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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432921/gates-for-soluble-and-membrane-proteins-and-two-trafficking-systems-ift-and-lift-establish-a-dynamic-ciliary-signaling-compartment
#1
REVIEW
Victor L Jensen, Michel R Leroux
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found on most mammalian cell surfaces. They possess a soluble matrix and membrane contiguous with the cell body cytosol and plasma membrane, and yet, have distinct compositions that can be modulated to enable dynamic signal transduction. Here, we discuss how specialized ciliary compartments are established using a coordinated network of gating, trafficking and targeting activities. Cilium homeostasis is maintained by a size-selective molecular mesh that limits soluble protein entry, and by a membrane diffusion barrier localized at the transition zone...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432900/lysophosphatidic-acid-induces-expression-of-genes-in-human-oral-keratinocytes-involved-in-wound-healing
#2
Hong Huynh Thorlakson, Stian Andre Engen, Olav Schreurs, Karl Schenck, Inger Johanne Schytte Blix
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). DESIGN: HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432464/insights-into-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-by-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#3
REVIEW
Britta Diedrich, Jörn Dengjel
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common monogenetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2 encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Polycystin-1 and -2 form a complex, interact with several proteins involved in signal transduction and localize to discrete subcellular positions, most importantly the primary cilium. Whereas the causative mutations leading to ADPKD are known, the underlying deregulated cellular pathways are not well understood. In the current review, we introduce state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques and summarize their use in kidney and ADPKD research...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432333/metabolomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-maize-embryonic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryo
#4
Fei Ge, Hongmei Hu, Xing Huang, Yanling Zhang, Yanli Wang, Zhaoling Li, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Lujiang Li, Shibin Gao, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
The low ratio of embryonic callus (EC) induction has inhibited the rapid development of maize genetic engineering. Still, little is known to explain the genotype-dependence of EC induction. Here, we performed a large-scale, quantitative analysis of the maize EC metabolome and proteome at three typical induction stages in two inbred lines with a range of EC induction capabilities. Comparison of the metabolomes and proteomes suggests that the differential molecular responses begin at an early stage of development and continue throughout the process of EC formation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432294/genome-wide-identification-characterization-of-the-mads-box-gene-family-in-chinese-jujube-and-their-involvement-in-flower-development
#5
Liman Zhang, Jin Zhao, Chunfang Feng, Mengjun Liu, Jiurui Wang, Yafei Hu
MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKC(C)-type, 3 MIKC(*)-type, 16 Mα, 5 Mβ and 3 Mγ genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432271/knockdown-of-prdx2-sensitizes-colon-cancer-cells-to-5-fu-by-suppressing-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#6
Jun Xu, Shouru Zhang, Rong Wang, Xingye Wu, Li Zeng, Zhongxue Fu
Although, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains widely used in adjuvant therapy in patients with colon cancer, resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy is an important reason for treatment failure. Recent studies have reported that an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system shows drug resistance to 5-FU. Peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), is an important member of the ROS scavenging system, and may be a potential target that promotes chemosensitivity to 5-FU in colon cancer. Here, we depleted PRDX2 by PRDX2-shRNA-LV transduction in two colon cancer cell lines and found that in vitro PRDX2 knockdown facilitates cell death and apoptosis in 5-FU-treated colon cancer cells...
April 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431925/analysis-of-pm2-5-induced-cytotoxicity-in-human-hacat-cells-based-on-a-microfluidic-system
#7
Yuxiao Zhang, Lulu Zheng, Jiang Tuo, Qi Liu, Xinlian Zhang, Zhixuan Xu, Sixiu Liu, Guodong Sui
Human exposure to PM2.5 causes several adverse health effects. Skin is the first barrier against harmful environmental substances and can has direct contact with PM2.5, but there is no study about PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity in human skin cells on the molecular level partially due to the shortcomings of traditional research methods. In present study, we established a microfluidic system including a cell culture chip integrated with a high-throughput protein microarray chip to investigate the mechanism of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431227/membrane-lipids-speak-to-histones
#8
Yuxiang Zheng, Lewis C Cantley
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Ye et al. (2017) use a combination of genetic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic approaches to explore the potential for methionine metabolism to influence signal transduction and gene expression in budding yeast.
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431022/cpp1-phosphatase-mediated-signaling-crosstalk-between-hog1-and-cek1-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-is-involved-in-the-phenotypic-transition-in-candida-albicans
#9
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
Cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth and differentiation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been well characterized in fungi. However, the mechanisms of signaling crosstalk between MAPKs to ensure signaling specificity are largely unknown. Previous work showed that activation of the Candida albicans Cek1 MAPK pathway resulted in opaque cell formation and filamentation, which mirrored the phenotypes to hog1Δ. Additionally, deleting the HOG1 gene stimulated Cek1p...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430858/mapping-genes-for-calcium-signaling-and-their-associated-human-genetic-disorders
#10
Matthias Hörtenhuber, Enrique M Toledo, Erik Smedler, Ernest Arenas, Seth Malmersjö, Lauri Louhivuori, Per Uhlén
Motivation: Signal transduction via calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) represents a fundamental signaling pathway in all eukaryotic cells. A large portion of the human genome encodes proteins used to assemble signaling systems that can transduce signals with diverse spatial and temporal dynamics. Results: Here, we provide a map of all of the genes involved in Ca 2+ signaling and link these genes to human genetic disorders. Using Gene Ontology terms and genome databases, 1,805 genes were identified as regulators or targets of intracellular Ca 2+ signals...
April 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#11
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430205/controlled-membrane-translocation-provides-a-mechanism-for-signal-transduction-and-amplification
#12
Matthew J Langton, Flore Keymeulen, Maria Ciaccia, Nicholas H Williams, Christopher A Hunter
Transmission and amplification of chemical signals across lipid bilayer membranes is of profound significance in many biological processes, from the development of multicellular organisms to information processing in the nervous system. In biology, membrane-spanning proteins are responsible for the transmission of chemical signals across membranes, and signal transduction is often associated with an amplified signalling cascade. The ability to reproduce such processes in artificial systems has potential applications in sensing, controlled drug delivery and communication between compartments in tissue-like constructs of synthetic vesicles...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429713/gating-of-tonb-dependent-transporters-by-substrate-specific-forced-remodelling
#13
Samuel J Hickman, Rachael E M Cooper, Luca Bellucci, Emanuele Paci, David J Brockwell
Membrane proteins play vital roles in inside-out and outside-in signal transduction by responding to inputs that include mechanical stimuli. Mechanical gating may be mediated by the membrane or by protein(s) but evidence for the latter is scarce. Here we use force spectroscopy, protein engineering and bacterial growth assays to investigate the effects of force on complexes formed between TonB and TonB-dependent transporters (TBDT) from Gram-negative bacteria. We confirm the feasibility of protein-only mediated mechanical gating by demonstrating that the interaction between TonB and BtuB (a TBDT) is sufficiently strong under force to create a channel through the TBDT...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429411/nanodiscs-for-inpharma-nmr-characterization-of-gpcrs-ligand-binding-to-the-human-a2a-adenosine-receptor
#14
Kai Fredriksson, Philip Lottmann, Sonja Hinz, Iounut Onila, Aliaksei Shymanets, Christian Harteneck, Christa E Müller, Christian Griesinger, Thomas E Exner
G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs) are of fundamental importance for signal transduction through cell membranes. This makes them important drug targets, but structure-based drug design (SBDD) is still hampered by the limitations for structure determination of unmodified GPCRs. We show that the interligand NOEs for pharmacophore mapping (INPHARMA) method can provide valuable information on ligand poses inside the binding site of the unmodified human A2A adenosine receptor reconstituted in nanodiscs. By comparing experimental INPHARMA spectra with back-calculated spectra based on ligand poses obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, a complex structure for A2A R with the low-affinity ligand 3-pyrrolidin-1-ylquinoxalin-2-amine was determined based on the X-ray structure of ligand ZM-241,358 in complex with a modified A2A R...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#15
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428987/microarray-profiling-and-co-expression-network-analysis-of-the-lncrnas-and-mrnas-associated-with-acute-leukemia-in-adults
#16
Hui Cheng, Chong Mei Huang, Yang Wang, Xiao Xia Hu, Xiao Qian Xu, Xian Min Song, Gu Sheng Tang, Li Chen, Jian Min Yang
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common types of acute leukemia in adults and cause low survival rate and poor outcome after 5 years despite high rates of complete remission (CR) with modern chemotherapeutic regimens. To understand the distinct mechanisms in leukemogenesis for ALL and AML and to identify markers for diagnosis and treatment, lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of AML and ALL patients and healthy controls were generated using microarray analysis. For comparison, the differentially expressed mRNA functions were annotated using gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis...
April 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428953/tetraspanins-function-as-regulators-of-cellular-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Christina M Termini, Jennifer M Gillette
Tetraspanins are molecular scaffolds that distribute proteins into highly organized microdomains consisting of adhesion, signaling, and adaptor proteins. Many reports have identified interactions between tetraspanins and signaling molecules, finding unique downstream cellular consequences. In this review, we will explore these interactions as well as the specific cellular responses to signal activation, focusing on tetraspanin regulation of adhesion-mediated (integrins/FAK), receptor-mediated (EGFR, TNF-α, c-Met, c-Kit), and intracellular signaling (PKC, PI4K, β-catenin)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428870/gene-expression-profiling-during-the-embryo-to-larva-transition-in-the-giant-red-sea-urchin-mesocentrotus-franciscanus
#18
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Gretchen E Hofmann
In echinoderms, major morphological transitions during early development are attributed to different genetic interactions and changes in global expression patterns that shape the regulatory program for the specification of embryonic territories. In order more thoroughly to understand these biological and molecular processes, we examined the transcriptome structure and expression profiles during the embryo-to-larva transition of a keystone species, the giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus. Using a de novo assembly approach, we obtained 176,885 transcripts from which 60,439 (34%) had significant alignments to known proteins...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428788/the-protective-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#19
REVIEW
Kevin P Kotredes, Brianna Thomas, Ana M Gamero
The immune system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract manages the significant task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while maintaining tolerance of commensal bacteria. Dysregulation of this delicate balance can be detrimental, resulting in severe inflammation, intestinal injury, and cancer. Therefore, mechanisms to relay important signals regulating cell growth and immune reactivity must be in place to support GI homeostasis. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines, which exert a wide range of biological effects including promotion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428279/interaction-between-tumor-cell-surface-receptor-rage-and-proteinase-3-mediates-prostate-cancer-metastasis-to-bone
#20
Mikhail G Kolonin, Anna Sergeeva, Daniela I Staquicini, Tracey L Smith, Christy A Tarleton, Jeffrey J Molldrem, Richard L Sidman, Serena Marchiò, Renata Pasqualini, Wadih Arap
Human prostate cancer often metastasizes to bone, but the biological basis for such site-specific tropism remains largely unresolved. Recent work led us to hypothesize that this tropism may reflect pathogenic interactions between RAGE, a cell surface receptor expressed on malignant cells in advanced prostate cancer, and proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease present in inflammatory neutrophils and hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we establish that RAGE-PR3 interaction mediates homing of prostate cancer cells to the bone marrow...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
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