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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#1
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342649/the-prognosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
REVIEW
Christoph Mueller, Clive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Dag Aarsland
Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, yet scarce evidence is available about its prognosis and natural history, which are crucial to inform clinical practice and research. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies might have a less favourable prognosis, with accelerated cognitive decline, shorter lifespan, and increased admission to residential care than patients with Alzheimer's disease. Health-care costs and, importantly, caregiver burden, are also reported to be higher in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease...
March 22, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340492/hemolysis-elevated-liver-enzymes-low-platelets-syndrome-superimposed-on-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#3
Inês Martins, Madalena Gomes Conceição, Paulo Pereira Gomes, Nuno Clode
A pregnancy complicated by typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is reported. At 20 weeks of gestation, a case of HUS was diagnosed, with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli identified. Plasmapheresis allowed continuation of the pregnancy for 5 weeks. Superimposed preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were diagnosed after the establishment of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypertension and recurrence of hemolysis. This is a singular case, as it demonstrates that HELLP syndrome can superimpose upon HUS, a fact that can impact future research on reproductive immunology...
March 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340309/analytical-techniques-in-lipidomics-state-of-the-art
#4
Kamil Jurowski, Kamila Kochan, Justyna Walczak, Małgorzata Barańska, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Bogusław Buszewski
Current studies related to lipid identification and determination, or lipidomics in biological samples, are one of the most important issues in modern bioanalytical chemistry. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical strategies used in lipidomics in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is lack of articles dedicated to a comprehensive review of the actual analytical methodologies used in lipidomics. The aim of this article is to characterize the lipidomics methods used in modern bioanalysis according to the methodological point of view: 1) chromatography/separation methods, 2) spectroscopic methods and 3) mass spectrometry and also hyphenated methods...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340241/pragmatic-trial-informatics-a-perspective-from-the-nih-health-care-systems-research-collaboratory
#5
Rachel L Richesson, Beverly B Green, Reesa Laws, Jon Puro, Michael G Kahn, Alan Bauck, Michelle Smerek, Erik G Van Eaton, Meredith Zozus, W Ed Hammond, Kari A Stephens, Greg E Simon
Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are research investigations embedded in health care settings designed to increase the efficiency of research and its relevance to clinical practice. The Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory, initiated by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2010, is a pioneering cooperative aimed at identifying and overcoming operational challenges to pragmatic research. Drawing from our experience, we present 4 broad categories of informatics-related challenges: (1) using clinical data for research, (2) integrating data from heterogeneous systems, (3) using electronic health records to support intervention delivery or health system change, and (4) assessing and improving data capture to define study populations and outcomes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340022/nicotine-content-and-physical-properties-of-large-cigars-and-cigarillos-in-the-united-states
#6
Bartosz Koszowski, Meridith Hill Thanner, Wallace B Pickworth, Kenneth M Taylor, Lynn C Hull, Megan J Schroeder
Introduction: Cigars are combusted tobacco products consisting of filler, binder, and wrapper, which are derived from tobacco. Despite the abundance of literature on the composition of traditional combusted cigarettes, research is limited on the physical and chemical properties of cigars. Therefore, research on cigar properties may be useful to better understand their health impact. Methods: In this study, twenty large cigar and cigarillo products were characterized for physical properties (ie, weight, length, and diameter), filler nicotine content, and tobacco pH...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339883/interventions-to-improve-immigrant-health-a-scoping-review
#7
Esperanza Diaz, Gaby Ortiz-Barreda, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Michelle Holdsworth, Bukola Salami, Anu Rammohan, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Sabu S Padmadas, Thomas Krafft
: Disparities in health between immigrants and their host populations have been described across countries and continents. Hence, interventions for improving health targeting general populations are not necessarily effective for immigrants. To conduct a systematic search of the literature evaluating health interventions for immigrants; to map the characteristics of identified studies including range of interventions, immigrant populations and their host countries, clinical areas targeted and reported evaluations, challenges and limitations of the interventions identified...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339782/the-adolescent-hiv-disclosure-cognition-and-affect-scale-preliminary-reliability-and-validity
#8
Michael Evangeli
Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339637/provider-perspectives-on-the-implementation-of-psychosocial-risk-screening-in-pediatric-cancer
#9
Anne E Kazak, Lamia P Barakat, Martha A Askins, Maureen McCafferty, Alyssa Lattomus, Nicole Ruppe, Janet Deatrick
Objective:  Psychosocial risk screening is an important initial step in delivering evidence-based care. This qualitative descriptive study identified how multidisciplinary pediatric oncology health-care providers perceive psychosocial risk screening to identify factors in uptake and implementation. Methods:  A script guided digitally recorded (transcribed) interviews regarding psychosocial screening and challenges to facilitators of screening. Participants were 15 multidisciplinary staff (physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, physician assistant) at nine sites, three using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool© for research and six for clinical care...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339340/patient-perspectives-on-language-discordance-during-healthcare-visits-findings-from-the-extremely-high-density-multicultural-state-of-qatar
#10
Huda Abdelrahim, Maha Elnashar, Amal Khidir, Amal Killawi, Maya Hammoud, Abdul Latif Al-Khal, Michael D Fetters
Reducing language and cultural barriers in healthcare are significant factors in resolving health disparities. Qatar's rapidly growing multicultural population presents new challenges to the healthcare system. The purpose of this research was to explore patients' perspectives about language discordance, and the strategies used to overcome language barriers during patients' visits. Participants were recruited and interviewed from four language groups (Arabic = 24, English = 20, Hindi = 20, and Urdu = 20), all of whom were living in Qatar and utilizing Hamad General Hospital-Outpatient Clinics as a source of their healthcare services...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339024/effects-of-berberine-on-a-rat-model-of-chronic-stress-and-depression-via-gastrointestinal-tract-pathology-and-gastrointestinal-flora-profile-assays
#11
Xiaohui Zhu, Yangdong Sun, Chenggang Zhang, Haifeng Liu
Chronic stress and depression are challenging conditions to treat, owing to their complexity and lack of clinically available and effective therapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which berberine acts, by examining alterations to gastrointestinal tract histopathology and flora profile in a rat model, following the induction of stress. Research associating gastrointestinal flora and depression has increased, thus, the present study hypothesized that stress induces depression and changes in the gastrointestinal system...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338354/functional-oligopeptide-as-a-novel-strategy-for-drug-delivery
#12
Yujie Ji, Hongzhi Qiao, Jiayu He, Weidong Li, Rui Chen, Jingjing Wang, Li Wu, Rongfeng Hu, Jinao Duan, Zhipeng Chen
Oligopeptides, a type of short peptide, which consist of two to twenty amino acids, exhibit a variety of biological functions in drug delivery systems, such as specific targeting, cell penetration, self-assembled capacity and responsiveness to the environment. In this review, we aim to highlight the importance of functional oligopeptides for nanomedical applications and put forward the views on the future development direction of oligopeptide medicines. Oligopeptides have gained wide attentions due to their inherent properties, but the lack of understanding the mechanisms of in vivo transport behavior is the biggest problem and challenge at the present stage...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338345/challenges-and-driving-forces-for-business-plans-in-biobanking
#13
Tanja Macheiner, Berthold Huppertz, Michaela Bayer, Karine Sargsyan
BACKGROUND: Due to increased utilization of biospecimens for research and emergence of new technologies, the availability and quality of biospecimens and their collection are coming more and more into focus. However, the long-term economic situation of biobanks is still mostly unclear. Also, the common sustainable utilization of various international biobanks is challenging due to local differences in sample processing, law and ethics. AIM: This article discusses possible strategies to achieve a sustainable utilization of biospecimens as part of the business plan of biobanks...
March 24, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338242/what-can-community-pharmacy-learn-from-the-experiences-of-transition-to-practice-for-novice-doctors-and-nurses-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Esnath Magola, Sarah C Willis, Ellen I Schafheutle
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of literature reporting the transition experiences of novice community pharmacists, peer-reviewed evidence on the transition experiences of novice doctors and nurses was identified and reviewed. Specific objectives included identifying the challenges to transition and their perceived impact, before considering the implications for novice community pharmacists. METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect were searched for full peer-reviewed original research papers published 1990-March 2015, reporting the transition experiences of novice doctors and nurses...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337223/emerging-perspectives-in-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering-in-oral-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Rossella Presta, Laura Benedetti, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Saturnino Marco Lupi, Ruggero Rodriguez Y Baena
Bone regeneration is currently one of the most important and challenging tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration is a promising approach in dentistry and is considered an ideal clinical strategy in treating diseases, injuries, and defects of the maxillofacial region. Advances in tissue engineering have resulted in the development of innovative scaffold designs, complemented by the progress made in cell-based therapies. In vitro bone regeneration can be achieved by the combination of stem cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337071/international-standards-for-genomes-transcriptomes-and-metagenomes
#16
Christopher E Mason, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Scott Tighe, Shixiu Wu, Shawn Levy
Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337020/delivery-technologies-for-genome-editing
#17
REVIEW
Hao Yin, Kevin J Kauffman, Daniel G Anderson
With the recent development of CRISPR technology, it is becoming increasingly easy to engineer the genome. Genome-editing systems based on CRISPR, as well as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), are becoming valuable tools for biomedical research, drug discovery and development, and even gene therapy. However, for each of these systems to effectively enter cells of interest and perform their function, efficient and safe delivery technologies are needed. This Review discusses the principles of biomacromolecule delivery and gene editing, examines recent advances and challenges in non-viral and viral delivery methods, and highlights the status of related clinical trials...
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336790/prioritizing-functional-capacity-as-a-principal-end-point-for-therapies-oriented-to-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-scientific-statement-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association
#18
REVIEW
Daniel E Forman, Ross Arena, Rebecca Boxer, Mary A Dolansky, Janice J Eng, Jerome L Fleg, Mark Haykowsky, Arshad Jahangir, Leonard A Kaminsky, Dalane W Kitzman, Eldrin F Lewis, Jonathan Myers, Gordon R Reeves, Win-Kuang Shen
Adults are living longer, and cardiovascular disease is endemic in the growing population of older adults who are surviving into old age. Functional capacity is a key metric in this population, both for the perspective it provides on aggregate health and as a vital goal of care. Whereas cardiorespiratory function has long been applied by cardiologists as a measure of function that depended primarily on cardiac physiology, multiple other factors also contribute, usually with increasing bearing as age advances...
March 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336507/planking-or-the-lying-down-game-two-case-reports
#19
Stefania Barbieri, Paolo Feltracco, Luca Omizzolo, Rossella Snenghi, Rafi El Mazloum, Gianna Vettore, Mauro Bergamini, Armando Stefanati, Daniele Donato, Cecilia Ferronato, Francesco Maria Avato, Alberto Tredese, Rosa Maria Gaudio
BACKGROUND: The monitoring and management of risks regarding children and young people admitted to the emergency department as a result of dangerous behaviors distributed via the Internet should be based on clinical reasoning and knowledge about these social media-related phenomena. Here we examine 2 cases of teenagers who reported severe injuries while performing the "planking" craze, a challenge that consists in lying face-down stiffly like a board on any kind of surface. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine and describe the Internet craze called planking, also known as the "lying-down game," through 2 case reports from our experience, enriching this study with information gained through discussions with secondary school teenagers...
March 23, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336504/mhealth-for-clinical-decision-making-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#20
Ibukun-Oluwa Omolade Adepoju, Bregje Joanna Antonia Albersen, Vincent De Brouwere, Jos van Roosmalen, Marjolein Zweekhorst
BACKGROUND: In a bid to deliver quality health services in resource-poor settings, mobile health (mHealth) is increasingly being adopted. The role of mHealth in facilitating evidence-based clinical decision-making through data collection, decision algorithms, and evidence-based guidelines, for example, is established in resource-rich settings. However, the extent to which mobile clinical decision support systems (mCDSS) have been adopted specifically in resource-poor settings such as Africa and the lessons learned about their use in such settings are yet to be established...
March 23, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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