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Stefan Flohr
About 100 hominin bones were found during excavations at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. More than 60 of them were assigned to the partial skeleton LB1 which was designated as the holotype of a new species, Homo floresiensis . Analyses of skeletal proportions of LB1 led to the conclusion that its foot was exceptionally long relative to femur and tibia, respectively. This ratio was considered a unique feature that contributes to the definition of the new species. The published illustrations of the in situ -situation and the published inventory of the bones suggest a high degree of commingling rather than the presence of larger anatomically joining units that was asserted in the publications on the findings...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Tian-Ru Jin
Numerous natural products available over the counter are commonly consumed by healthy, sub-healthy or ill people for the treatment and prevention of various chronic diseases. Among them, a few dietary polyphenols, including the curry compound curcumin, have been attracting the most attention from biomedical researchers and drug developers. Unlike many so-called "good drug candidates", curcumin and several other dietary polyphenols do not have a single known therapeutic target or defined receptor. In addition, the bioavailability of these polyphenols is usually very low due to their poor absorption in the gut...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"