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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351417/zinc-regulates-vascular-endothelial-activities-through-zinc-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39
#2
Donghui Zhu, Yingchao Su, Yufeng Zheng, Bingmei M Fu, Liping Tang, Yi-Xian Qin
Zn2+ is an essential element for cell survival/growth, and its deficiency is linked to many disorders. Extracellular Zn2+ concentration changes participate in modulating fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, secretion, ion transport, and cell signal transduction in a mechanism that is not well understood. Here, we hypothesize that the Zn-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39, found in tissues where dynamic Zn2+ homeostasis takes place, enables extracellular Zn2+ to trigger intracellular signaling pathways regulating key cell functions in vascular cells...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351206/antibody-biomimetic-material-made-of-pyrrole-for-ca-15-3-and-its-application-as-sensing-material-in-ion-selective-electrodes-for-potentiometric-detection
#3
Alexandra R T Santos, Felismina T C Moreira, Luísa A Helguero, M Goreti F Sales
This work reports a very simple approach for creating a synthetic antibody against any protein of interest and its application in potentiometric transduction. The selected protein was Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3), which is implicated in breast cancer disease and used to follow-up breast cancer patients during treatment. The new material with antibody-like properties was obtained by molecular-imprinting technology, prepared by electropolymerizing pyrrol (Py, 5.0 × 10-3 mol/L) around Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3) (100 U/mL) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass support...
January 19, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350881/interferon-induced-protein-35-ifi35-inhibits-endothelial-cell-proliferation-migration-and-re-endothelialization-of-injured-arteries-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-kb-pathway
#4
Dongdong Jian, Weina Wang, Xinmiao Zhou, Zhen Jia, Jing Wang, Mei Yang, Wenting Zhao, Zhen Jiang, Xiaotong Hu, Jianhua Zhu
AIM: Endothelial recovery, or re-endothelialization, plays an important role in intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis after endothelial injury. Studying the mechanisms of re-endothelialization and strategies to promote efficient endothelial recovery are still needed. Interferon-induced protein 35 (IFI35) is an IFN-γ-induced protein that plays important roles in the anti-virus-related immune-inflammatory response. In this study, we tested whether overexpression IFI35 affects the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) and re-endothelialization...
January 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350420/over-expression-of-dec1-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-by-modulating-myog-activity-in-bovine-satellite-cell
#5
Yongzhen Huang, Xinsheng Lai, Linyong Hu, Chuzhao Lei, Xianyong Lan, Chunlei Zhang, Yun Ma, Li Zheng, Yue-Yu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Hong Chen
Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1), a member of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bhlhe40, also called stimulated by retinoic acid 13, STRA13, plays an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis, tumorigenesis, peripheral circadian output, response to hypoxia and development of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies suggested that DEC1 was involved in skeletal muscle development; however, its precise role in myoblast differentiation has not been determined. In the present study, we showed that DEC1 expressed ubiquitously in different bovine tissues and was down-regulated in differentiated bovine satellite cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350067/soluble-neuregulin1-is-strongly-up-regulated-in-the-rat-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-disease
#6
Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giulia Ronchi, Davide Pascal, Davide Visigalli, Giovanna Capodivento, Lucilla Nobbio, Isabelle Perroteau, Angelo Schenone, Stefano Geuna, Giovanna Gambarotta
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a growth factor playing a pivotal role in peripheral nerve development through the activation of the transmembrane co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3. Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. Here we show that in the rat experimental model of the peripheral demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) the expression of the different NRG1 isoforms (soluble, type α and β, type a and b) is strongly up-regulated, as well as the expression of NRG1 co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3, thus showing that CMT1A nerves have a gene expression pattern highly reminiscent of injured nerves...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349578/in-situ-tissue-labeling-of-cerebral-amyloid-using-hiv-related-tat-peptide
#7
E Maderna, L Colombo, A Cagnotto, G Di Fede, A Indaco, F Tagliavini, M Salmona, G Giaccone
Delivering peptide-based drugs to the brain is a major challenge because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this problem, cell-penetrating peptides derived from proteins that are able to cross biological membranes have been used as cell-permeable and brain-penetrant compounds. An example is the transactivator of transcription protein transduction domain (Tat) of the human immunodeficiency virus. The basic domain of Tat is formed of arginine and lysine amino acid residues. Tat has been used as brain-penetrant carrier also in therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia characterized by extracellular cerebral deposits of amyloid made up of Aβ peptide...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349096/safety-and-efficacy-of-aav-retrograde-pancreatic-ductal-gene-delivery-in-normal-and-pancreatic-cancer-mice
#8
Kayla A Quirin, Jason J Kwon, Arafat Alioufi, Tricia Factora, Constance J Temm, Max Jacobsen, George E Sandusky, Kim Shontz, Louis G Chicoine, K Reed Clark, Joshua T Mendell, Murray Korc, Janaiah Kota
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery shows promise to transduce the pancreas, but safety/efficacy in a neoplastic context is not well established. To identify an ideal AAV serotype, route, and vector dose and assess safety, we have investigated the use of three AAV serotypes (6, 8, and 9) expressing GFP in a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector under an EF1α promoter (scAAV.GFP) following systemic or retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery. Systemic delivery of scAAV9.GFP transduced the pancreas with high efficiency, but gene expression did not exceed >45% with the highest dose, 5 × 1012 viral genomes (vg)...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348870/n%C3%AE%C2%B5-carboxymethyl-lysine-promotes-calcium-deposition-in-vsmcs-via-intracellular-oxidative-stress-induced-pdk4-activation-and-alters-glucose-metabolism
#9
Wen-Qi Ma, Xi-Qiong Han, Ying Wang, Xin Wang, Yi Zhu, Nai-Feng Liu
Diabetes and vascular calcification are intrinsically linked. We previously reported that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accelerate calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via excessive oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is an important mitochondrial matrix enzyme in cellular energy metabolism. Since hyperactivation of PDK4 has been reported in calcified vessels and in patients with diabetes mellitus, inhibition of PDK4 expression may be a strategy for the prevention of diabetic vascular calcification...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348728/systems-level-mechanisms-of-action-of-panax-ginseng-a-network-pharmacological-approach
#10
REVIEW
Sa-Yoon Park, Ji-Hun Park, Hyo-Su Kim, Choong-Yeol Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Chang-Eop Kim
Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348584/quail-egg-homogenate-alleviates-food-allergy-induced-eosinophilic-esophagitis-like-disease-through-modulating-par-2-transduction-pathway-in-peanut-sensitized-mice
#11
Priscilia Lianto, Shiwen Han, Xinrui Li, Fredrick Onyango Ogutu, Yani Zhang, Zhuoyan Fan, Huilian Che
The present pharmacotherapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) fundamentally depend on inhaled corticosteroids. Despite the fact that oral intake of topical steroids can be successful in restricting EoE-related inflammation, there are concerns with respect to the long term utilization of steroids, especially in kids. In the current research, we assess the effect of quail egg, which is reportedly a known serine protease inhibitor, on symptomatology and immune responses in a peanut-sensitized mouse model of food allergy induced EoE...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348527/the-human-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-antagonist-dicyclomine-targets-signal-transduction-genes-and-inhibits-the-virulence-factors-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#12
Awad Ali, Ashwini Jadhav, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Amruta Shelar, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Dicyclomine is a human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist used for the treatment of abdominal cramps. We are reporting here that dicyclomine can inhibit the in vitro growth and virulence factors of the human pathogen Candida albicans very effectively. Dicyclomine inhibited adhesion, early biofilm, mature biofilm, and planktonic growth. Yeast to hyphal form transition of C. albicans in various inducer media such as serum, proline, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine was inhibited. Dicyclomine also could kill C...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348431/a-synthetic-combinatorial-approach-to-disabling-deviant-hedgehog-signaling
#13
C-W Fan, N Yarravarapu, H Shi, O Kulak, J Kim, C Chen, L Lum
Mutations in components of the Hedgehog (HH) signal transduction pathway are found in the majority of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma incidents. Cancerous cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to antagonists targeting the seven transmembrane effector Smoothened (SMO) frequently invoke alternative mechanisms for maintaining deviant activity of the GLI DNA binding proteins. Here we introduce a chemical agent that simultaneously achieves inhibition of SMO and GLI activity by direct targeting of the SMO heptahelical domain and the GLI-modifying enzymes belonging to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348067/physiological-response-and-transcription-profiling-analysis-reveals-the-role-of-h2s-in-alleviating-excess-nitrate-stress-tolerance-in-tomato-roots
#14
Zhaolai Guo, Yuanlin Liang, Jinping Yan, En Yang, Kunzhi Li, Huini Xu
Soil secondary salinization caused by excess nitrate addition is one of the major obstacles in greenhouse vegetable production. Excess nitrate inhibited the growth of tomato plants, while application of 100 μM H2S donor NaHS efficiently increased the plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root length, endogenous H2S contents and L-cysteine desulfhydrases activities. NaHS altered the oxidative status of nitrate-stressed plants as inferred by changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lipid peroxidation accompanied by regulation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)...
January 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347430/fluctuation-correlation-models-for-receptor-immobilization
#15
B Fourcade
Nanoscale dynamics with cycles of receptor diffusion and immobilization by cell-external-or-internal factors is a key process in living cell adhesion phenomena at the origin of a plethora of signal transduction pathways. Motivated by modern correlation microscopy approaches, the receptor correlation functions in physical models based on diffusion-influenced reaction is studied. Using analytical and stochastic modeling, this paper focuses on the hybrid regime where diffusion and reaction are not truly separable...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346521/the-intracellular-and-intercellular-cross-talk-during-subsidiary-cell-formation-in-zea-mays-existing-and-novel-components-orchestrating-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-division
#16
P Apostolakos, P Livanos, E Giannoutsou, E Panteris, B Galatis
Background: Formation of stomatal complexes in Poaceae is the outcome of three asymmetric and one symmetric cell division occurring in particular leaf protodermal cells. In this definite sequence of cell division events, the generation of subsidiary cells is of particular importance and constitutes an attractive model for studying local intercellular stimulation. In brief, an induction stimulus emitted by the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) triggers a series of polarization events in their laterally adjacent protodermal cells...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345961/effects-of-quercetin-kaempferol-and-exogenous-glutathione-on-phospho-and-total-akt-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#17
William Y Boadi, Andrew Lo
Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor for some types of cancer, such as prostate and lung. The AKT or PI3K-AKT is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, and exogenous glutathione (GSH) on the expressions of phospho- and total-AKT levels in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were measured in the treated samples and used as the internal standard...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345911/role-of-glycanation-and-convertase-maturation-of-the-soluble-glypican-3-in-inhibiting-proliferation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#18
Ahmad Saad, Benjamin Liet, Gilles Joucla, Xavier Santarelli, Justine Charpentier, Stéphane Claverol, Christophe F Grosset, Véronique Trézéguet
Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a complex heparan sulfate proteoglycan associated with the outer surface of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI). It is also N-glycosylated and processed by a furine-like convertase. GPC3 has numerous biological functions. While undetectable in normal liver tissue, it is abnormally and highly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interestingly, proliferation of HCC cells such as HepG2 and HuH7 is inhibited when they express a soluble form of GPC3 after lentiviral transduction...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345378/self-calibrating-mechanochromic-fluorescent-polymers-based-on-encapsulated-excimer-forming-dyes
#19
Céline Calvino, Anirvan Guha, Christoph Weder, Stephen Schrettl
While mechanochemical transduction principles are omnipresent in nature, mimicking these in artificial materials is challenging. The ability to reliably detect the exposure of man-made objects to mechanical forces is, however, of great interest for many applications, including structural health monitoring and tamper-proof packaging. A useful concept to achieve mechanochromic responses in polymers is the integration of microcapsules, which rupture upon deformation and release a payload causing a visually detectable response...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345343/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rewiring-host-cell-signaling-to-promote-infection
#20
REVIEW
Michael D Stutz, Michelle P Clark, Marcel Doerflinger, Marc Pellegrini
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cause disease hinges upon successfully thwarting the innate defenses of the macrophage host cell. The pathogen's trump card is its armory of virulence factors that throw normal host cell signaling into disarray. This process of subverting the macrophage begins upon entry into the cell, when M. tuberculosis actively inhibits the fusion of the bacilli-laden phagosomes with lysosomes. The pathogen then modulates an array of host signal transduction pathways, which dampens the macrophage's host-protective cytokine response, while simultaneously adapting host cell metabolism to stimulate lipid body accumulation...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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