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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548038/marek-s-disease-virus-infection-of-phagocytes-a-de-novo-in-vitro-infection-model
#1
Pankaj Chakraborty, Lonneke Vervelde, Robert G Dalziel, Peter S Wasson, Venugopal Nair, Bernadette M Dutia, Pete Kaiser
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Natural infections in vivo are caused by the inhalation of infected poultry house dust and it is presumed that MDV infection is initiated in the macrophages from where the infection is passed to B cells and activated T cells. Virus can be detected in B and T cells and macrophages in vivo, and both B and T cells can be infected in vitro. However, attempts to infect macrophages in vitro have not been successful. The aim of this study was to develop a model for infecting phagocytes [macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs)] with MDV in vitro and to characterize the infected cells...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544969/prior-treatment-with-non-anti-tb-antibiotics-and-the-duration-of-symptoms-have-no-effect-on-diagnostics-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#2
Marcin Paciorek, Andrzej Pihowicz, Dominik Bursa, Joanna Schöntaler Humięcka, Justyna D Kowalska, Mateusz Antosiewicz, Magda E Thompson, Agata Skrzat-Wojdacz, Agnieszka Bednarska, Andrzej Horban
PURPOSE: Our objective was to investigate whether diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with microbiological and molecular analysis was affected by prior empirical non anti tuberculosis antibiotics or by duration of symptoms before lumbar puncture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with TBM confirmed by positive culture, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or by characteristic results of biochemical analysis of CSF combined with a typical clinical manifestation...
May 22, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544542/conditional-macrophage-depletion-increases-inflammation-and-does-not-inhibit-the-development-of-osteoarthritis-in-obese-mafia-mice
#3
Chia-Lung Wu, Jenna McNeill, Kelsey Goon, Dianne Little, Kelly Kimmerling, Janet Huebner, Virginia Kraus, Farshid Guilak
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages are believed to play a critical role in the inflammation associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate whether short-term, systemic depletion of macrophages would mitigate OA following injury in obese mice. METHODS: CSF-1R-GFP(+) Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice that allow conditional depletion of macrophages were placed on a high-fat diet and underwent surgery to induce knee OA...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542586/antigen-delivery-to-dendritic-cells-shapes-human-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-memory-responses-to-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Julia Uebele, Christoph Stein, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Anja Schneider, Franziska Kleinert, Olga Tichá, Gabriele Bierbaum, Friedrich Götz, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus favors bacterial spread and chronic infections. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory against staphylococcal antigens. Notably, the latter could provide a missing link in our understanding of immune control of intracellular S. aureus. The analyses showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) with native staphylococcal protein antigens induced release of Th2-associated cytokines and mediators linked to T regulatory cell development (G-CSF, IL-2 and IL-10) from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus revealing a state of tolerance predominantly arising from preformed memory T cells...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542361/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-blockade-enables-dexamethasone-to-inhibit-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-lung-neutrophils
#5
Jesus Banuelos, Yun Cao, Soon Cheon Shin, Bruce S Bochner, Pedro Avila, Shihong Li, Xin Jiang, Mark W Lingen, Robert P Schleimer, Nick Z Lu
Glucocorticoids promote neutrophilic inflammation, the mechanisms of which are poorly characterized. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute murine lung injury model, we determined the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse lung neutrophil numbers in the absence and presence of dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. G-CSF was blocked using a neutralizing antibody. Airway neutrophil numbers, cytokine levels, and lung injury parameters were measured. Glucocorticoid treatment maintained LPS-induced airway G-CSF while suppressing TNF and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542321/early-protection-events-in-swine-immunized-with-an-experimental-live-attenuated-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-flagt4g
#6
Lauren G Holinka, Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R Risatti, Paul Azzinaro, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Jolene Carlson, Douglas P Gladue, Manuel V Borca
Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540126/neurological-complications-of-lumbar-and-cervical-dural-punctures-with-a-focus-on-epidural-injections
#7
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Various types of lumbar dural punctures may contribute to neurological injury. The etiologies of dural injury include; inadvertent dural punctures due to epidurals placed for labor anesthesia, epidural steroid injections (ESI/transforaminal TESI; approximately 9 million ESI performed in the US per year), deliberate placement of intradural pain devices, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Resulting neurological complications may include; spinal headaches/intracranial hypotension, subdural hematomas, and 6(th) nerve cranial palsies...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536359/reduced-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-after-eight-weeks-of-low-dose-naltrexone-for-fibromyalgia
#8
Luke Parkitny, Jarred Younger
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN). We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)...
April 18, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536315/-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell
#9
Shinsuke Yuasa
Adult skeletal muscle has its own stem cell population known as satellite cells. After muscle injury, quiescent satellite cells are activated and then proliferate and differentiate into mature skeletal muscle to ensure that muscle function is recovered. In our screen for myocyte differentiation-promoting factors, we noted markedly elevated expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor(G-CSFR, encoded by csf3r)in the skeletal muscle developing area. Furthermore, G-CSFR was transiently expressed in regenerating myocytes of adult injured skeletal muscle, and extrinsic G-CSF supported short-term and long-term muscle regeneration in mouse model of skeletal muscle injury...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536235/a-case-of-acyclovir-neurotoxicity-presenting-with-atypical-cerebrospinal-fluid-findings
#10
Guramrinder Singh Thind, Richard Roach
An 82-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease presented with progressively worsening confusion and somnolence for the past 4-5 days. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster by his primary care physician 5 days ago and was started on a course of valacyclovir 1 g three times a day (dose not adjusted for renal impairment).A lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed 37 white blood cells (WBCs)/hpf (100% monocytes), protein 64 mg/dL and glucose 52 mg/dL...
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536100/depletion-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-with-a-csf-1r-kinase-inhibitor-enhances-antitumor-immunity-and-survival-induced-by-dc-immunotherapy
#11
Floris Dammeijer, Lysanne A Lievense, Margaretha E H Kaijen-Lambers, Menno van Nimwegen, Koen Bezemer, Joost P Hegmans, Thorbald van Hall, Rudi W Hendriks, Joachim G Aerts
New immunotherapeutic strategies are needed to induce effective anti-tumor immunity in all cancer patients. Malignant mesothelioma is characterized by a poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) is prominent in mesothelioma and is linked to immune suppression, angiogenesis and tumor aggressiveness. Therefore, TAM depletion could potentially reactivate anti-tumor immunity. We show that M-CSFR-inhibition using the CSF-1R kinase inhibitor PLX3397 (pexidartinib) effectively reduced numbers of TAMs, circulating nonclassical monocytes, as well as amount of neo-angiogenesis and ascites in mesothelioma mouse models, but did not improve survival...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535995/inflammation-associated-gene-expression-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-induced-by-toxins-from-fungi-common-on-damp-building-materials
#12
Thomas G Rand, Carolyn T Chang, David R McMullin, J David Miller
Most fungi that grow on damp building materials produce low molecular weight compounds, some of which are known to be toxic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to some metabolites of fungi common on damp building materials would result in time-, dose-, and compound-specific responses in the production of various chemokines by RAW 264.7 cells. Cell cultures were exposed to a 10(-7)M or 10(-8)M metabolite dose for 2, 4, 12 or 24h. Metabolite concentrations used were based on those that might be expected in alveolar macrophages due to inhalation exposure from living or working in a damp building...
May 20, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535786/biochemical-markers-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease-a-consensus-report
#13
A Wallin, E Kapaki, M Boban, S Engelborghs, D M Hermann, B Huisa, M Jonsson, M G Kramberger, L Lossi, B Malojcic, S Mehrabian, A Merighi, E B Mukaetova-Ladinska, G P Paraskevas, B O Popescu, R Ravid, L Traykov, G Tsivgoulis, G Weinstein, A Korczyn, M Bjerke, G Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data...
May 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534040/elsberg-syndrome-a-rarely-recognized-cause-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-and-lower-thoracic-myelitis
#14
Filippo Savoldi, Timothy J Kaufmann, Eoin P Flanagan, Michel Toledano, Brian G Weinshenker
OBJECTIVE: Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an established but often unrecognized cause of acute lumbosacral radiculitis with myelitis related to recent herpes virus infection. We defined ES, determined its frequency in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) with myelitis, and evaluated its clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic features and outcomes. METHODS: We searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for ES and subsequently for combinations of index terms to identify patients with suspected CES and myelitis...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530669/addition-of-plerixafor-to-g-csf-is-useful-to-achieve-efficient-collection-even-in-very-poor-mobilizers-hope-for-patients-with-diminished-hematopoietic-function
#15
M Mohty, P Drillat, J-M Grouin, F Bijou, N Milpied, C Chabannon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529814/ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-interpolymeric-blend-nanoenabled-gastroretentive-levodopa-delivery-systems
#16
Ndidi C Ngwuluka, Yahya E Choonara, Girish Modi, Lisa C du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Leith Meyer, Tracy Snyman, Viness Pillay
One approach for delivery of narrow absorption window drugs is to formulate gastroretentive drug delivery systems. This study was undertaken to provide insight into in vivo performances of two gastroretentive systems (PXLNET and IPB matrices) in comparison to Madopar® HBS capsules. The pig model was used to assess gastric residence time and pharmacokinetic parameters using blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine samples. Histopathology and cytotoxicity testing were also undertaken. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that levodopa was liberated from the drug delivery systems, absorbed, widely distributed, metabolized, and excreted...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527810/hif-1%C3%AE-stabilizing-agent-fg-4997-rescues-human-cd34-cell-mobilization-in-response-to-g-csf-in-immuno-deficient-mice
#17
Bianca Nowlan, Katarzyna Futrega, Marion E Brunck, Gail Walkinshaw, Lee E Flippin, Michael R Doran, Jean-Pierre Levesque
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is routinely used in the clinic to mobilize hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPC) into the patient's blood for collection and subsequent transplantation. However a significant proportion of patients who have previously received chemotherapy or radiotherapy and requiring autologous HSPC transplantation, cannot mobilize the minimal threshold of mobilized HSPC to achieve rapid and successful hematopoietic reconstitution. Although several alternatives to the G-CSF regime have been tested, few are in use in the clinic...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527129/efficacy-and-safety-of-plerixafor-for-the-mobilization-collection-of-peripheral-hematopoietic-stem-cells-for-autologous-transplantation-in-japanese-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#18
Masaki Ri, Kosei Matsue, Kazutaka Sunami, Chihiro Shimazaki, Akio Hayashi, Yoshinori Sunaga, Toru Sasaki, Kenshi Suzuki
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plerixafor for the mobilization/collection of peripheral hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for autologous transplantation in Japanese patients with multiple myeloma (MM). In a randomized study, patients received G-CSF (filgrastim, 400 µg/m(2)/day) for 4 days prior to the first dose of plerixafor. Starting on Day 4 evening and for up to 4 days, patients received either plerixafor (240 µg/kg/day) + G-CSF group (PG group) or G-CSF alone (G group). Daily apheresis started on Day 5 for up to 4 days, or until ≥6 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were collected...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527081/chiari-malformation-type-1-related-headache-the-importance-of-a-multidisciplinary-study
#19
Marcella Curone, L G Valentini, I Vetrano, E Beretta, M- Furlanetto, L Chiapparini, A Erbetta, G Bussone
Chiari type 1 Malformation (CM 1) is a structural defect consisting of a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum causing obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. CM 1 has a variety of presentation with headache being the most common symptom. The evaluation and treatment of headache related to CM 1 are often difficult, because the pain in the occipital-suboccipital region or headache that is of cough-type suggests symptomatic CM 1, but patients suffering from CM 1 can also report migraine or tension-type headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526328/acrylamide-induced-neurotoxicity-in-primary-astrocytes-and-microglia-roles-of-the-nrf2-are-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#20
Mengyao Zhao, Fu Sheng Lewis Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen, Hing Man Chan
Acrylamide (AA) is a common food contaminant formed during food heat processing that has neurotoxic effects. We hypothesize that AA induces oxidative stress in astrocytes and microglia, leading to neurotoxicity. Oxidative status, translocation of Nrf2 and NF-κB, and related down-stream targets were measured in primary astrocytes and microglia obtained from BALB/c mice. The results showed that AA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and reduced glutathione levels, causing successive events associated with oxidative stress, including 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine adduct formation, in both cell types...
May 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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