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Pharmaceutical distribution

Miran Brvar, Tihana Kurtović, Damjan Grenc, Maja Lang Balija, Igor Križaj, Beata Halassy
CONTEXT: In clinical practice it is difficult to differentiate between V. berus and V. ammodytes venomous bites. In the past this was not a concern, but due to the current shortage in Viperfav™ and European viper venom antiserum availability, V. a. ammodytes venomous bites have recently been treated with ViperaTAb(®), which is a pharmaceutical formulation containing a monospecific ovine Fab fragments against the venom of V. berus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ViperaTAb(®) in V...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Rafael Santos Santana, Silvana Nair Leite
Objective: To identify clinical drug trials performed in Brazil between 2012 and 2015, with emphasis on those focusing on neglected diseases of poverty. Method: Two clinical trial registries, ReBEC (Brazilian registry) and were surveyed. The following aspects were investigated: distribution of clinical trials in relation to the burden of disease in Brazil, distribution of trials regarding their focus on diseases of poverty vs. diseases not linked to poverty, phase of trials, performing institution, and type of funding (private, public, or mixed)...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Snehasis Jana, Himanshu Rastogi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is a popular dietary supplement and also considered as pharmaceutical product for sleep disorders. Caffeic acid and quercetin are widely distributed in leafy vegetables, fruits, tea extract, and both are used as natural antioxidant. There is an immense concern for health researchers to study the herb/food-drug interactions of melatonin. It is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 in human so that herbs/foods containing cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors can affect pharmacokinetics of melatonin...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Maely P Fávero-Retto, Luiz Henrique Guerreiro, Cássio M Pessanha, Leonardo C Palmieri, Luís Maurício T R Lima
Electrospray ionization - ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) allows the identification of protein polymorphic distribution of protein conformers and oligomers. We report the detailed identification of the species observed with commercially available pharmaceutical preparation of wild-type, regular human insulin.
February 2017: Data in Brief
Dong-Ping Xu, Ya Li, Xiao Meng, Tong Zhou, Yue Zhou, Jie Zheng, Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Hua-Bin Li
Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhiqiang Sun, Ranglong Duan, Dejun Xing, Xuan Pang, Zhiying Li, Xuesi Chen
Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) and its derivative copolymers have been extensively studied as drug carriers in pharmaceutical and medical fields, especially for controlled release of anti-tumor drugs. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, PCL based drug delivery systems lead to major advantages including uniform drug distribution, long term of degradation and drug release process, non-toxic in nature and cyto-compatible with body tissues. Approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), PCL provides a promising platform for design and fabrication of anti-tumor drug delivery systems with controllable drug release behaviors...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Huan Tan, Lifeng Zhao, Sisi Tian, Hui Wen, Xiaojun Gou, To Ngai
The potential application of Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) in the food and pharmaceutical industries has yet to be fully developed. Herein, we synthesized fairly monodispersed, non-toxic, auto-fluorescent gelatin particles for use as sole stabilizers to fabricate oil-in-water (O/W) HIPEs in an effort to improve the protection and bioaccessibility of entrapped β-carotene. Our results showed that the concentration of gelatin particles determined the formation, microstructure, droplet size distribution, and digestion profile of the HIPEs...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dominic Ngima Nthenge-Ngumbau, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar
Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cure; available therapies are only capable of offering temporary, symptomatic relief to the patients. Varied therapeutic strategies that are clinically used for PD are pharmacological therapies including dopamine replacement therapies (with or without adjuvant), postsynaptic dopamine receptor stimulation, dopamine catabolism inhibitors and also anticholinergics. Surgical therapies like deep brain stimulation and ablative surgical techniques are also employed. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Menghuan Song, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Vivian Wing-Yan Lee, Yuanjia Hu, Jing Zhao, Peng Li, Hao Hu
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate community pharmacist's perception on the provision of over-the-counter (OTC) traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmaceutical services; focusing on the areas of their attitude, general practice, perceived barriers and suggested improvements. METHODS: Questionnaire survey targeting community pharmacists in Harbin of China was applied in this study. Questionnaires were distributed and collected at community pharmacies. Data was analyzed by combining descriptive analysis and Chi-test...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Maria Badal Tejedor, Niklas Nordgren, Michael Schuleit, Samaneh Pazesh, Göran Alderborn, Anna Millqvist-Fureby, Mark W Rutland
The nature of the surfaces of particles of pharmaceutical ingredients, food powders, and polymers is a determining factor for their performance in for example tableting, powder handling, or mixing. Changes on the surface structure of the material will impact the flow properties, dissolution rate, and tabletability of the powder blend. For crystalline materials, surface amorphization is a phenomenon which is known to impact performance. Since it is important to measure and control the level of amorphicity, several characterization techniques are available to determine the bulk amorphous content of a processed material...
January 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kamila Riedlová, Michaela Nekardová, Petr Kačer, Kamila Syslová, Mario Vazdar, Pavel Jungwirth, Eva Kudová, Lukasz Cwiklik
Interactions of two neurosteroids, inhibiting membrane-bound N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors, with phospholipid membranes are studied. Namely, endogenous pregnanolone sulfate is compared with pregnanolone glutamate, the latter being a novel synthetic steroidal inhibitor of these receptors with potential pharmaceutical use. Molecular-level details of steroid-phospholipid membranes interactions are scrutinized employing molecular dynamics simulations supported by quantum chemical calculations to assess steroid lipophilicity...
December 30, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Satoshi Tominaka, Kohsaku Kawakami, Mayuko Fukushima, Aoi Miyazaki
Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry through the use of high-energy amorphous state to improve solubility of pharmaceutical agents. Understanding the physical stability of pharmaceutical glasses is of great importance for their successful development. We focused on the anti-HIV agent, ritonavir (RTV), and investigated the influence of annealing at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (sub-Tg) on physical stability, and found that the sub-Tg annealing effectively stabilized RTV glasses...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kang-Ho Song, Alexander C Fan, Joshua J Hinkle, Joshua Newman, Mark A Borden, Brandon K Harvey
Focused ultrasound with microbubbles is being developed to transiently, locally and noninvasively open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for improved pharmaceutical delivery. Prior work has demonstrated that, for a given concentration dose, microbubble size affects both the intravascular circulation persistence and extent of BBB opening. When matched to gas volume dose, however, the circulation half-life was found to be independent of microbubble size. In order to determine whether this holds true for BBB opening as well, we independently measured the effects of microbubble size (2 vs...
2017: Theranostics
Nilesh Gaud, Anoop Kumar, Muralikrishna Matta, Prashant Kole, Srikanth Sridhar, Sandhya Mandlekar, Vinay K Holenarsipur
Rat is commonly used for pharmacokinetic screening during pharmaceutical lead optimization. To handle the large number of compounds, rats with a single jugular vein cannulation are commonly utilized for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies, where the same cannula is used both for dose administration and blood sampling. We demonstrate that the single cannula method is not suitable for all compounds, especially for high logP compounds. We propose an alternative dual cannulation technique in which two cannulas are placed in the same jugular vein, thus avoiding an additional surgery...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michał Teżyk, Emilia Jakubowska, Kasylda Milczewska, Bartłomiej Milanowski, Adam Voelkel, Janina Lulek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to compare the gravitational powder blend loading method to the tablet press and manual loading in terms of their influence on tablets' critical quality attributes (CQA). SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the study can be of practical relevance to the pharmaceutical industry in the area of direct compression of low-dose formulations, which could be prone to content uniformity (CU) issues. METHODS: In the preliminary study, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface energy of raw materials were determined using laser diffraction method and inverse gas chromatography, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Pimchanok Charoongchit, Jiraphong Suksiriworapong, Kittisak Sripha, Shirui Mao, Anne Sapin-Minet, Philippe Maincent, Varaporn Buraphacheep Junyaprasert
Cationic copolymers have been attractive to investigate due to their potential to complexation with anionic drugs and expected to use in the pharmaceutical application. In this study, the modified poly(ε-caprolactone)2-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (P(CL)2-PEG) were successfully synthesized by click reaction. The amount of small molecular cationic ligand, propargyltrimethyl ammonium iodide, was varied and grafted onto various mole ratios of P(CL) to PEG. The effects of P(CL) chain length and amount of the grafting cationic ligand on physicochemical properties of polymers and particles were studied...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hungyen Lin, Yue Dong, Daniel Markl, Bryan M Williams, Yalin Zheng, Yaochun Shen, J Axel Zeitler
We present in-line coating thickness measurements acquired simultaneously using two independent sensing modalities: terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Both techniques are sufficiently fast to resolve the coating thickness of individual pharmaceutical tablets in-situ during the film coating operation and both techniques are direct structural imaging techniques that do not require multivariate calibration. The TPI sensor is suitable to measure coatings greater than 50 μm and can penetrate through thick coatings even in the presence of pigments over a wide range of excipients...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
A Kovács, Sz Berkó, E Csányi, I Csóka
The aim of our present work was to evaluate the applicability of the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology in the development and optimalization of nanostructured lipid carriers containing salicyclic acid (NLC SA). Within the Quality by Design methology, special emphasis is layed on the adaptation of the initial risk assessment step in order to properly identify the critical material attributes and critical process parameters in formulation development. NLC SA products were formulated by the ultrasonication method using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid, Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid and Cremophor RH 60® as surfactant...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vibha Yadav, Antonito T Panganiban, Kerstin Honer Zu Bentrup, Thomas G Voss
Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi...
December 2016: Virusdisease
Lucien Barnes V, Dawn M Fedor, Simon Williams, Quinton M Dowling, Michelle C Archer, Sylvain Cloutier, Sarah Parker, Thomas S Vedvick, Christopher B Fox, Ryan M Kramer
Although substantial effort has been made in the development of next-generation recombinant vaccine systems, maintenance of a cold chain is still typically required and remains a critical challenge in effective vaccine distribution. The ability to engineer alternative containment systems that improve distribution and administration represents potentially significant enhancements to vaccination strategies. In this work, we evaluate the ability to successfully lyophilize a previously demonstrated thermostable tuberculosis vaccine formulation (ID93 + GLA-SE) in a cartridge format compared to a traditional vial container format...
December 20, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
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