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Pharmaceutical distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909650/pbpk-modeling-and-simulation-in-drug-research-and-development
#1
REVIEW
Xiaomei Zhuang, Chuang Lu
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation can be used to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in humans using preclinical data. It can also explore the effects of various physiologic parameters such as age, ethnicity, or disease status on human pharmacokinetics, as well as guide dose and dose regiment selection and aid drug-drug interaction risk assessment. PBPK modeling has developed rapidly in the last decade within both the field of academia and the pharmaceutical industry, and has become an integral tool in drug discovery and development...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895264/sex-differences-in-human-and-animal-toxicology-toxicokinetics
#2
Michael Gochfeld
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894804/human-and-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-in-the-marine-environment-including-fish-farms-in-korea
#3
Hee-Young Kim, In-Seok Lee, Jeong-Eun Oh
The occurrence trends and effects of 30 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, anthelmintics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and β-blockers, in the marine environment, with a focus on seawater, sediment, cultured fish, and their feed collected from coastal and fish farm areas in the southern sea of Korea, were investigated. The concentrations of total pharmaceuticals in coastal area seawater (mean: 533ng/L) were higher than those in fish farm seawater (mean: 300ng/L), while the opposite trend (coastal area: 136ng/gdrywt<fish farm area; 195ng/gdrywt) was observed for sediment samples...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892721/social-aspects-in-additive-manufacturing-of-pharmaceutical-products
#4
Johanna Lind, Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong, Susanne Kaae, Jukka Rantanen, Natalja Genina
Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as drug printing, represent a new engineering approach that can implement the concept of personalized medicine via on-demand manufacturing of dosage forms with individually adjusted doses. Implementation of AM principles, such as pharmacoprinting, will challenge the entire drug distribution chain and affect the society at different levels. Areas covered: This work summarizes the concept of personalized medicine and gives an overview of possibilities for monitoring patients' health...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888454/availability-and-quality-of-illegitimate-somatropin-products-obtained-from-the-internet
#5
Róbert György Vida, András Fittler, Ivett Mikulka, Eszter Ábrahám, Viktor Sándor, Ferenc Kilár, Lajos Botz
Background Growth hormones are widely available on the Internet for those who want to enhance their physical performance and improve body satisfaction. Illegitimate websites market somatropin injections without medical prescription and encourage misuse. Customers potentially put their health at risk when purchasing parenteral medications online. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the online market of no-prescription somatropin products and to analyse and document Internet pharmacy characteristics, distribution and pharmaceutical quality...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882559/lipiodol-does-not-affect-the-tissue-distribution-of-intravenous-doxorubicin-infusion-in-pigs
#6
Elsa Lilienberg, Ilse R Dubbelboer, Erik Sjögren, Hans Lennernäs
OBJECTIVES: In liver cancer treatment, lipiodol is used as a pharmaceutical excipient to improve delivery of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin (DOX). As DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) cause serious off-target adverse effects, we investigated the effects of drug-free lipiodol or ciclosporin (CsA) on the tissue distribution (Kp ) of DOX and DOXol in relevant pig tissues. METHODS: Four treatment groups (TI-TIV) all received an intravenous DOX solution at 0 and 200 min...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876226/effect-of-the-selective-pressure-of-sub-lethal-level-of-heavy-metals-on-the-fate-and-distribution-of-args-in-the-catchment-scale
#7
Yan Xu, Jian Xu, Daqing Mao, Yi Luo
Our previous study demonstrated that high levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Haihe River were directly attributed to the excessive use of antibiotics in animal agriculture. The antibiotic residues of the Xiangjiang River determined in this study were much lower than those of the Haihe River, but the relative abundance of 16 detected ARGs (sul1, sul2 and sul3, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrD and qnrS, tetA, tetB, tetW, tetM, tetQ and tetO, ermB and ermC), were as high as the Haihe River particularly in the downstream of the Xiangjiang River which is close to the extensive metal mining...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871751/regional-assessment-of-concentrations-and-sources-of-pharmaceutically-active-compounds-pesticides-nitrate-and-e-coli-in-post-glacial-aquifer-environments-canada
#8
Marion Saby, Marie Larocque, Daniele L Pinti, Florent Barbecot, Sylvain Gagné, Diogo Barnetche, Hubert Cabana
There is growing concern worldwide about the exposure of groundwater resources to pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and agricultural contaminants, such as pesticides, nitrate, and Escherichia coli. For regions with a low population density and an abundance of water, regional contamination assessments are not carried out systematically due to the typically low concentrations and high costs of analyses. The objectives of this study were to evaluate regional-scale contaminant distributions in untreated groundwater in a rural region of Quebec (Canada)...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869880/-organizational-ethnography-of-direct-drugs-distribution-in-parma-ausl
#9
Lorenza Dodi, Chiara Latini, Marco Lombardi
The locations where healthcare organizations directly distribute medications to patients in specific circumstances, such as at hospital discharge, are settings at risk of professional errors. Using organizational ethnography methodology, we sought to explore the characteristics of points of direct distribution of drugs (PDD) in the AUSL of Parma and identify aspects of the delivery process that could potentially generate errors. We conducted 75 3-hour observations (225 hours at total) of the two Parma AUSL PDDs...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869698/podophyllotoxin-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-skin-targeting-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#10
Jihui Zhao, Xianghua Piao, Xiaoqin Shi, Aiyong Si, Yongtai Zhang, Nianping Feng
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) exhibit high skin targeting efficiency and good safety. They are promising vehicles for topical drug delivery. This study aims to increase the skin distribution of podophyllotoxin (POD) by incorporating it into NLCs. Two kinds of POD-loaded NLCs (POD-NLCs)-POD-NLCformulation 1 and POD-NLCformulation 2-were prepared and characterized. Their skin targeting efficiencies were compared by conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments. Obviously smaller mean particle size was observed for POD-NLCformulation 1 (106 nm) than POD-NLCformulation 2 (219 nm), whereas relatively low POD loadings (less than 0...
November 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865796/bletilla-striata-medicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-activities
#11
REVIEW
Xirui He, Jiacheng Fang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Zefeng Zhao, Yu Chang, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Hyacinth Orchid and Baiji (Simplified Chinese: ), not only has been widely used for the treatment of hematemesis, hemoptysis, and traumatic bleeding due to the efficacy of arresting bleeding with astringent action, but also has been applied topically to overcome ulcers, sores, swellings, and chapped skin due to the efficacy of dispersing swelling and promoting tissue regeneration. Additional medical applications include the treatment of tuberculosis, malignant ulcers, hemorrhoids, anthrax, eye diseases, and silicosis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855607/pharmaceutical-particles-design-by-membrane-emulsification-preparation-methods-and-applications-in-drug-delivery
#12
Emma Piacentini, Marijana Dragosavac, Lidietta Giorno
Nowadays, the rational design of particles is an important issue in the development of pharmaceutical medicaments. Advances in manufacturing methods are required to design new pharmaceutical particles with target properties in terms of particle size, particle size distribution, structure and functional activity. Membrane emulsification is emerging as a promising tool for the production of emulsions and solidified particles with tailored properties in many fields. In this review, the current use of membrane emulsification in the production of pharmaceutical particles is highlighted...
November 17, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851780/characterisation-of-a-new-family-of-carboxyl-esterases-with-an-osmc-domain
#13
Mai-Britt V Jensen, Louise E Horsfall, Caroline Wardrope, Peter D Togneri, Jon Marles-Wright, Susan J Rosser
Proteins in the serine esterase family are widely distributed in bacterial phyla and display activity against a range of biologically produced and chemically synthesized esters. A serine esterase from the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas arctica with a C-terminal OsmC-like domain was recently characterized; here we report on the identification and characterization of further putative esterases with OsmC-like domains constituting a new esterase family that is found in a variety of bacterial species from different environmental niches...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845728/tropane-and-granatane-alkaloid-biosynthesis-a-systematic-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Neill Kim, Olga Estrada, Benjamin Chavez, Charles Stewart, John C D'Auria
The tropane and granatane alkaloids belong to the larger pyrroline and piperidine classes of plant alkaloids, respectively. Their core structures share common moieties and their scattered distribution among angiosperms suggest that their biosynthesis may share common ancestry in some orders, while they may be independently derived in others. Tropane and granatane alkaloid diversity arises from the myriad modifications occurring to their core ring structures. Throughout much of human history, humans have cultivated tropane- and granatane-producing plants for their medicinal properties...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843958/evaluation-of-prescriptions-of-medicines-not-included-in-iran-medicine-list-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Marzieh Zargaran, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Abdol Majid Cheraghali
OBJECTIVE: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834047/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-modeling-of-pharmaceutical-nanoparticles
#16
Min Li, Peng Zou, Katherine Tyner, Sau Lee
With the great interests in the discovery and development of drug products containing nanoparticles, there is a great demand of quantitative tools for assessing quality, safety, and efficacy of these products. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation approaches provide excellent tools for describing and predicting in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of nanoparticles administered through various routes. PBPK modeling of nanoparticles is an emerging field, and more than 20 PBPK models of nanoparticles used in pharmaceutical products have been published in the past decade...
November 10, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828968/manufacturing-of-a-secretoneurin-drug-delivery-system-with-self-assembled-protamine-nanoparticles-by-titration
#17
Bernhard Scheicher, Cornelia Lorenzer, Katrin Gegenbauer, Julia Partlic, Fritz Andreae, Alexander H Kirsch, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Oliver Werzer, Andreas Zimmer
Since therapeutic peptides and oligonucleotides are gathering interests as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are becoming of great importance. Thereby, the possibility to design drug delivery systems according to the therapeutic needs of APIs enhances clinical implementation. Over the last years, the focus of our group was laid on protamine-oligonucleotide-nanoparticles (so called proticles), however, the possibility to modify the size, zeta potential or loading efficiencies was limited...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825683/the-distribution-dynamics-and-desorption-behaviour-of-mobile-pharmaceuticals-and-caffeine-to-combined-sewer-sediments
#18
M Hajj-Mohamad, H Darwano, S Vo Duy, S Sauvé, M Prévost, H P H Arp, S Dorner
Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine...
October 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824771/maternal-deaths-from-suicide-and-overdose-in-colorado-2004-2012
#19
Torri D Metz, Polina Rovner, M Camille Hoffman, Amanda A Allshouse, Krista M Beckwith, Ingrid A Binswanger
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain demographic and clinical characteristics of maternal deaths from self-harm (accidental overdose or suicide) to identify opportunities for prevention. METHODS: We report a case series of pregnancy-associated deaths resulting from self-harm in the state of Colorado between 2004 and 2012. Self-harm deaths were identified from several sources, including death certificates. Birth and death certificates along with coroner, prenatal care, and delivery hospitalization records were abstracted...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822535/an-integrated-metabolomic-and-genomic-mining-workflow-to-uncover-the-biosynthetic-potential-of-bacteria
#20
Maria Maansson, Nikolaj G Vynne, Andreas Klitgaard, Jane L Nybo, Jette Melchiorsen, Don D Nguyen, Laura M Sanchez, Nadine Ziemert, Pieter C Dorrestein, Mikael R Andersen, Lone Gram
Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole-genome sequences of the strains...
May 2016: MSystems
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