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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913635/screening-and-analysis-of-janelia-flylight-project-enhancer-gal4-strains-identifies-multiple-gene-enhancers-active-during-hematopoiesis-in-normal-and-wasp-challenged-drosophila-larvae
#1
Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Mark S Brahier, Victoria Lam, Jessica R Stoller-Conrad, Paul T Kroeger, Robert A Schulz
A GFP expression screen has been conducted on greater than one thousand Janelia FlyLight Project enhancer-Gal4 lines to identify transcriptional enhancers active in the larval hematopoietic system. A total of 190 enhancers associated with 87 distinct genes showed activity in cells of the third instar larval lymph gland and hemolymph. That is, gene enhancers were active in cells of the lymph gland posterior signaling center (PSC), medullary zone (MZ), and/or cortical zone (CZ), while certain of the transcriptional control regions were active in circulating hemocytes...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913517/treatment-of-low-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#2
Valeria Santini
The majority of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belong to the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and IPSS-revised (IPSS-R) lower-risk categories. Their precise diagnostics and prognostic stratification is often a challenge, but may ensure the optimization of therapy. The availability of diverse treatment options has significantly improved the quality of life and survival of this group of patients. Anemia is the most relevant cytopenia in terms of frequency and symptoms in lower-risk MDS, and may be treated successfully with erythropoietic stimulating agents, provided a careful selection is performed on the basis of IPSS-R, endogenous erythropoietin levels, and transfusion independence...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912993/rehabilitation-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
REVIEW
Sean Robinson Smith, Arash Asher
Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a potentially debilitating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to the direct inflammatory effects of the disease on tissue, and the impact on muscle and bone of the high-dose glucocorticoid immunosuppression used to treat the disease, patients are at risk of developing multifactorial functional impairment. This review outlines the clinical assessment and rehabilitation interventions to manage aspects of the disease that cause the most impairment: involvement of the skin/fascial and cardiopulmonary organ systems, as well as steroid-induced myopathy and bone and joint destruction...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911806/permissive-roles-of-cytokines-interleukin-7-and-flt3-ligand-in-mouse-b-cell-lineage-commitment
#4
Lilly von Muenchow, Llucia Alberti-Servera, Fabian Klein, Giuseppina Capoferri, Daniela Finke, Rhodri Ceredig, Antonius Rolink, Panagiotis Tsapogas
Hematopoietic cells are continuously generated throughout life from hematopoietic stem cells, thus making hematopoiesis a favorable system to study developmental cell lineage commitment. The main factors incorporating environmental signals to developing hematopoietic cells are cytokines, which regulate commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the different blood lineages by acting either in an instructive or a permissive manner. Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt3) ligand (FL) and Interleukin-7 (IL-7) are cytokines pivotal for B-cell development, as manifested by the severely compromised B-cell development in their absence...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909435/immune-reconstitution-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Justyna Ogonek, Mateja Kralj Juric, Sakhila Ghimire, Pavankumar Reddy Varanasi, Ernst Holler, Hildegard Greinix, Eva Weissinger
The timely reconstitution and regain of function of a donor-derived immune system is of utmost importance for the recovery and long-term survival of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, new developments such as umbilical cord blood or haploidentical grafts were associated with prolonged immunodeficiency due to delayed immune reconstitution, raising the need for better understanding and enhancing the process of immune reconstitution and finding strategies to further optimize these transplant procedures...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907202/a-reproducible-method-for-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture-of-functional-human-lymphoid-stromal-cells-from-tonsils
#6
Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Tanja Konijn, Mehmet Gönültas, Reina E Mebius, Rogier M Reijmers
The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905193/high-pretransplant-hepcidin-levels-are-associated-with-poor-overall-survival-and-delayed-platelet-engraftment-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Soichiro Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kawabata, Junya Kanda, Tatsuki Uchiyama, Chisaki Mizumoto, Toshiyuki Kitano, Tadakazu Kondo, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Naohisa Tomosugi, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
Iron overload is considered a risk factor for mortality in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. Hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron balance. We previously reported dynamic changes of serum hepcidin-25 levels in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the association of pretransplant hepcidin-25 levels with overall survival (OS), engraftment, and other clinical outcomes of allo-HSCT in patients with hematologic malignancies...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#8
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902998/autoimmune-cytopenias-diagnosis-management
#9
Christian P Nixon, Joseph D Sweeney
The autoimmune cytopenias are a related group of disorders in which differentiated hematopoietic cells are destroyed by the immune system. Single lineage disease is characterized by the production of autoantibodies against red cells (autoimmune hemolytic anemia [AIHA]), platelets (autoimmune thrombocytopenia [ITP]) and neutrophils (autoimmune neutropenia [AIN]) whereas multilineage disease may include various combinations of these conditions. Central to the genesis of this disease is the breakdown of central and/or peripheral tolerance, and the subsequent production of autoantibodies by both tissue and circulating self-reactive B lymphocytes with support from T helper lymphocytes...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902756/conjunctival-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-adult-patients-receiving-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-cohort-study
#10
Yao-Chung Liu, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Pei-Yu Lin, Catherine Jui-Ling Liu, Chia-Jen Liu, Jin-Hwang Liu, Nai-Wen Fan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence, risk factors and survival of conjunctival acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This retrospective study included a total of 139 patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT between January 2012 and December 2014 at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with ocular complaints after allogeneic HSCT or first donor lymphocyte infusion were evaluated by ophthalmologists...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#11
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897450/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-overexpression-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-bone-marrow-cells-biological-and-clinical-implications
#12
Rosangela Invernizzi, Erica Travaglino, Matteo Giovanni Della Porta, Luca Malcovati, Anna Gallì, Raffaella Bastia, Mariella Ciola, Ilaria Ambaglio, Emanuela Boveri, Vittorio Rosti, Mario Cazzola
In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have regulatory effects on the hematopoietic system and contribute to disease progression. We analyzed by immunocytochemistry VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM) cells from 188 patients with MDS and 96 non-hemopathic subjects. We also measured VEGF BM plasma levels and in vitro VEGF release. Our aims were to evaluate whether VEGF expression abnormalities were associated with relevant laboratory or clinical findings and their possible prognostic value...
November 29, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895645/inflamm-aging-of-hematopoiesis-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#13
REVIEW
Larisa V Kovtonyuk, Kristin Fritsch, Xiaomin Feng, Markus G Manz, Hitoshi Takizawa
All hematopoietic and immune cells are continuously generated by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) through highly organized process of stepwise lineage commitment. In the steady state, HSCs are mostly quiescent, while HPCs are actively proliferating and contributing to daily hematopoiesis. In response to hematopoietic challenges, e.g., life-threatening blood loss, infection, and inflammation, HSCs can be activated to proliferate and engage in blood formation. The HSC activation induced by hematopoietic demand is mediated by direct or indirect sensing mechanisms involving pattern recognition receptors or cytokine/chemokine receptors...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894778/stem-cells-in-psoriasis
#14
REVIEW
Ruixia Hou, Junqin Li, Xuping Niu, Ruifeng Liu, Wenjuan Chang, Xincheng Zhao, Qiang Wang, Xinhua Li, Guohua Yin, Kaiming Zhang
Psoriasis is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is commonly accepted that the development of psoriasis is a result of multi-system interactions among the epidermis, dermis, blood vessels, immune system, neuroendocrine system, metabolic system, and hematopoietic system. Many cell types have been confirmed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we review the stem cell abnormalities related to psoriasis that have been investigated recently...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894441/nonclassic-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-young-infants-immune-dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-x-linked-syndrome-and-other-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Shanmuganathan Chandrakasan, Suresh Venkateswaran, Subra Kugathasan
This article discusses non-classical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mainly occurs in infants and very young children. Defects in every aspect of the immune system, such as neutrophils, T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes, and macrophages are associated with IBD in infants. Also, non lympho-hematopoietic defects with primary defects in enterocytes can also lead to IBD-like manifestations. Clinical vignettes are presented and the genetic origins and possible management strategies are outlined. Early evaluation of these patients is important because identification of underlying immune defects would facilitate the use of better-targeted therapy for the specific genetic defect...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894110/significant-role-s-of-cxcl12-and-the-sdf-1-3-a-genetic-variant-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Mojgan Noroozi Karimabad, Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-Pour, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi
Both cellular and molecular components of the immune system are among the substantial factors involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Accumulating evidence confirms that chemokines, as the main members of the immune system, play key roles in the regulation of immune responses. Immune system genetic parameters are believed to influence the onset of immune system-related diseases. Regarding the significant role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in cell differentiation and survival and homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the bone marrow and regulation of neuronal progenitor cell migration in the central nervous system (CNS), genetic factors can cause an increased expression of CXCL12 and induce a vigorous immune response against CNS antigens in MS patients...
November 29, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892952/dynamic-prognostic-value-of-the-revised-international-prognostic-scoring-system-following-pretransplant-hypomethylating-treatment-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#17
S-A Yahng, Y-W Jeon, J-H Yoon, S-H Shin, S-E Lee, Y-S Choi, D-Y Kim, J-H Lee, B-S Cho, K-S Eom, S Lee, C-K Min, H-J Kim, J-W Lee, K-H Lee, W-S Min, J-H Lee, Y-J Kim
This study aimed to analyze the use of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) assessed after hypomethylating treatment (HMT) for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Among 115 patients who received pre-SCT HMT, comparison analysis of the prognostic values between the IPSS-R at the time of HMT (IPSS-R@HMT) and at the time of SCT after HMT (IPSS-R@SCT) showed a significantly higher predictive power for overall survival (OS) of the latter...
November 28, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890459/relationship-of-systemic-cytokine-concentrations-to-cognitive-function-over-two-years-in-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#18
Debra E Lyon, Ronald Cohen, Huaihou Chen, Debra L Kelly, Nancy L McCain, Angela Starkweather, Hyochol Ahn, Jamie Sturgill, Colleen K Jackson-Cook
: Cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). While CRCI has been associated with linked to chemotherapy, there is increasing evidence that the condition may start prior to treatment and for some, remain unresolved after active treatment and into survivorship. Although the pathophysiology of the condition is complex, alterations in systemic cytokines, signaling molecules activated in response to infection or injury that trigger inflammation, are a possible mechanism linked to cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer and other conditions...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890297/digesting-the-role-of-bone-marrow-macrophages-on-hematopoiesis
#19
REVIEW
Esther Heideveld, Emile van den Akker
Tissue resident macrophages are found in various tissues like Langerhans cells in the skin or alveolar macrophages in the lung, and their main function is to regulate organ homeostasis. They have also been observed in the bone marrow and these cells in particular have been gaining importance in recent years as they are key players in hematopoiesis. However, as the characterization and classification of these putatively different bone marrow resident macrophages is far from established there is a need to generate an overview of tissue resident macrophages of the bone marrow...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888602/a-glycovariant-of-human-cd44-is-characteristically-expressed-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Gisela Pachón-Peña, Conor Donnelly, Catalina Ruiz-Cañada, Adam Katz, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell, Robert Sackstein
The clinical effectiveness of systemically-administered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depends on their capacity to engage vascular endothelium. hMSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-hMSCs) natively lack endothelial binding capacity but express a CD44 glycovariant containing N-linked sialyllactosamines that can be α(1,3)-fucosylated using fucosyltransferase- VI (FTVI) to enforce sLe(X) decorations, thereby creating hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL). HCELL expression programs potent shear-resistant adhesion of circulating cells to endothelial beds expressing E-selectin...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cells
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