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Hakuto Kageyama, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
Betaine (trimethylglycine) is an important compatible solute that accumulates in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. Biosynthetic pathways of betaine have been extensively studied, but it remains to be clarified on algae. A diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335 is an important component of marine ecosystems. Here we show that the genome sequence of Thalassiosira suggests the presence of two biosynthetic pathways for betaine, via three step methylation of glycine and via two step oxidation of choline...
March 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
December 2017: Neurochemical Research
Taylor McClatchie, Megan Meredith, Mariame O Ouédraogo, Sandy Slow, Michael Lever, Mellissa R W Mann, Steven H Zeisel, Jacquetta M Trasler, Jay M Baltz
Betaine ( N,N,N -trimethylglycine) plays key roles in mouse eggs and preimplantation embryos first in a novel mechanism of cell volume regulation and second as a major methyl donor in blastocysts, but its origin is unknown. Here, we determined that endogenous betaine was present at low levels in germinal vesicle (GV) stage mouse oocytes before ovulation and reached high levels in the mature, ovulated egg. However, no betaine transport into oocytes was detected during meiotic maturation. Because betaine can be synthesized in mammalian cells via choline dehydrogenase (CHDH; EC 1...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Paweł Osika, Tomasz Wasilewski, Tomasz Bujak
A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol)...
February 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Emine Ertekin, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ulas Tezel
Recently, an array of eight genes involved in the biotransformation of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs)-an active ingredient of many disinfectants-to benzyldimethyl amine (BDMA) was identified in the genome of Pseudomonas sp. BIOMIG1, which is a bacterium present in various environments and mineralizes BACs. In this study, we showed that heterologous expression of an oxygenase gene (oxyBAC) present in this gene array in E. coli resulted in formation of BDMA from BACs at a rate of 14 μM h(-1). oxyBAC is phylogenetically classified as a Rieske-type oxygenase (RO) and belongs to a group which catalyzes the cleavage of C-N(+) bond between either methyl or alkyl ester and a quaternary nitrogen (N) of natural quaternary ammonium compounds such as stachydrine, carnitine, and trimethylglycine...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hochan Lee, Jun-Ho Choi, Pramod Kumar Verma, Minhaeng Cho
The IR absorption and time-resolved IR spectroscopy of the OD stretch mode of HDO in water was successfully used to study osmolyte effects on water H-bonding network. Protecting osmolytes such as sorbitol and trimethylglycine (TMG) make the vibrational OD stretch band red-shifted, whereas urea affects the OD band marginally. Furthermore, we recently showed that, even though sorbitol and TMG cause a slow-down of HDO rotation in their aqueous solutions, urea does not induce any change in the rotational relaxation of HDO in aqueous urea solutions even at high concentrations...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Takashi Hatakeyama, Kazuhiro Takagi
This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %)...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Grażyna Para, Jacek Łuczyński, Jerzy Palus, Ewelina Jarek, Kazimiera A Wilk, Piotr Warszyński
HYPOTHESIS: Surface activity of selected cleavable esterquat cationic surfactants is determined by the synergistic effect of surface active products of their hydrolysis. EXPERIMENTS: Interfacial behavior of two classes of esterquat surfactants, quaternary alkylammmoniumesters and amino acid betaine (trimethylglycine) esters of fatty acids were examined both experimentally and theoretically. The surface tension measurements at air/water interface were performed by the pendant drop shape analysis method, then the obtained isotherms were theoretically described by the model of adsorption of ionic/non-ionic surfactants mixtures taking into account the presence of surface active products of surfactant hydrolysis...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Piotr Bruździak, Aneta Panuszko, Muriel Jourdan, Janusz Stangret
Proteins' thermal stabilization is a significant problem in various biomedical, biotechnological, and technological applications. We investigated thermal stability of hen egg white lysozyme in aqueous solutions of the following stabilizing osmolytes: Glycine (GLY), N-methylglycine (NMG), N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), N,N,N-trimethylglycine (TMG), and trimethyl-N-oxide (TMAO). Results of CD-UV spectroscopic investigation were compared with FTIR hydration studies' results. Selected osmolytes increased lysozyme's thermal stability in the following order: Gly>NMG>TMAO≈DMG>TMG...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Hochan Lee, Jun-Ho Choi, Pramod Kumar Verma, Minhaeng Cho
Recently, it was shown that the spectral graph theory is exceptionally useful for understanding not only morphological structural differences in ion aggregates but also similarities between an ion network and a water H-bonding network in highly concentrated salt solutions. Here, we present spectral graph analysis results on osmolyte aggregates and water H-bonding network structures in aqueous renal osmolyte solutions. The quantitative analyses of the adjacency matrices that are graph-theoretical representations of aggregates of osmolyte molecules and water H-bond structures provide the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra and degree distribution...
November 12, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Leena Rauhala, Lasse Hämäläinen, Thomas W Dunlop, Petri Pehkonen, Geneviève Bart, Maarit Kokkonen, Markku Tammi, Raija Tammi, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen
The moisturizing and potentially protective properties of the organic osmolyte betaine (trimethylglycine) have made it an attractive component for skin care products. Its wide use despite the lack of comprehensive studies addressing its specific effects in skin led us to characterize the molecular targets of betaine in keratinocytes and to explore, whether it modifies the effects of acute UVB exposure. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on organotypic cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes, treated either with betaine (10mM), UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) or their combination...
December 25, 2015: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Pramod Kumar Verma, Hochan Lee, Joon-Young Park, Joon-Hyung Lim, Michał Maj, Jun-Ho Choi, Kyung-Won Kwak, Minhaeng Cho
Osmolytes are an integral part of living organism, e.g., the kidney uses sorbitol, trimethylglycine, taurine and myo-inositol to counter the deleterious effects of urea and salt. Therefore, knowing that the osmolytes' act either directly to the protein or mediated through water is of great importance. Our experimental and computational results show that protecting osmolytes, e.g., trimethylglycine and sorbitol, significantly modulate the water H-bonding network structure, although the magnitude and spatial extent of osmolyte-induced perturbation greatly vary...
July 16, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tanping Li, Yaowen Cui, John Mathaga, Revati Kumar, Daniel G Kuroda
Zwitterions are naturally occurring molecules that have a positive and a negative charge group in its structure and are of great importance in many areas of science. Here, the vibrational and hydration dynamics of the zwitterionic system betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is reported. The linear infrared spectrum of aqueous betaine exhibits an asymmetric band in the 1550-1700 cm(-1) region of the spectrum. This band is attributed to the carboxylate asymmetric stretch of betaine. The potential of mean force computed from ab initio molecular dynamic simulations confirms that the two observed transitions of the linear spectrum are related to two different betaine conformers present in solution...
June 7, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kimberly R Shorter, Michael R Felder, Paul B Vrana
Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e...
July 2015: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Francesco Di Pierro, Roberto Settembre
BACKGROUND: S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine), a specific methyl donor involved in the homocysteine circuit, may be able to reduce such a risk and/or, by determining a sparing effect on endogenous SAMe, may be able to improve the clinical efficiency of SAMe itself...
2015: International Journal of General Medicine
Abderrahim Nemmar, Priya Yuvaraju, Sumaya Beegam, Badreldin H Ali
Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important food component with established health benefits through its homocysteine-lowering effects, and is used to lower total homocysteine concentration in plasma of patients with homocystinuria. It is well established that hyperhomocysteinemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the possible protective effect of betaine on coagulation events in vivo and in vitro has thus far not been studied. Betaine was given to mice at oral doses of either 10 mg/kg (n = 6) or 40 mg/kg (n = 6) for seven consecutive days, and control mice (n = 6) received water only...
July 2015: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Baohua Zhang, Michelle M Denomme, Carlee R White, Kit-Yi Leung, Martin B Lee, Nicholas D E Greene, Mellissa R W Mann, Jacquetta M Trasler, Jay M Baltz
The embryonic pattern of global DNA methylation is first established in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is produced in most cells through the folate cycle, but only a few cell types generate SAM from betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is expressed in the mouse ICM. Here, mean ICM cell numbers decreased from 18-19 in controls to 11-13 when the folate cycle was inhibited by the antifolate methotrexate and to 12-14 when BHMT expression was knocked down by antisense morpholinos...
March 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Trent W Nichols, Christopher Gaiteri
Vitamin B6 is an essential vitamin needed for many chemical reactions in the human body. It exists as several vitamins forms but pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the phosphorylated form needed for transamination, deamination, and decarboxylation. PLP is important in the production of neurotransmitters, acts as a Schiff base and is essential in the metabolism of homocysteine, a toxic amino acid involved in cardiovascular disease, stroke, thrombotic and Alzheimer's disease. This report announces the connection between a deficit of PLP with a genetically linked physical foot form known as the Morton's foot...
December 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Dong Hwan Kim, Bokyung Sung, Hae Young Chung, Nam Deuk Kim
In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy...
September 2014: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Yusuke Maeno, Toshiro Fukami, Masatoshi Kawahata, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki Tagami, Tetsuya Ozeki, Toyofumi Suzuki, Kazuo Tomono
Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules...
October 1, 2014: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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