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Pharmaceutical distribution

Akinari Abe, Miyuki Saito, Wesam R Kadhum, Hiroaki Todo, Kenji Sugibayashi
Development of an appropriate method to evaluate drug disposition or targeting ability in hair follicles (HFs) is urgently needed in order to develop useful pharmaceutical products with pharmacological effects in HFs. In the present study, a cyanoacrylate biopsy (CB) method was used to measure drug disposition in HFs using a model hydrophilic drug, caffeine (CAF), and a lipophilic drug, 4-butylresorcinol (BR), in excised porcine skin. As a result, the height of HF replicas and the recovery ratio decreased with an increase in the application times of the CB method...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Paul Slezak, Cyrill Slezak, Joachim Hartinger, Andreas Herbert Teuschl, Sylvia Nürnberger, Heinz Redl, Rainer Mittermayr
There is continual demand for animal models that allow a quantitative assessment of angiogenic properties of biomaterials, therapies, and pharmaceuticals. In its simplest form, this is done by subcutaneous material implantation and subsequent vessel counting which usually omits spatial data. We have refined an implantation model and paired it with a computational analytic routine which outputs not only vessel count but also vessel density, distribution, and vessel penetration depth, that relies on a centric vessel as a reference point...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jennifer Lam, Samuel S Chan, Flaxen D L Conway, David Stone
OBJECTIVE To document the environmental stewardship practices (decisions and actions regarding use and disposal) of pet and human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among pet-owning veterinary-care professionals (practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians and trainees) and environmental educators. DESIGN Internet-based cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 191 pet owners (103 veterinary-care professionals and 88 environmental educators). PROCEDURES Study participants were recruited by means of a 2-part internet survey distributed to veterinary-care professional and environmental educator networks of individuals residing in Washington state, Oregon, and southern California...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Shengli Mi, Xiaoman Yi, Zhichang Du, Yuanyuan Xu, Wei Sun
The liver is one of the main metabolic organs, and nearly all ingested drugs will be metabolized by the liver. Only a small fraction of drugs are able to come onto the market during drug development, and hepatic toxicity is a major cause for drug failure. Since drug development is costly in both time and materials, an in vitro liver model that can accelerate bioreactions in the liver and reduce drug consumption is imperative in the pharmaceutical industry. The liver on a chip is an ideal alternative for its controllable environment and tiny size, which means constructing a more biomimetic model, reducing material consumption as well as promoting drug diffusion and reaction...
February 20, 2018: Biofabrication
Giorgio E Bonacchini, Caterina Bossio, Francesco Greco, Virgilio Mattoli, Yun-Hi Kim, Guglielmo Lanzani, Mario Caironi
The use of natural or bioinspired materials to develop edible electronic devices is a potentially disruptive technology that can boost point-of-care testing. The technology exploits devices that can be safely ingested, along with pills or even food, and operated from within the gastrointestinal tract. Ingestible electronics can potentially target a significant number of biomedical applications, both as therapeutic and diagnostic tool, and this technology may also impact the food industry, by providing ingestible or food-compatible electronic tags that can "smart" track goods and monitor their quality along the distribution chain...
February 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
Madeeha Malik, Adeela Khan, Azhar Hussain, Ayisha Hashmi
Asthma is considered as one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. As a result of serious physical, social, and psychological complications, asthma can reduce health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study was designed to assess the HRQoL including physical health, general health perception, emotional health, psychological health, and social functioning of asthmatic patients in Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Setting was public and private healthcare facilities...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Mei Wang, Saqlain Haider, Amar G Chittiboyina, Jon F Parcher, Ikhlas A Khan
In the past years, there has been a mounting trend toward the addition of sympathomimetic stimulants in sports and weight loss supplements sold in the US and claimed to be from natural constituents. The latest among those pharmaceutical stimulants is 1,5-dimethylhexylamine (1,5-DMHA or octodrine), an ingredient in newly introduced sports and weight loss supplements with its 'natural' origin being cited from Aconitum or Kigelia plants. In order to validate the natural existence of 1,5-DMHA, two GC/MS methods were developed...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
F Stauffer, V Vanhoorne, G Pilcer, P-F Chavez, S Rome, M A Schubert, L Aerts, T De Beer
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Luana de Morais E Silva, Mateus Feitosa Alves, Luciana Scotti, Wilton Silva Lopes, Marcus Tullius Scotti
Persistent organic products are compounds used for various purposes, such as personal care products, surfactants, colorants, industrial additives, food, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. These substances are constantly introduced into the environment and many of these pollutants are difficult to degrade. Toxic compounds classified as MoA 1 (Mode of Action 1) are low toxicity compounds that comprise nonreactive chemicals. In silico methods such as Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) have been used to develop important models for prediction in several areas of science, as well as aquatic toxicity studies...
February 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fiona Elizabeth Smith, Peter Edward Thelwall, Joe Necus, Carly Jay Flowers, Andrew Matthew Blamire, David Andrew Cousins
Lithium is a major treatment for bipolar disorder and the likelihood of a favourable response may be determined by its distribution in the brain. Lithium can be directly detected by magnetic resonance (MR), but previous 7Li MR spectroscopy studies have demonstrated that this is challenging compared to conventional 1H MR imaging due to the MR properties of the lithium nucleus and its low concentration in brain tissue, as dictated by therapeutic dose. We have tested and implemented a highly efficient balanced steady-state free precession 7Li-MRI method to address these challenges and enable MRI of brain lithium in a short duration scan...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Cornelius Rimayi, David Odusanya, Jana M Weiss, Jacob de Boer, Luke Chimuka
A quantitative assessment of pollutants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment area was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to establish the occurrence, source and distribution of 15 environmental pollutants, including 10 pharmaceuticals, 1 pesticide and 4 steroid hormones. Seasonal sampling was conducted in the Hartbeespoort Lake using sub-surface grab sampling to determine the lake's ecological status and obtain data for establishment of progressive operational monitoring...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammad Alsaggar, Dexi Liu
The phenomenal advances in pharmaceutical sciences over the last few decades have led to the development of new therapeutics like peptides, proteins, RNAs, DNAs and highly potent small molecules. Fruitful applications of these therapeutics have been challenged by several anatomical and physiological barriers that limit adequate drug disposition at the site of action and by off-target drug distribution to undesired tissues, which together result in the reduced effectiveness and increased side effects of therapeutic agents...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Szymon Jarosławski, Mondher Toumi, Pascal Auquier, Claude Dussart
In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply...
February 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Fatma M Dardir, Aya S Mohamed, Mostafa R Abukhadra, Ezzat A Ahmed, Mamdouh F Soliman
The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate newly discovered bentonite deposits in Egypt for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications as well as its suitability as carrier for Praziquantel drug. The study was performed for the raw bentonite sample, purified bentonite sample and alkali activated purified bentonite sample. The raw bentonite sample composed mainly of montmorillonite contaminated by little amounts of quartz and calcite, while the purified sample composed of montmorillonite without detected mineral impurities and matches the mineralogical properties of Wyoming bentonite as an international standard...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Raphael Laiber Bonadiman, Adriélly Fiorese Santanna, Girlandia Alexandre Brasil, Ewelyne Miranda de Lima, Dominik Lenz, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Tadeu Uggere Andrade
The scope of this study was to determine the satisfaction levels of users of public pharmacies and verify the knowledge of pharmacists in relation to dispensing of medicines. This is a descriptive study, conducted in municipalities in the State of Espírito Santo, in the period from May to August 2013. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and SPSS20 software was used for statistical analysis. The Student t or ANOVA test was used for data with normal distribution, while the Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for data without normal distribution...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Liu Zhang, Li Wu, Caifen Wang, Guoqing Zhang, Lin Yu, Hai Yan Li, Abi Maharjan, Yan Tang, Dunwei He, Peter York, Huimin Sun, Xianzhen Yin, Jiwen Zhang, Lixin Sun
One unusual and challenging scientific field that has received only cursory attention to date is the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure and spatial distribution of drug(s) and formulation materials in solid dosage forms. This study aims to pro-vide deeper insight to the relationships between the microstructure of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets and the spa-tial distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients to facilitate the design of quantitative models for drug delivery systems...
February 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qian Xiao, Loong-Tak Lim
Pullulan-alginate ultrafine fibers, with and without CaCl2, were electrospun from aqueous polymer solutions using free-surface electrospinning, without the use of synthetic spinning aid polymer. Aqueous pullulan solution (10%, w/w) could be electrospun into beaded fibers with an average diameter of 110 nm with a board diameter distribution. However, continuous and smooth fibers were observed when 0.8 to 1.6% (w/w) alginate was added to the 10% (w/w) pullulan solutions, resulting in fibers with the diameter ranging from 87 to 57 nm...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Guangjing Chen, Fan Bu, Xuhui Chen, Changfeng Li, Shasha Wang, Jianquan Kan
In this study, a novel polysaccharide (PCPs) was obtained from bamboo shoots (Chimonobambusa quadrangularis) processing by-products through the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography purification. First, by using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to optimize the parameters for extracting the crude PCPs with UAE, the maximum yield of crude PCPs (was 8.76%) was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions as follows: ratio of water to raw material 20.2 mL/g, extraction temperature 49 °C, ultrasonic power 240 W, and extraction time 40 min...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jun Liu, Ann-Sofie Leppänen, Victor Kisonen, Stefan Willför, Chunlin Xu, Francisco Vilaplana
Accurate determination of the distribution of substitutions in the primary molecular structure of heteropolysaccharides and their derivatives is a prerequisite for their increasing application in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields, which is unfortunately hindered due to the lack of effective analytical techniques. Acetylated galactoglucomannan (GGM) is an abundant plant polysaccharide as the main hemicellulose in softwoods, and therefore constitutes an important renewable resource from lignocellulosic biomass for the development of bioactive and functional materials...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haizea Ziarrusta, Leire Mijangos, Mireia Irazola, Ailette Prieto, Nestor Etxebarria, Eneritz Anakabe, Maitane Olivares, Olatz Zuloaga
The widespread use of pharmaceuticals has caused a growing concern on the presence of pharmaceuticals such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in the aquatic environment, since they may exert adverse effects on non-target organisms, including fish. In order to study the uptake, distribution in different tissues (liver, muscle, brain and gill) and biofluids (plasma and bile), metabolism and elimination of CIPRO in gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata), controlled dosing experiments for 8 days at 200 μg/L concentration were carried out...
January 18, 2018: Chemosphere
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