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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909496/transplantation-of-macroencapsulated-insulin-producing-cells
#1
REVIEW
Albert J Hwa, Gordon C Weir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable interest in using macroencapsulation devices as a delivery strategy for transplanting insulin-producing cells. This review aims to summarize recent advances, to highlight remaining challenges, and to provide recommendations for the field. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of new device designs have been reported to improve biocompatibility and to provide protection for islet/beta cells from immune destruction while allowing continuous secretion of insulin...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909283/synergistic-environmental-exposures-and-the-airways-capturing-complexity-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
Chris Carlsten
Paradoxically, the vast majority of research models intended to understand the relationship between exogenous exposures and lung disease are reduced to a single inhalant. This is understandable given the practical challenges of investigation, but is problematic in terms of translation to the real-world human condition. Furthermore, use of data from such models can lead to under-estimation of effect, which may adversely impact regulatory imperatives to protect public health based on the most robust information...
June 14, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909241/bone-breaking-infections-a-focus-on-bacterial-and-mosquito-borne-viral-infections
#3
REVIEW
Yan Chao Cui, Qiong Wu, Seoh Wei Teh, Amira Peli, Gang Bu, Yu Sheng Qiu, Giovanni Benelli, S Suresh Kumar
The recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River, chikungunya, and dengue, highlights an urgency for the development of therapeutic strategies. Currently, dengue represents the most rapidly transmitting mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. By contracting bone breaking diseases, patients experience devastating clinical manifestations involving muscle pain and bone loss. The bone self-repair and regeneration mechanisms can be damaged by the presence of viruses and bacteria. The rapid establishment of dengue epidemic and the severity of bacterial and viral infections affecting the bone stress the urgent need of developing effective interventions...
June 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907244/e-health-for-active-ageing-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Timothy David Robbins, Sarah N Lim Choi Keung, Theodoros N Arvanitis
Enabling successful active ageing is an international priority to meet the challenges of increasing life expectancy. Digital strategies, such as telemedicine and e-health, offer the potential to deliver active ageing in a cost-effective manner at scale. This article aims to establish the extent to which the research literature considers e-health-based and telemedicine-based active ageing interventions. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA standards. Independently, two authors searched the Cochrane, EMBASE & CINAHL databases, with subsequent independent extraction and semi-quantitative analysis...
August 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907196/sample-size-of-surgical-randomized-controlled-trials-a-lack-of-improvement-over-time
#5
Usama Ahmed Ali, Joren R Ten Hove, Beata M Reiber, Pieter C van der Sluis, Marc G Besselink
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without a significant difference regarding the primary outcome (negative RCTs) is frequently challenging, due to concerns about sample size and thus sufficient statistical power. We aimed to assess the adequacy of sample size and corresponding power of surgical RCTs. METHODS: We previously identified all surgical RCTs available in PubMed in two distinct years a decade apart (1999 and 2009). For all "negative" trials, we estimated whether the sample size of the trial was appropriate to detect a difference in the primary outcome measure...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906642/the-effect-of-simethicone-on-postoperative-ileus-in-patients-undergoing-colorectal-surgery-spot-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Jeremy E Springer, Shiraz Elkheir, Cagla Eskicioglu, Aristithes G Doumouras, Stephen Kelly, Ilun Yang, Shawn Forbes
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus is a poorly understood multifactorial outcome following colorectal surgery that presents significant clinical challenges and contributes to increased morbidity, length of stay, and healthcare cost. To date, there are few pharmacological interventions that shorten the duration of postoperative ileus. OBJECTIVE: This study is the first to evaluate the efficacy of simethicone in treating postoperative ileus symptoms in patients undergoing colorectal surgery...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906612/nad-and-sirtuins-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases-a-look-at-future-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan B Lin, Rajendra S Apte
Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of morbidity in modern society because visual impairment significantly decreases the quality of life of patients. A significant challenge in treating retinal degenerative diseases is their genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite this diversity, many of these diseases share a common endpoint involving death of light-sensitive photoreceptors. Identifying common pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to photoreceptor death in these diverse diseases may lead to a unifying therapy for multiple retinal diseases that would be highly innovative and address a great clinical need...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905765/pleural-mesothelioma-is-the-surgeon-still-there
#8
I Opitz, W Weder
MPM is a rare malignancy with some unique characteristics. Tumor biology is aggressive and prognosis is poor. Despite more knowledge on histology, tumor biology and staging, there is still a relevant discrepancy between clinical and pathologic staging resulting in difficult prediction of prognosis and treatment outcome, making treatment allocation more challenging than in most other malignancies.After years of nihilism in the late eighties, a period of activism started evaluating different treatment protocols combined with research driven mainly by academic centers; at the time, selection was based on histology and stage only...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905670/behavioral-measures-of-listening-effort-in-school-age-children-examining-the-effects-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-hearing-loss-and-amplification
#9
Ronan McGarrigle, Samantha J Gustafson, Benjamin W Y Hornsby, Fred H Bess
OBJECTIVES: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on 2 commonly used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs)...
June 13, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905641/surgical-treatment-of-diplopia-in-graves-orbitopathy-patients
#10
Anja Eckstein, Joachim Esser, Michael Oeverhaus, Peerooz Saeed, Hinke Marijke Jellema
PURPOSE: To review the authors' current understanding of motility dysfunction in patients with thyroid eye disease and to summarize appropriate evaluation and available management options. METHODS: Data were retrieved from a systematic search of the literature. RESULTS: Diplopia is one of the most disabling symptoms for Graves orbitopathy patients. It occurs in moderate-to-severe Graves orbitopathy stages and does not respond well to available anti-inflammatory treatment...
June 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905629/local-vancomycin-effectively-reduces-surgical-site-infection-at-implant-site-in-rodents
#11
Jeffrey S Kroin, Jinyuan Li, Sasha Shafikhani, Kajal H Gupta, Mario Moric, Asokumar Buvanendran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infected implantable devices represent a clinical challenge, because the customary option is to surgically remove the device, and that is associated with substantial cost and morbidity to the patient, along with patient dissatisfaction with the physician. Although prophylactic systemic antibiotics and sterile technique are the mainstay of prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after implant, the incidence of SSI remains relatively high. Although some surgeons add local antibiotic at implant site during surgery, there is no scientific research to demonstrate if there is a benefit...
June 13, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904636/is-accurate-n-staging-for-gastric-cancer-possible
#12
Chrysovalantis Vergadis, Dimitrios Schizas
Node stage (N stage) is of paramount importance for gastric cancer staging. Radiologically node status implies detection and characterization of suspect malignant lymph nodes. Clinically it might determine survival and alter therapeutic plans. A number of modalities, including computerized tomography, MRI, PET and endoscopic ultrasound are currently available. Using a multimodality strategy, accuracy ranges between 50-90% across various studies. Specificity and sensitivity varies with respect to method, number of positive lymph nodes, their location and other characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904595/validate-exploiting-the-synergy-between-complex-intracellular-pathogens-to-expedite-vaccine-research-and-development-for-tuberculosis-leishmaniasis-melioidosis-and-leprosy
#13
Helen A Fletcher, Mitali Chatterjee, Andrea Cooper, Tracy Hussell, Paul M Kaye, Joann Prior, Rajko Reljic, Samantha Vermaak, Martin Vordermeier, Ann Williams, Helen McShane
For several complex intracellular pathogens, we have an urgent need for effective vaccines and yet there are common barriers to vaccine development. These diseases, including tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, leprosy and melioidosis, cause a huge burden of disease and disproportionately affect low and middle income countries. They are therefore often neglected due to the marginalisation of affected populations and the poor predicted commercial return on investment. Barriers to vaccine development include an incomplete understanding of protective immunity and translation from the bench into clinical vaccine trials...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904162/when-genomic-medicine-reveals-misattributed-genetic-relationships-the-debate-about-disclosure-revisited
#14
C F Wright, M Parker, A M Lucassen
PURPOSE: Accidental discovery of misattributed parentage is an age-old problem in clinical medicine, but the ability to detect it routinely has increased recently as a result of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies coupled with family sequencing studies. Problems arise at the clinical-research boundary, where policies and consent forms guaranteeing nondisclosure may conflict with standard clinical care. METHODS: To examine the challenges of managing misattributed parentage within hybrid translational research studies, we used a case study of a developmentally delayed child with a candidate variant found through a large-scale trio genome sequencing study in which data from unrelated samples were routinely excluded...
June 14, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903998/honey-based-templates-in-wound-healing-and-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin A Minden-Birkenmaier, Gary L Bowlin
Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities. Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success...
June 14, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903787/quality-of-health-literacy-instruments-used-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#16
Shuaijun Guo, Rebecca Armstrong, Elizabeth Waters, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Sheikh M Alif, Geoffrey R Browne, Xiaoming Yu
OBJECTIVE: Improving health literacy at an early age is crucial to personal health and development. Although health literacy in children and adolescents has gained momentum in the past decade, it remains an under-researched area, particularly health literacy measurement. This study aimed to examine the quality of health literacy instruments used in children and adolescents and to identify the best instrument for field use. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: A wide range of settings including schools, clinics and communities...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903502/publishing-pragmatic-trials
#17
Rita H Pickler, Margaret H Kearney
BACKGROUND: Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are an important research approach for nurse researchers seeking to bring efficacious interventions to the real world of clinical practice. These approaches take into account the complex and often messy conditions of clinical care, involving patients with comorbid conditions, many providers providing the intervention, and limited evaluation data with which to judge effectiveness. PURPOSE: The purposes of this paper are to describe the challenges for PCT manuscript writer and to review the various guidelines that may be used to assist in manuscript development...
April 17, 2018: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903496/a-systematic-map-of-medical-data-preprocessing-in-knowledge-discovery
#18
REVIEW
A Idri, H Benhar, J L Fernández-Alemán, I Kadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Datamining (DM) has, over the last decade, received increased attention in the medical domain and has been widely used to analyze medical datasets in order to extract useful knowledge and previously unknown patterns. However, historical medical data can often comprise inconsistent, noisy, imbalanced, missing and high dimensional data. These challenges lead to a serious bias in predictive modeling and reduce the performance of DM techniques. Data preprocessing is, therefore, an essential step in knowledge discovery as regards improving the quality of data and making it appropriate and suitable for DM techniques...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903380/principles-of-statistics-what-the-sports-medicine-professional-needs-to-know
#19
REVIEW
Bryan L Riemann, Monica R Lininger
Understanding the results and statistics reported in original research remains a large challenge for many sports medicine practitioners and, in turn, may be among one of the biggest barriers to integrating research into sports medicine practice. The purpose of this article is to provide minimal essentials a sports medicine practitioner needs to know about interpreting statistics and research results to facilitate the incorporation of the latest evidence into practice. Topics covered include the difference between statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness; effect sizes and confidence intervals; reliability statistics, including the minimal detectable difference and minimal important difference; and statistical power...
July 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902694/challenges-of-evaluating-chronic-heart-failure-and-acute-heart-failure-events-in-research-studies-using-large-health-care-databases
#20
REVIEW
Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Cristina Rebordosa, Emili Vela, Montse Cleries, Kunihiro Matsushita, Estel Plana, Elena Rivero-Ferrer, Cristina Enjuanes, Santiago Jimenez-Marrero, Luis Alberto Garcia-Rodriguez, Josep Comin-Colet, Susana Perez-Gutthann
Epidemiological studies on heart failure (HF) using large health care databases are becoming increasingly frequent, as they represent an invaluable opportunity to characterize the importance and risk factors of HF from a population perspective. Nevertheless, because of its complex diagnosis and natural history, the heterogeneous use of the relevant terminology in routine clinical practice, and the limitations of some disease coding systems, HF can be a challenging condition to assess using large health care databases as the main source of information...
May 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
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