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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890943/low-prevalence-of-myopia-among-school-children-in-rural-china
#1
Chen-Wei Pan, Rong-Kun Wu, Jun Li, Hua Zhong
BACKGROUND: We aim to assess the prevalence of myopia in Chinese school children with low educational pressure and explore which factors could explain the differences in prevalence between generations. METHODS: A school-based epidemiologic study including 2432 grade 1 and 2346 grade 7 students was conducted from 2016 in rural areas of China. Each participant's refractive status was measured before and after cycloplegia using an autorefractor and axial length (AL) was measured using an IOL Master...
June 11, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866165/first-line-support-for-assistance-in-breathing-in-children-first-abc-a-multicentre-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-versus-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-paediatric-critical-care
#2
Padmanabhan Ramnarayan, Paula Lister, Troy Dominguez, Parviz Habibi, Naomi Edmonds, Ruth R Canter, Jerome Wulff, David A Harrison, Paul M Mouncey, Mark J Peters
BACKGROUND: Although high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has become a popular mode of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) in critically ill children, there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing it with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We performed a pilot RCT to explore the feasibility, and inform the design and conduct, of a future large pragmatic RCT comparing HFNC and CPAP in paediatric critical care. METHODS: In this multi-centre pilot RCT, eligible patients were recruited to either Group A (step-up NRS) or Group B (step-down NRS)...
June 4, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757441/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-propranolol-in-reducing-the-hypermetabolic-response-in-the-pediatric-burn-population
#3
Sylvia Ojeda, Emily Blumenthal, Pamela Stevens, Clark R Andersen, Lucy Robles, David N Herndon, Walter J Meyer
Pediatric burn patients often have hypertension and tachycardia for several years post-injury. Propranolol has shown to be effective in treating the hypermetabolic state secondary to a major burn injury. This study was conducted to document a safe and effective dosing regimen for three different age groups. One hundred four burn-injured children with a 30% to 92% total body surface area burn were treated for 1 to 2 years with propranolol in the outpatient setting. Guardians of the patients were instructed on how to take and monitor the systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and document their vital signs several times a day...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729274/loss-of-p53-regresses-cardiac-remodeling-induced-by-pressure-overload-partially-through-inhibiting-hif1%C3%AE-signaling-in-mice
#4
Jiming Li, Jingjing Zeng, Lianpin Wu, Luyuan Tao, Zhiyong Liao, Maoping Chu, Lei Li
The tumor suppressor p53 is recognized as the guardian of the genome in cell cycle and cell death. P53 expression increases as cardiac hypertrophy worsens to heart failure, suggesting that p53 may play important role in cardiac remodeling. In the present study, deletion of p53 in the mice heart would ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. The role of p53 on heart was investigated using in vivo models. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice was induced by transverse aortic banding surgery. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was examined by echocardiography, as well as pathological and molecular analyses of heart tissue...
May 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600900/bilirubin-acts-as-a-multi-potent-guardian-of-cardiovascular-integrity-more-than-just-a-radical-idea
#5
Andrew Cameron Bulmer, Bhavisha A Bakrania, Eugene Francois Du Toit, Ai-Ching Boon, Paul J Clark, Lawrie W Powell, Karl-Heinz Wagner, John P Headrick
Bilirubin, a potentially toxic catabolite of heme and indicator of hepato-biliary insufficiency, exhibits potent cardiac and vascular protective properties. Individuals with Gilbert's syndrome (GS) may experience hyperbilirubinemia in response to stressors including reduced hepatic bilirubin excretion/increased red blood cell breakdown, with individuals usually informed by their clinician that their condition is of little consequence. However, GS appears to protect from all-cause mortality, with progressively elevated total bilirubin associated with protection from ischemic heart and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600123/association-between-baseline-blood-pressures-heart-rates-and-vasovagal-syncope-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
Himanshu Adlakha, Ruchi Gupta, Romana Hassan, Jeffrey H Kern
BACKGROUND: Vasovagal syncope is the most common cause of syncope in children and adults, accounting for 50-66% of unexplained syncope. There are no studies establishing the relationship between syncope, baseline heart rate, and blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: To identify a possible association between baseline blood pressure and heart rate with syncope. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire-based chart review study. A questionnaire was distributed to the guardian of children between eight and 18 years of age who attended the Pediatric Ambulatory Care Clinic at Flushing Hospital Medical Center...
January 28, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754485/prevalence-and-incidence-of-pressure-injuries-in-pediatric-hospitals-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-sp-brazil
#7
Donata Maria de Souza Pellegrino, Julieta Maria Ferreira Chacon, Leila Blanes, Lydia Masako Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence and prevalence of pressure injuries (PIs) in children admitted to hospitals in the city of São Paulo, and assess the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 543 children were evaluated, and their sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Student's t, Wilcoxon, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess associations between risk factors and the occurrence of HAPIs...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651601/health-and-behavioral-factors-associated-with-binge-drinking-among-university-students-in-nine-asean-countries
#8
Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire...
June 26, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606907/first-line-support-for-assistance-in-breathing-in-children-first-abc-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-feasibility-trial-of-non-invasive-respiratory-support-in-critically-ill-children
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Padmanabhan Ramnarayan, Paula Lister, Troy Dominguez, Parviz Habibi, Naomi Edmonds, Ruth Canter, Paul Mouncey, Mark J Peters
INTRODUCTION: Over 18 000 children are admitted annually to UK paediatric intensive care units (PICUs), of whom nearly 75% receive respiratory support (invasive and/or non-invasive). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has traditionally been used to provide first-line non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) in PICUs; however, high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC), a novel mode of NRS, has recently gained popularity despite the lack of high-quality trial evidence to support its effectiveness...
June 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567190/experiences-of-caregivers-of-infants-who-have-been-on-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-at-queen-elizabeth-central-hospital-malawi-a-descriptive-qualitative-study
#10
Mtisunge Joshua Gondwe, Belinda Gombachika, Maureen D Majamanda
BACKGROUND: An innovative, low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) device has recently been introduced in Malawi for the treatment of respiratory distress in infants. While this novel bCPAP system has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing infant mortality, caregivers' experiences have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of parents and guardians of infants who had been on bCPAP at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi...
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542555/parenting-styles-feeding-styles-and-food-related-parenting-practices-in-relation-to-toddlers-eating-styles-a-cluster-analytic-approach
#11
Klazine van der Horst, Ester F C Sleddens
INTRODUCTION: Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. METHODS: An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382956/association-between-high-birth-weight-and-hypertension-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#12
Y H Dong, Z Y Zou, Z P Yang, Z H Wang, J Jing, J Y Luo, X Zhang, C Y Luo, H Wang, H P Zhao, D H Pan, J Ma
This study aims to examine the relationship between high birth weight (HBW) and blood pressure and assess whether HBW leads to increased hypertension during childhood and adolescence. All the participants aged 6-18 years with HBW were selected from a cross-sectional study from seven provinces in China. Nine thousand nine hundred and sixty-two children were randomly sampled with matched data. Basic information of students was collected with a standardized student and guardian questionnaire. High blood pressure was defined according to sex-, age- and height-specific references...
November 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265153/comparison-of-differences-in-respiratory-function-and-pressure-as-a-predominant-abnormal-movement-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#13
Hae-Yeon Kwon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory function and pressure among three groups of children with cerebral palsy as a predominant abnormal movement which included spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three children with cerebral palsy of 5-13 years of age in I-III levels according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the study subjects were divided by stratified random sampling into three groups of spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type...
February 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777741/livestock-guardian-dogs-as-surrogate-top-predators-how-maremma-sheepdogs-affect-a-wildlife-community
#14
Linda van Bommel, Chris N Johnson
Use of livestock guardian dogs (LGDs) to reduce predation on livestock is increasing. However, how these dogs influence the activity of wildlife, including predators, is not well understood. We used pellet counts and remote cameras to investigate the effects of free ranging LGDs on four large herbivores (eastern gray kangaroo, common wombat, swamp wallaby, and sambar deer) and one mesopredator (red fox) in Victoria, Australia. Generalized mixed models and one- and two-species detection models were used to assess the influence of the presence of LGDs on detection of the other species...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342659/guardian-or-threat-does-golden-eagle-predation-risk-have-cascading-effects-on-forest-grouse
#15
Mari S Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila, Erkki Korpimäki
Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators...
October 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112550/academic-dishonesty-in-higher-education-students-perceptions-and-involvement-in-an-african-institution
#16
Sixtus Bieranye Bayaa Martin Saana, Ephraim Ablordeppey, Napoleon Jackson Mensah, Thomas K Karikari
BACKGROUND: Integrity in academic work is a critical benchmark of every profession. For this reason, special attention should be devoted to addressing academic dishonesty (AD) in higher education to prevent the potential transfer of these practices to the workplace. In order to effectively address AD in Africa, further information about correlates of, and barriers to, the effectiveness of existing AD-controlling measures is needed. In Ghana, little is known about AD from the perspective of students...
April 25, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942388/committee-opinion-no-653-concerns-regarding-social-media-and-health-issues-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#17
(no author information available yet)
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present...
February 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942381/committee-opinion-no-653-summary-concerns-regarding-social-media-and-health-issues-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present...
February 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934421/parents-and-providers-attitudes-toward-school-located-provision-and-school-entry-requirements-for-hpv-vaccines
#19
Jessica Vercruysse, Nagasudha L Chigurupati, Leslie Fung, Gauri Apte, Natalie Pierre-Joseph, Rebecca B Perkins
OBJECTIVE: To determine parents' and providers' attitudes toward school-located provision and school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. METHODS: Parents/guardians of 11-17 y old girls and pediatric healthcare providers at one inner-city public clinic and three private practices completed semi-structured interviews in 2012-2013. Participants were asked open-ended questions regarding their attitudes toward school-located provision and school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination...
June 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664730/healthy-hearts-a-cross-sectional-study-of-clinical-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-northern-colorado-school-children-1992-2013
#20
Tracy L Nelson, NaNet Puccetti, Gary J Luckasen
BACKGROUND: Despite significant declines in cardiovascular disease (CVD), it remains the number one cause of death in the United States. Determining factors that may be associated with CVD risk at a young age may allow us to better prevent CVD deaths in the future. The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors among 4(th) grade children who participated in a community-wide CVD education program; as well as the association of these risk factors with weight status and the prevalence of CVD risk factors among family members...
2015: BMC Obesity
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