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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933416/positron-emission-tomography-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-towards-targeting-of-molecular-pathological-hallmarks
#1
Stefanie M A Willekens, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Philip Van Damme, Koen Van Laere
During the past decades, extensive efforts have been made to expand the knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, clinical translation of this research, in terms of earlier diagnosis and improved therapy, remains challenging. Since more than 30% of motor neurons are lost when symptoms become clinically apparent, techniques allowing non-invasive, in vivo detection of motor neuron degeneration are needed in the early, pre-symptomatic disease stage. Furthermore, it has become apparent that non-motor signs play an important role in the disease and there is an overlap with cognitive disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933399/implementation-of-clinical-decision-support-in-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-at-the-emergency-department
#2
Dorien Geurts, Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout Steyerberg, Johan van der Lei, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on diagnostics, treatment, and costs compared with usual care by attending physician. A randomized controlled trial was performed in 222 children, aged 1 month to 5 years at the ED of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's hospital in The Netherlands ( 2010-2012)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933214/integrating-next-generation-sequencing-into-clinical-oncology-strategies-promises-and-pitfalls
#3
REVIEW
Peter Horak, Stefan Fröhling, Hanno Glimm
We live in an era of genomic medicine. The past five years brought about many significant achievements in the field of cancer genetics, driven by rapidly evolving technologies and plummeting costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS). The official completion of the Cancer Genome Project in 2014 led many to envision the clinical implementation of cancer genomic data as the next logical step in cancer therapy. Stemming from this vision, the term 'precision oncology' was coined to illustrate the novelty of this individualised approach...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933160/post-sensitization-administration-of-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-reduces-allergic-symptoms-in-mice
#4
Betty C A M van Esch, Suzanne Abbring, Mara A P Diks, Gemma M Dingjan, Lucien F Harthoorn, A Paul Vos, Johan Garssen
To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932630/hospital-doctors-understanding-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-the-liverpool-care-pathway-a-qualitative-study-of-practice-based-experiences-during-times-of-change
#5
Sharon Twigger, Sarah J Yardley
BACKGROUND: The Liverpool Care Pathway was used in UK hospitals (late 1990s to July 2014) in an attempt to generate hospice-style high-quality end-of-life care in acute settings. Despite being widely established, there was limited research or contextual evidence regarding this approach or its impact. Growing criticism from the public, media, politicians and healthcare professionals culminated with a critical independent review (July 2013) and subsequent withdrawal of the Liverpool Care Pathway...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932290/the-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-and-future-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Alison Chisholm, Harold R Collard, Kevin R Flaherty, Jeffrey Myers, Ganesh Raghu, Simon L F Walsh, Eric S White, Luca Richeldi
With the recent development of two effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. The traditional approach to diagnosis emphasises the importance of thorough clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude secondary causes of disease. High-resolution CT is a critical initial diagnostic test and acts as a tool to identify patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a definitive histological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932276/the-why-and-how-of-amino-acid-analytics-in-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Friederike Manig, Konstantin Kuhne, Cläre von Neubeck, Uwe Schwarzenbolz, Zhanru Yu, Benedikt M Kessler, Jens Pietzsch, Leoni A Kunz-Schughart
Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931215/why-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-must-become-a-guiding-framework-for-the-realization-of-the-rights-of-children-affected-by-tuberculosis
#8
Robindra Basu Roy, Nicola Brandt, Nicolette Moodie, Mitra Motlagh, Kumanan Rasanathan, James A Seddon, Anne K Detjen, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. DISCUSSION: We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma...
December 8, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927250/experiences-of-caregivers-of-children-with-inherited-metabolic-diseases-a-qualitative-study
#9
Shabnaz Siddiq, Brenda J Wilson, Ian D Graham, Monica Lamoureux, Sara D Khangura, Kylie Tingley, Laure Tessier, Pranesh Chakraborty, Doug Coyle, Sarah Dyack, Jane Gillis, Cheryl Greenberg, Robin Z Hayeems, Shailly Jain-Ghai, Jonathan B Kronick, Anne-Marie Laberge, Julian Little, John J Mitchell, Chitra Prasad, Komudi Siriwardena, Rebecca Sparkes, Kathy N Speechley, Sylvia Stockler, Yannis Trakadis, Sarah Wafa, Jagdeep Walia, Kumanan Wilson, Nataliya Yuskiv, Beth K Potter
BACKGROUND: We sought to understand the experiences of parents/caregivers of children with inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) in order to inform strategies for supporting patients and their families. We investigated their experiences regarding the management of disease, its impact on child and family life, and interactions with the health care system. METHODS: From four Canadian centres, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with parents/caregivers of children with an IMD who were born between 2006 and 2015 and who were participating in a larger cohort study...
December 7, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927055/improving-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-neural-progenitor-cell-transplantation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Michael A Lane, Angelo C Lepore, Itzhak Fischer
There have been a wide range of preclinical studies testing cellular therapies to repair the injured spinal cord, yet they remain a challenge to translate because of inconsistencies in efficacy, difficulties in obtaining reliable and safe sources of donor cells, limited number of patients with acute/subacute SCI and the high costs of clinical trials. Area covered: This paper focusses on the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells (NPCs) because they can provide the cellular components capable of promoting repair and enhancing functional improvement following spinal cord injury (SCI)...
December 7, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927042/pharmacological-treatments-for-methamphetamine-addiction-current-status-and-future-directions
#11
Javier Ballester, Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse remains a global health challenge despite intense research interest in the development of pharmacological treatments. This review provides a summary of clinical trials and human studies on the pharmacotherapy of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). Areas Covered: We summarize published clinical trials that tested candidate medications for MUD and also conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches to identify recently completed clinical trials using the keywords "methamphetamine" "addiction" "pharmacotherapy" and "clinical trial...
December 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926887/the-application-of-genomics-in-diabetes-barriers-to-discovery-and-implementation
#12
James S Floyd, Bruce M Psaty
The emerging availability of genomic and electronic health data in large populations is a powerful tool for research that has drawn interest in bringing precision medicine to diabetes. In this article, we discuss the potential application of genomics to the prediction, prevention, and treatment of diabetes, and we use examples from other areas of medicine to illustrate some of the challenges involved in conducting genomics research in human populations and implementing findings in practice. At this time, a major barrier to the application of genomics in diabetes care is the lack of actionable genomic findings...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926541/major-unanswered-questions-in-the-clinical-gout-field
#13
Lisa K Stamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although gout is one of the most common forms of inflammatory arthritis, it has been relatively neglected until recently. Despite progress in many areas of pathophysiology and genetics of gout and the development of new urate lowering therapies, there remain a number of unanswered clinical questions. With the resurgence of interest in gout it is important to recognize key aspects of gout management that remain challenging and require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The unanswered clinical issues outlined in this review are basic aspects of gout management that clinicians treating people with gout face on a daily basis and include when urate lowering therapy should be commenced, the most appropriate target serum urate, use of prophylaxis when starting urate lowering therapy and the most appropriate urate lowering therapy, particularly for those with chronic kidney disease...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926453/quantifying-motivation-with-effort-based-decision-making-paradigms-in-health-and-disease
#14
T T-J Chong, V Bonnelle, M Husain
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925608/active-music-therapy-and-physical-improvements-from-rehabilitation-for-neurological-conditions
#15
Demian Leandro Kogutek, Jeffrey David Holmes, Jessica Adrienne Grahn, Sara G Lutz, Emily Ready
Context • A variety of rehabilitation-based interventions are currently available for individuals with physical impairments resulting from neurological conditions, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech language pathology. Many individuals find participation in those therapies to be challenging. Alternative therapies have emerged as beneficial adjunctive treatments for individuals undergoing neurological rehabilitation, including music therapy (MT). Objective • The study intended to identify and collate systematically the evidence on MT interventions that address physical improvements in a rehabilitative setting...
October 2016: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925577/the-role-of-ultrasound-compared-to-biopsy-of-temporal-arteries-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis-tabul-a-diagnostic-accuracy-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#16
Raashid Luqmani, Ellen Lee, Surjeet Singh, Mike Gillett, Wolfgang A Schmidt, Mike Bradburn, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Andreas P Diamantopoulos, Wulf Forrester-Barker, William Hamilton, Shauna Masters, Brendan McDonald, Eugene McNally, Colin Pease, Jennifer Piper, John Salmon, Allan Wailoo, Konrad Wolfe, Andrew Hutchings
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a relatively common form of primary systemic vasculitis, which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent sight loss. We compared ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test with temporal artery biopsy, which may be negative in 9-61% of true cases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound with biopsy in diagnosing patients with suspected GCA. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre cohort study...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925045/interest-in-research-among-medical-students-challenges-for-the-undergraduate-education
#17
David William Moraes, Maitê Jotz, Willian Roberto Menegazzo, Michele Sabrina Menegazzo, Steffi Veloso, Mayara Christ Machry, Monise Costanzi, Lucia Campos Pellanda
Introduction: In recent decades, there has been a reduction in the number of graduates from medical schools who choose to pursue a career in scientific research. That has an impact on the profile of graduates, since medical education depends on understanding the formation of scientific evidence. The construction of new knowledge is also hampered by the reduction of medical scientists, whose clinical experience with patients provides an essential step towards medical Science evolution...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924347/preprocessing-structured-clinical-data-for-predictive-modeling-and-decision-support-a-roadmap-to-tackle-the-challenges
#18
José Carlos Ferrão, Mónica Duarte Oliveira, Filipe Janela, Henrique M G Martins
BACKGROUND: EHR systems have high potential to improve healthcare delivery and management. Although structured EHR data generates information in machine-readable formats, their use for decision support still poses technical challenges for researchers due to the need to preprocess and convert data into a matrix format. During our research, we observed that clinical informatics literature does not provide guidance for researchers on how to build this matrix while avoiding potential pitfalls...
December 7, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924064/toward-the-use-of-precision-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Wang Gong, Yandi Xiao, Zihao Wei, Yao Yuan, Min Qiu, Chongkui Sun, Xin Zeng, Xinhua Liang, Mingye Feng, Qianming Chen
Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of "big data", such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine...
December 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923862/use-of-a-motivational-interviewing-informed-strategy-in-group-orientations-to-improve-retention-and-intervention-attendance-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Lan Xiao, Nan Lv, Lisa G Rosas, Shweta Karve, Veronica Luna, Elizabeth Jameiro, Nancy Wittels, Jun Ma
High retention and treatment adherence are essential to ensure the quality of evidence from clinical trials. Strategies for improving these have been explored but actual rates in lifestyle intervention trials indicate challenges. This study examined the use of a motivational interviewing-informed strategy during interactive group orientations prior to obtaining informed consent, collecting baseline data and randomization in a healthy dietary pattern intervention trial for asthma control in adults. The themes generated from small group discussions and echoed in large group discussions during the orientation sessions helped potential participants better understand the scientific rationale of the research design and procedures and the practical implications for them to participate in the study...
December 2016: Health Education Research
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