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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452276/application-of-targeted-mass-spectrometry-in-bottom-up-proteomics-for-systems-biology-research
#1
Nathan P Manes, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
The enormous diversity of proteoforms produces tremendous complexity within cellular proteomes, facilitates intricate networks of molecular interactions, and constitutes a formidable analytical challenge for biomedical researchers. Currently, quantitative whole-proteome profiling often relies on non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which samples proteoforms broadly, but can suffer from lower accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility compared with targeted LC-MS. Recent advances in bottom-up proteomics using targeted LC-MS have enabled previously unachievable identification and quantification of target proteins and posttranslational modifications within complex samples...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452191/recent-advances-of-medical-foods-in-china-the-opportunities-and-challenges-under-standardization
#2
Xusheng Li, Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Cuijuan Zhu, Weibin Bai
Malnutrition with high incidence in hospitalized patients in China has brought a significant burden of disease. Although many clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of nutritional for patients with malnutrition, the application of medical foods in China is still restricted. For the classification, limits, production and registration of medical foods, the Chinese government newly enacted a series of regulations. In this review, comparing the policy, researches, and product variety of medical foods in China with other countries, although the current status of the development of medical foods in China is still far behind that of developed countries, some of regulations are stricter than those of many other countries or organizations...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451205/optical-read-out-and-modulation-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#3
REVIEW
Arjun K Fontaine, Hans E Anderson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Numerous clinical and research applications necessitate the ability to interface with peripheral nerve fibers to read and control relevant neural pathways. Visceral organ modulation and rehabilitative prosthesis are two areas which could benefit greatly from improved neural interfacing approaches. Therapeutic neural interfacing, or 'bioelectronic medicine', has potential to affect a broad range of disorders given that all the major organs of the viscera are neurally innervated. However, a better understanding of the neural pathways that underlie function and a means to precisely interface with these fibers are required...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450258/the-cannabinoids-%C3%AE-8-thc-cbd-and-hu-308-act-via-distinct-receptors-to-reduce-corneal-pain-and-inflammation
#4
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB 1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB 2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB 2 R knockout (CB 2 R -/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449443/sex-differences-in-ischemic-heart-disease-advances-obstacles-and-next-steps
#5
Niti R Aggarwal, Hena N Patel, Laxmi S Mehta, Rupa M Sanghani, Gina P Lundberg, Sandra J Lewis, Marla A Mendelson, Malissa J Wood, Annabelle S Volgman, Jennifer H Mieres
Evolving knowledge of sex-specific presentations, improved recognition of conventional and novel risk factors, and expanded understanding of the sex-specific pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease have resulted in improved clinical outcomes in women. Yet, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. The important publication by the Institute of Medicine titled "Women's Health Research-Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise," highlights the persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease burden among subgroups of women, particularly women who are socially disadvantaged because of race, ethnicity, income level, and educational attainment...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449202/a-web-based-psychoeducational-intervention-for-adolescent-depression-design-and-development-of-moodhwb
#6
Rhys Bevan Jones, Anita Thapar, Frances Rice, Harriet Beeching, Rachel Cichosz, Becky Mars, Daniel J Smith, Sally Merry, Paul Stallard, Ian Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Sharon A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in adolescence and leads to distress and impairment in individuals, families and carers. Treatment and prevention guidelines highlight the key role of information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions not only for individuals but also for their families and carers. Engaging young people in prevention and early intervention programs is a challenge, and early treatment and prevention of adolescent depression is a major public health concern. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions to provide accurate information about health issues and to enhance and develop self-management skills...
February 15, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449041/biomechanical-simulation-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#7
REVIEW
John D Finan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury poses an enormous clinical challenge. Rats are the animals most widely used in pre-clinical experiments. Biomechanical simulations of these experiments predict the distribution of mechanical stress and strain across key tissues. It is in theory possible to dramatically increase our understanding of traumatic brain injury pathophysiology by correlating stress and strain with histological and functional injury outcomes. This review summarizes the state of the art in biomechanical simulation of traumatic brain injury in the rat...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448963/academic-medical-centers-as-innovation-ecosystems-to-address-population-omics-challenges-in-precision-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448084/radiotherapy-controversies-and-prospective-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-literature-based-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Francesca De Felice, Antonella Polimeni, Valentino Valentini, Orlando Brugnoletti, Andrea Cassoni, Antonio Greco, Marco de Vincentiis, Vincenzo Tombolini
In treating head and neck cancer (HNC), the objectives are provided for best functional results and minimal risk of serious complications. The choice of appropriate management depends primarily on specific site and stage of primary tumor at diagnosis. Radiation therapy (RT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy represents a classical treatment option. In this review, we provide an update of recent research strategies to counteract the existing damage caused by RT and highlight clinical trials currently in progress...
February 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447961/a-physiologically-relevant-3d-collagen-based-scaffold-neuroblastoma-cell-system-exhibits-chemosensitivity-similar-to-orthotopic-xenograft-models
#10
C Curtin, J C Nolan, R Conlon, L Deneweth, C Gallagher, Y J Tan, B L Cavanagh, A Z Asraf, H Harvey, S Miller-Delaney, J Shohet, I Bray, F J O'Brien, R L Stallings, O Piskareva
3D scaffold-based in vitro cell culturing is a recent technological advancement in cancer research bridging the gap between conventional 2D culture and in vivo tumours. The main challenge in treating neuroblastoma, a paediatric cancer of the sympathetic nervous system, is to combat tumour metastasis and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant 3D neuroblastoma tissue-engineered system and explore its therapeutic relevance. Two neuroblastoma cell lines, chemotherapeutic sensitive Kelly and chemotherapeutic resistant KellyCis83 were cultured in a 3D in vitro model on two collagen-based scaffolds containing either glycosaminoglycan (Coll-GAG) or nanohydroxyapatite (Coll-nHA) and compared to 2D cell culture and an orthotopic murine model...
February 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447138/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropathic-pain
#11
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447091/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-comparison-of-four-national-guidelines
#12
Dana Vitner, Kristin Harris, Cynthia Maxwell, M D Farine
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy has become one of the most important challenges in obstetrical care given its prevalence and potential adverse impact on both mother and fetus. The primary objective of this descriptive review is to identify common themes and distinctions within the current recommendations for maternal obesity in the most updated version of four published national guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the following guidelines for obesity in pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2015, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG) 2013, Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (RCOG) 2010, and Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC) 2010...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445921/spontaneous-regression-and-resolution-of-breast-implant-associated-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-implications-for-research-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#13
Daniel Fleming, Jason Stone, Patrick Tansley
BACKGROUND: First described in 1997, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) was recognised by the World Health Organisation in 2016 as a specific disease. It typically presents as a late seroma-containing atypical, monoclonal T cells which are CD30+ and anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative. Until recently, it was thought that the disease was very rare. However, it is being diagnosed increasingly frequently with 56 cases confirmed in Australia by September 2017 and the estimated incidence revised from 1 in 300,000 to between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 10,000 patients with bilateral implants...
February 14, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445880/the-headache-under-response-to-treatment-hurt-questionnaire-an-outcome-measure-to-guide-follow-up-in-primary-care-development-psychometric-evaluation-and-assessment-of-utility
#14
T J Steiner, D C Buse, M Al Jumah, M L Westergaard, R H Jensen, M L Reed, L Prilipko, F S Mennini, M J A Láinez, K Ravishankar, F Sakai, S-Y Yu, M Fontebasso, A Al Khathami, E A MacGregor, F Antonaci, C Tassorelli, R B Lipton
BACKGROUND: Headache disorders are both common and burdensome but, given the many people affected, provision of health care to all is challenging. Structured headache services based in primary care are the most efficient, equitable and cost-effective solution but place responsibility for managing most patients on health-care providers with limited training in headache care. The development of practical management aids for primary care is therefore a purpose of the Global Campaign against Headache...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445533/insomnia-and-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-how-to-assess-your-patient-and-why-it-should-be-a-standard-part-of-care
#15
REVIEW
Kirstie N Anderson
Hippocrates recognized the importance of asking about sleep as long ago as 400 BC when he wrote " sleep and watchfulness, both of them when immoderate, constitute disease ". Disrupted sleep for any reason has immediate and long term consequences on physical and mental health. Insomnia disorder ("immoderate watchfulness") remains the commonest sleep disorder in primary and secondary care with an estimated 5-10% of the adult population affected. While it is commonly comorbid with other physical and mental health problems, the new diagnostic classification has been helpfully simplified such that it is considered a disorder in itself...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444919/tracheal-replacement
#16
REVIEW
Harry Etienne, Dominique Fabre, Abel Gomez Caro, Frederic Kolb, Sacha Mussot, Olaf Mercier, Delphine Mitilian, Francois Stephan, Elie Fadel, Philippe Dartevelle
Tracheal reconstruction is one of the greatest challenges in thoracic surgery when direct end-to-end anastomosis is impossible or after this procedure has failed. The main indications for tracheal reconstruction include malignant tumours (squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma), tracheoesophageal fistula, trauma, unsuccessful surgical results for benign diseases and congenital stenosis. Tracheal substitutes can be classified into five types: 1) synthetic prosthesis; 2) allografts; 3) tracheal transplantation; 4) tissue engineering; and 5) autologous tissue composite...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444787/randomised-controlled-pragmatic-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-a-discharge-follow-up-phone-call-on-30-day-hospital-readmissions-balancing-pragmatic-and-explanatory-design-considerations
#17
Maame Yaa A B Yiadom, Henry Domenico, Daniel Byrne, Michele Marie Hasselblad, Cheryl L Gatto, Sunil Kripalani, Neesha Choma, Sarah Tucker, Li Wang, Monisha C Bhatia, Johnston Morrison, Frank E Harrell, Tina Hartert, Gordon Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions within 30 days are a healthcare quality problem associated with increased costs and poor health outcomes. Identifying interventions to improve patients' successful transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a continued challenge. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre pragmatic randomised and controlled clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a discharge follow-up phone call to reduce 30-day inpatient readmissions...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444623/interpreting-action-research-arm-test-assessment-scores-to-plan-treatment
#18
Emily S Grattan, Craig A Velozo, Elizabeth R Skidmore, Stephen J Page, Michelle L Woodbury
Rasch keyforms can help interpret clinical assessment scores. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) is a commonly used assessment, yet no keyform currently exists. The aim is to provide a keyform for the ARAT and demonstrate how a clinician can use the keyform to design optimally challenging rehabilitation sessions. Secondary analysis of ARAT data ( n = 122) using confirmatory factor and Rasch analyses were used to examine the measurement properties and generate a keyform. The item standardized factor loadings were >0...
February 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444602/evaluating-integrative-cancer-clinics-with-the-claim-assessment-profile-an-example-with-the-inspirehealth-clinic
#19
Lara Hilton, Pamela Elfenbaum, Shamini Jain, Meredith Sprengel, Wayne B Jonas
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of freestanding integrative cancer clinical programs is challenging and is rarely done. We have developed an approach called the Claim Assessment Profile (CAP) to identify whether evaluation of a practice is justified, feasible, and likely to provide useful information. OBJECTIVES: A CAP was performed in order to (1) clarify the healing claims at InspireHealth, an integrative oncology treatment program, by defining the most important impacts on its clients; (2) gather information about current research capacity at the clinic; and (3) create a program theory and path model for use in prospective research...
March 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444319/beneficial-effects-of-water-soluble-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-tannin-extract-on-chicken-small-intestinal-epithelial-cell-culture
#20
M Brus, L Gradišnik, M Trapecar, D Škorjanc, R Frangež
Feed and water supplementation with powdered hydrolyzable tannins from chestnut represents a valuable alternative strategy to antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we evaluated the effects and safety of a water-soluble form of chestnut tannin (WST) in an in vitro model of chicken small intestinal epithelial cells (CSIEC). A chicken cell culture was established, and WST in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% were tested for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, metabolic activity, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotoxicity, and influence on the epithelia cell cycle...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
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