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Glp-1 brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165354/the-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-in-type-3-diabetes-glp-1-controls-insulin-resistance-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis-in-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Choon Sang Bae, Juhyun Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called "type 3 diabetes", based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163019/bile-acid-signaling-pathways-from-the-enterohepatic-circulation-to-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Kim L Mertens, Andries Kalsbeek, Maarten R Soeters, Hannah M Eggink
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156855/differences-in-leptin-ghrelin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-between-religious-fasting-and-normal-fasting
#3
Özge Telci Çaklılı, Banu İşbilen, Gülcan Yavuz, Selcan Tülü, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
Background/aim: Leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affect hunger, satiety feelings, and food intake. We hypothesized that during Ramadan, if the brain knows that the body will be hungry until sunset, there may be differences between leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels in Ramadan and non-Ramadan fasting. Materials and methods: This study had two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to skip the dawn meal of Ramadan (suhur), so that 12 h of fasting could be achieved. Participants ceased food intake at midnight, and at noon blood was drawn...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144968/a-synaptic-basis-for-glp-1-action-in-the-brain
#4
Sandrine Lefort, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina García-Cáceres
Unraveling the brain control of metabolism may generate opportunities to discover novel precision medicines for obesity and diabetes. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2017) identify a novel glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor-dependent signaling process that exerts anorexigenic action via the regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition in the hypothalamus.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129776/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-and-neurotransmitters-signaling-in-epilepsy-an-insight-review
#5
REVIEW
Prashant Koshal, Sumit Jamwal, Puneet Kumar
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorder affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested that an imbalance in glutamatergic (excitatory) and GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmitter system is one of the dominating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Further, this alteration in GABAergic and glutamatergic system disrupts the delicate balance of other neurotransmitters system in the brain. Emerging strides have documented the protective role of GLP-1 signaling on altered neurotransmitters signaling in Epilepsy and associated co-morbidities...
November 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113464/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#6
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, are critical for maintaining healthy brain function, particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD, and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing, and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095968/characterization-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-male-mouse-brain-using-a-novel-antibody-and-in-situ-hybridization
#7
Casper Bo Jensen, Charles Pyke, Morten Grønbech Rasch, Anders Bjorholm Dahl, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Anna Secher
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a physiological regulator of appetite and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) lower food intake and bodyweight in both human and animal studies. The effects are mediated through brain GLP-1Rs, and several brain nuclei expressing the GLP-1R may be involved. To date, mapping the complete location of GLP-1R protein in the brain has been challenged by lack of good antibodies and the discrepancy between mRNA and protein especially relevant in neuronal axonal processes...
October 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091313/exenatide-upregulates-gene-expression-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-mice
#8
Esen Gumuslu, Naci Cine, Merve Ertan, Oguz Mutlu, Ipek Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Guner Ulak
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretine hormon that has modulating effects on insulin release. GLP-1 and receptors for GLP-1 are widely expressed throughout the body including brain.The expression of GLP-1 receptors is very specific to large neurons in hippocampus, neocortex and cerebellum. GLP-1 receptor stimulation enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies on adipobiology of neurotrophins have focused on nerve growth factor (NGF) as an example of adipose-derived neurotrophins...
November 1, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056448/evolution-of-the-glucagon-like-system-across-fish
#9
João C R Cardoso, Rute C Félix, Carina Costa, Pedro F S Palma, Adelino V M Canário, Deborah M Power
In fishes, including the jawless lampreys, the most ancient lineage of extant vertebrates, plasma glucose levels are highly variable and regulation is more relaxed than in mammals. The regulation of glucose and lipid in fishes in common with mammals involves members of the glucagon (GCG)-like family of gastrointestinal peptides. In mammals, four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist. However, in lamprey and other fishes the glucagon-like family evolved differently and they retained additional gene family members (glucagon-related peptide, gcrp and its receptor, gcrpr) that are absent from mammals...
October 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050859/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-triple-glp-1-gip-glucagon-receptor-agonist-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jingjing Tai, Weizhen Liu, Yanwei Li, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that have anti-diabetic properties show very promising effects in animal models of AD. Glucagon (Gcg) is a hormone and growth-factor, and the Gcg receptor is expressed in the brain. Here we test the effects of a triple receptor agonist (TA), which activates GIP-1, GIP and glucagon receptors at the same time...
October 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044772/rd-lawrence-lecture-2017-incretins-the-intelligent-hormones-in-diabetes
#11
V A Gault
The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due largely to their insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering properties. Indeed, GLP-1-based therapies are now key treatment options for many people with diabetes worldwide. In contrast, GIP-based agents have yet to reach the clinic based primarily on the impaired insulinotropic action of GIP observed in people with diabetes. Nevertheless, GIP is a key physiological regulator of insulin secretion and stable forms of GIP show much promise in rodent models to alleviate diabetes-obesity...
October 16, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044434/glp-1-increases-kiss-1-mrna-expression-in-kisspeptin-expressing-neuronal-cells
#12
Aki Oride, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#13
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991675/sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effect-against-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice-via-stimulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#14
Jiaming Liu, Fangyan Wang, Suzhi Liu, Jimei Du, Xuezhen Hu, Jiaojiao Xiong, Renchi Fang, Wenqian Chen, Jing Sun
Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited protective activity in neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanisms of NaB in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A mouse was intraperitoneally treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce PD model and NaB (200mg/kg) was intragastrically treated for 3weeks. The behavioral tests were then conducted. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986282/exendin-4-attenuates-neuronal-death-via-glp-1r-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#15
Zhiyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Lingyun Wu, Keren Zhou, Chengmei Sun, Xin Hu, Vadim Gospodarev, Jiping Tang, Chao You, John H Zhang
Neuronal apoptosis is considered to be a crucial therapeutic target against early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Emerging evidence indicates that Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, plays a neuroprotective role in cerebrovascular disease. This study was conducted in order to verify the neuroprotective role of EX-4 in EBI after SAH in rats. The endovascular perforation model of SAH was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 153). Ex-4 was intraperitoneally injected 1 h after SAH induction in the rats (SAH + Ex-4)...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#16
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894301/lateral-hypothalamic-glp-1-receptors-are-critical-for-the-control-of-food-reinforcement-ingestive-behavior-and-body-weight
#17
L López-Ferreras, J E Richard, E E Noble, K Eerola, R H Anderberg, K Olandersson, L Taing, S E Kanoski, M R Hayes, K P Skibicka
Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881865/insulinotropic-actions-of-glp-1-how-much-in-the-brain-and-how-much-in-the-periphery
#18
Eva Tudurí, Ruben Nogueiras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867303/treatment-with-a-glp-1r-agonist-over-four-weeks-promotes-weight-loss-moderated-changes-in-frontal-striatal-brain-structures-in-individuals-with-mood-disorders
#19
Rodrigo B Mansur, Andre Zugman, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Yena Lee, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Vladislav Drobinin, Jason Newport, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
Cognitive deficits are a core feature across psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that metabolic pathways are highly relevant for the substrates and phenomenology of the cognitive domain. Herein, we aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1R agonist, on brain structural/volumetric parameters in adults with a mood disorder. This is the secondary analysis of a 4-week, pilot, proof-of-concept, open-label study. Participants (N=19) exhibiting impairments in executive function with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) were recruited...
August 31, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833775/glucagon-like-peptide-1-cleavage-product-glp-1-9-36-amide-enhances-hippocampal-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-correlation-with-suppression-of-kv4-2-expression-and-eef2-phosphorylation
#20
Stephen M Day, Wenzhong Yang, Sarah Ewin, Xueyan Zhou, Tao Ma
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous gut hormone and a key regulator in maintaining glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. Its natural cleavage product GLP-1 (9-36), used to be considered a "bio-inactive" metabolite mainly because of its lack of insulinotropic effects and low affinity for GLP-1 receptors, possesses unique properties such as anti-oxidant and cardiovascular protection. Little is known about the role of GLP-1 (9-36) in central nervous system. Here we report that chronic, systemic application of GLP-1 (9-36) in adult mice facilitated both the induction and maintenance phases of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a major form of synaptic plasticity...
August 18, 2017: Hippocampus
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