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Pharmaceutical distribution

Arash Panahifar, L Dean Chapman, Lynn Weber, Nazanin Samadi, David M L Cooper
Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Chie Araki, Nobuyuki Okahashi, Kousuke Maeda, Hiroshi Shimizu, Fumio Matsuda
Cancer cells often respond to chemotherapeutic inhibitors by redirecting carbon flow in the central metabolism. To understand the metabolic redirections of inhibitor treatment on cancer cells, this study established a 13 C-metabolic flux analysis (13 C-MFA)-based method to evaluate metabolic redirection in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry. A metabolic stationary state necessary for accurate 13 C-MFA was confirmed during an 8-24 h window using low-dose treatments of various metabolic inhibitors...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
Kerlijn Van Assche, Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Jean Michel Caudron, Benedetta Schiavetti, Corinne Pouget, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Bruno Meessen, Raffaella Ravinetto
Introduction: The rapid globalisation of the pharmaceutical production and distribution has not been supported by harmonisation of regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the supply systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. To contribute to estimating this risk in the private sector in LMICs, we assessed the quality assurance system of a convenient sample of local private pharmaceutical distributors. Methods: This descriptive study uses secondary data derived from the audits conducted by the QUAMED group at 60 local private pharmaceutical distributors in 13 LMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Haidong Zhou, Xiaojing Liu, Xiaomeng Chen, Tianqi Ying, Zhenxi Ying
The investigations on their variation and distribution of 13 called waste-water marking pharmaceuticals (WWMPs) were conducted under 4 hydrophyte conditions (without plants, with submerged aquatic plant (Myriophyllum verticillatum L.), emergent aquatic plant cattail (Typha orientalis Presl) and floating aquatic plant (Lemna minor L.)) in a simulated urban river system. By the calculation of mass balance, the quantitative distribution of WWMPs in water phase, sediment and plant tissues was identified, and the overall removal efficiencies of target pharmaceuticals in the whole system could be determined...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Joseph Levy, Marjorie Rosenberg, David Vanness
BACKGROUND: Assessment of drug costs for cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) in the United States is not straightforward because the prices paid for drugs are not publicly available and differ between payers. CEAs have relied on list prices that do not reflect the rebates and discounts known to be associated with these purchases. OBJECTIVES: To review available cost measures and propose a novel strategy that is transparent, consistent, and applicable to all CEAs taking a US health care sector perspective or a societal payer's perspective...
June 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Takao Ojima, Mohammad M Rahman, Yuya Kumagai, Ryuji Nishiyama, Joemark Narsico, Akira Inoue
Seaweed polysaccharides have been widely used as viscosifier, gelling agents, and stabilizer in the various application fields, e.g., food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and chemical industries. Applications of seaweed polysaccharides are further expanding to versatile directions, e.g., biofuels, bioactive compounds, and functional materials for medical and basic researches. Production of functional oligo- and monosaccharides by the use of specific enzymes is also expected to improve the value of seaweed polysaccharides...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Areen Alshweiat, Gábor Katona, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus
Nanoparticle engineering is a well-defined technique employed as a novel and effective method in drug design and delivery. It is widely used to control particle size, as well as the morphological and physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Furthermore, it serves as a method of pre-dispersion preparation for various dosage form developments. Nanotechnology produces nanomaterials with enhanced properties in terms of solubility, dissolution and permeability. In this work, ultrasonic-assisted precipitation was employed to produce nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble loratadine, using different stabilizers...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yashuang Hei, Xiqian Li, Xiao Zhou, Jingju Liu, Mehboob Hassan, Siyi Zhang, Yu Yang, Xiangjie Bo, Hsing-Lin Wang, Ming Zhou
In this work, the three-dimensional nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbons with hierarchical architectures (3D-NNCsHAs) with high density of defective sites, high surface area and pluralities of pore size distributions was prepared through the pyrolysis of sea-tangle (Laminaria japonica), an inexpensive, eco-friendly and abundant precursor. Benefitting from their structural uniqueness, a selective and sensitive ascorbic acid (AA) sensor based on 3D-NNCsHAs was developed. Compared to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the carbon nanotubes modified GCE (CNTs/GCE), the 3D-NNCsHAs modified GCE (3D-NNCsHAs/GCE) presents higher performance towards the electrocatalysis and detection of AA, such as lower detection limit (1 μM), wider linear range (10-4410 μM) and lower electrooxidation peak potential (-0...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Elisabete Maciel, Ana Lillebø, Pedro Domingues, Elisabete da Costa, Ricardo Calado, M Rosário M Domingues
Some halophytes are currently used as gourmet plant ingredients for human consumption. The polar lipidome of the succulent organs of Salicornia ramosissima (fresh branch tips) and Halimione portulacoides (leaves) were characterized in-depth, with more than two hundred lipid species being identified in both halophytes. The lipid species identified were distributed over five classes of phospholipids, three classes of glycolipids and one class of glycosphingolipids. Despite the existence of some species-specific differences between the polar lipidome, phospholipids and glycolipids show a high content of n-3 fatty acids in both S...
June 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jean-Étienne R L Morlighem, Chen Huang, Qiwen Liao, Paula Braga Gomes, Carlos Daniel Pérez, Álvaro Rossan de Brandão Prieto-da-Silva, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals), form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides...
June 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jelle Reinen, Pieter van Sas, Ton van Huygevoort, Leticia Rubio, Kevin Scase, Mira Wenker
Drug-induced phototoxicity occurs when drugs absorb natural sunlight, leading to chemical reactions causing cellular damage. Distribution to light-exposed tissues is critical and is enhanced by binding to melanin. The International Council on Harmonization S10 guidance document on photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals states that although nonpigmented skin tends to be more sensitive than pigmented skin, pigmented skin models should be considered for drugs that bind significantly to melanin. In this study, an in vitro melanin-binding assay was evaluated as prescreening tool for animal model selection...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Lin Ma, Yifei Liu, Jing Zhang, Qing Yang, Guanghe Li, Dayi Zhang
Groundwater pollution by emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), has caused increasing concerns around the world. The vadose zone is an active zone where lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere interact. It is an important medium for PPCPs removal and entry into groundwater from irrigation using wastewater or polluted surface water. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of eleven PPCPs in areas with a vadose zone (up to 16 m) was investigated from wastewater irrigated farmland, groundwater irrigated farmland and a seasonal river course in Beijing (China)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jun Arii, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The successful entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into a cell is a complex process requiring the interaction of several surface viral glycoproteins with host cell receptors. These viral glycoproteins are currently thought to work sequentially to trigger fusogenic activity, but the process is complicated by the fact that each glycoprotein is known to interact with a range of target cell surface receptor molecules. The glycoproteins concerned are gB, gD, and gH/gL, with at least four host cell receptor molecules known to bind to gB and gD alone...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
D Pianori, V M Avaldi, S Rosa, J Lenzi, M Ialonardi, G Pieri, A Rossi, M P Fantini
BACKGROUND: Intermediate Care Services have been developed to provide high-quality and sustainable care to the elderly patients with chronic diseases. Italian Community Hospitals, inspired by the British model, are an example of Intermediate Care. The aim of this study was: (1) to describe the healthcare needs met by the Community Hospitals of Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, by depicting the characteristics of hospitalized patients, and (2) to evaluate process and outcome indicators by conducting a comparative assessment of the quality of care...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Xuemeng He, Lili Ding, Wenbo Su, Haijun Ma, Hui Huang, Yanru Wang, Hongqiang Ren
Endotoxins are potential toxics impacting human health through respiration derived in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), yet the formation of endotoxins during wastewater treatment processes is still lacking research. In our study, the distribution of endotoxins and bacterial community structure in the wastewater of three full scale pharmaceutical WWTPs were explored using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test and MiSeq technique. Results showed that higher endotoxin activities in the influent of Plant A and Plant C (560 and 1140 EU/mL), stemming from the fermentation process, were found compared to that of Plant B (135 EU/mL), coming from the process of chemical synthesis...
June 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Natalia Perez-Moral, Jean-Michel Plankeele, Claire Domoney, Frederick J Warren
Starch has a complex molecular structure, with properties dependent on the relative chain lengths and branching structure of its constituent molecules, which varies due to polymorphisms in starch biosynthetic genes, as well as environmental factors. Here we present the application of ultra-high performance size exclusion chromatography to the separation of starch chains from plant seeds. Several methods, have been used to analyse chain length distributions in starch, all with limitations in terms of analysis time, sample preparation and molecular weight range...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
J Marto, L F Gouveia, L M Gonçalves, H M Ribeiro, A J Almeida
Pharmaceutical research has been focused on developing improved delivery systems while exploring new ways of using approved excipients. The present work investigated the potential of starch nanocapsules (StNC) as a topical delivery platform for hydrophilic antimicrobial drugs using minocycline hydrochloride (MH) as a model drug. Thus, a quality by design approach was used to assess the role of different factors that affect the main pharmaceutical properties of StNC prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Alexander P Haring, Yuxin Tong, Justin Halper, Blake N Johnson
Additive manufacturing (AM) appears poised to provide novel pharmaceutical technology and controlled release systems, yet understanding the effects of processing and post-processing operations on pill design, quality, and performance remains a significant barrier. This paper reports a study of the relationship between programmed concentration profile and resultant temporal release profile using a 3D printed polypill system consisting of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved excipient (Pluronic F-127) and therapeutically relevant dosages of three commonly used oral agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes (300-500 mg per pill)...
June 10, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Jon Montgomery, Cathaleen Madsen, Todd Leroux, Tracey Pérez Koehlmoos
Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) are the first-line medical treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED), but are often restricted in public formularies. This study assesses PDE-5I usage among active-duty service members before and after the addition of sildenafil to the formulary of the Military Health System (MHS) in 2012. To assess, a cross-sectional evaluation was conducted, utilizing encounter and pharmaceutical claims data from the Military Health System Data Repository between 2010 and 2014. Separate zero-inflated, negative binomial models were used to assess changes in usage rates by prescription and by number of pills issued, for 37 947 patients...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
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