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Pharmaceutical distribution

Fansheng Kong, Zhipeng Su, Xiaoming Guo, Feng Zeng, Yongguang Bi
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (Wampee) is widely grown in China and considered as a healthy fruit. Its leaves are also considered as traditional herbs. This study analyzed polyphenol compounds in polyphenol extracts of the leaves C. lansium (lour.) Skeels (PEL) and investigated the protective effect of PEL against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in T2DM rats. The result showed that PEL is composed mainly of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, coffee acid, ferulic acid, and rutin. PEL could obviously relieve some symptoms of T2DM rats, including emaciation, hyperhidrosis, polyphagia, diuresis, liver swelling, kidney, and pancreas hypertrophy, as well as reduce fasting blood glucose...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Salvador Sierra, Natasha Luquin, Judith Navarro-Otano
RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Tereza Zelenková, Maria Julia Mora, Antonello A Barresi, Gladys Ester Granero, Davide Fissore
This work is focused on the synthesis of polycaprolactone nanoparticles, coated with chitosan, in a confined impinging jets reactor using the solvent displacement method. The role of the various reacting species was investigated, evidencing that a biocompatible polymer, e.g. polycaprolactone, is required to support chitosan to obtain a mono-modal particle size distribution, with low particle diameters. A surfactant is required to reduce nanoparticles size (down to a mean diameter of about 260 nm) and obtain a positive Zeta potential (about +31 mV), perfectly suitable for pharmaceutical applications...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xin Liu, Colin Flinders, Shannon M Mumenthaler, Amanda B Hummon
Patient-derived colorectal tumor organoids (CTOs) closely recapitulate the complex morphological, phenotypic, and genetic features observed in in vivo tumors. Therefore, evaluation of drug distribution and metabolism in this model system can provide valuable information to predict the clinical outcome of a therapeutic response in individual patients. In this report, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to examine the spatial distribution of the drug irinotecan and its metabolites in CTOs from two patients...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Victoria Bell, João Rui Pita, Ana Leonor Pereira
Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products)...
2017: Dynamis
Iris Meerschman, Kristiane Van Lierde, Caro Van Puyvelde, Astrid Bostyn, Sofie Claeys, Evelien D'haeseleer
BACKGROUND: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy non-professional voice users. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A pre-/post-test randomized control group design with follow-up measurements was used...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Ahmed I Gomaa, Cynthia Martinent, Riadh Hammami, Ismail Fliss, Muriel Subirade
Antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as a potential biopreservatives in pharmaceutical research and agribusiness. However, many limitations hinder their utilization, such as their vulnerability to proteolytic digestion and their potential interaction with other food ingredients in complex food systems. One approach to overcome such problems is developing formulations entrapping and thereby protecting the antimicrobial peptides. Liposome encapsulation is a strategy that could be implemented to combine protection of the antimicrobial activity of the peptides from proteolytic enzymes and the controlled release of the encapsulated active ingredients...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Weiwei Ben, Bing Zhu, Xiangjuan Yuan, Yu Zhang, Min Yang, Zhimin Qiang
This study investigated the occurrence, removal and risk of 42 organic micropollutants (MPs), including 30 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals, in 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) distributed across China. The composition profiles of different MP categories in the influent, effluent, and excess sludge were explored and the aqueous removal efficiencies of MPs were determined. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacies of different wastewater treatment processes in eliminating MPs...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
C Hare, T Bonakdar, M Ghadiri, J Strong
Tablets are the most common solid dosage form of pharmaceutical active ingredients due to their ease of use. Their dissolution behaviour depends on the particle size distribution and physicochemical properties of the formulation, and the compression process, which need to be optimised for producing consistently robust tablets, as weaker tablets are often prone to breakage during production, transport and end use. Tablet strength is typically determined by diametric compression and friability tests. The former gives rise to propagation of a crack on a plane along the compression axis, whilst the latter, carried out in a rotating drum, incurs surface damage and produces chips and debris...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tao Sun, Qing Shi, Qiang Huang, Huaping Wang, Xiaolu Xiong, Chengzhi Hu, Toshio Fukuda
Traditional cell-encapsulating scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and inhomogeneity in cellular distribution. Thus, fabrication techniques for cellular self-assembly with micro-scaffold incorporation have been used recently to generate toroidal cellular modules for the bottom-up construction of vascular-like structures. The micro-scaffolds show advantage in promoting tissue formation. However, owing to the lack of annular cell micro-scaffolds, it remains a challenge to engineer micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) to fabricate microvascular-like structures...
November 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Tetsushi Yamamoto, Saori Nakanishi, Kuniko Mitamura, Atsushi Taga
Soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some Asian countries, and we previously reported that soft-shelled turtle tissue could be a useful material for collagen. In the present study, we performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based global proteomic analysis of collagen-administered human keratinocytes to examine the functional effects of collagen from soft-shelled turtle on human skin. Using a semiquantitative method based on spectral counting, we were able to successfully identify 187 proteins with expression levels that were changed more than twofold by the administration of collagen from soft-shelled turtle...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Diana Nara Ribeiro de Sousa, Antonio Aparecido Mozeto, Renato Lajarim Carneiro, Pedro Sergio Fadini
The occurrence, partitioning, and spatio-temporal distribution of seven pharmaceuticals for human use, three steroid hormones and one personal care product were determined in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment of Piraí Creek and Jundiaí River (Jundiaí River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil). The maximum average detected concentrations of the compounds in the Piraí River samples were < 30 ng L-1, except for caffeine (222 ng L-1). In Jundiaí River samples, most of the compounds were frequently detected, wherein caffeine had the highest concentration, with maximum average concentrations of 14,050 ng L-1, followed by atenolol (431 ng L-1), ibuprofen (268 ng L-1) and diclofenac (214 ng L-1)...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liang Zhao, Tengfei Guo, Lirong Wang, Yang Liu, Ganyu Chen, Hao Zhou, Meiqin Zhang
Cancer metastatic dissemination is a complex event during tumor progression which involves cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions. Micro-patterning of is one of the most efficient ways to study tumor development because it can tune the distribution of cells with spatial and temporal control. Extensive studies have shown that microfluidics can provide a feasible method for cell patterning. However, the current technique requires a microfabrication laboratory to manufacture the chip, which results in inaccessibility to researchers especially biologists who focus on the disclosing biological mechanisms rather than the methods...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
N Peela, E S Barrientos, D Truong, G Mouneimne, M Nikkhah
Metastatic cancer is regarded as one of the largest contributors to disease-related deaths worldwide. Poor patient prognosis and treatment outcome is tied to the lack of efficacious anti-cancer therapies, which is due in part to the lack of physiologically relevant in vitro screening systems that can mimic the native tumor microenvironment. Conventional drug-screening platforms, which are often used in the pharmaceutical industry, are either two-dimensional (2D) assays or three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel-based matrices that lack precise control over cell distribution, matrix architecture, and organization...
November 30, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Azadeh Haeri, Mahraz Osouli, Fereshteh Bayat, Sonia Alavi, Simin Dadashzadeh
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor with immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, antifungal, anti-restenosis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical application is often hampered by poor aqueous solubility, first-pass metabolism, transport by p-glycoprotein efflux pump, limited oral bioavailability and nonspecific distribution in off-target sites. Recently, various formulation strategies have emerged to overcome these limitations. Among these, pharmaceutical nanotechnology with numerous advantages has great potential for sirolimus delivery...
November 29, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Preshita P Desai, Vandana B Patravale
Curcumin, a potent antioxidant polyphenol with neuroprotective and antiamyloid activity has significant potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, its clinical translation is delayed due to poor bioavailability. For effective use of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease, it is imperative to increase its bioavailability with enhanced delivery at therapeutic site i.e. brain. With this objective, pharmaceutical co-crystals of curcumin were developed and incorporated in micellar nanocarriers for nose to brain delivery...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mehrnaz Rezaei, Hamed Taj Mohammadi, Atiyeh Mahdavi, Mostafa Shourian, Hossein Ghafoori
Tyrosinase (EC is a key copper-containing metalloenzyme widely distributed in nature and plays determinant role in melanin biosynthesis. The enzyme manifests two unusual catalytic properties including oxidase and monooxygenase activities. Its inhibitors may be applied to efficiently treat of hyperpigmentation and widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, as well as food supplements and insecticides. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of some novel azo-hydrazone tautomeric dyes (4a-e) including bioactive thiazolidinone moiety on the activity of the mushroom tyrosinase...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mandana Ohadi, Hamid Forootanfar, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Elham Jafari, Mojtaba Shakibaie, Touba Eslaminejad, Gholamreza Dehghannoudeh
BACKGROUND: Recently, the development of a safe bioactive material with antioxidant properties, in which can improve healing activity are focusing. Biosurfactants are very famous for their antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities. Thereof, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and wound healing activity of the lipopeptide biosurfactant (LBS) produced by Acinetobacter junii B6. DPPH radical scavenging activities and FRAP assays were used to measure the antioxidant properties...
November 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
1-Nitroguanine (NG), also known as picrate, guanidine nitro, and N'-nitroguanidine, is used by the military as a propellant. Oral rodent LD50 data are generally >5000 mg/kg. NG is neither an eye nor a skin irritant, and it is not a skin sensitizer. NG is not genotoxic. No inhalation data are available; however, there are data from both 14- and 90-day oral (feed) toxicity studies in male and female Sprague Dawley rats at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg/day. There were no deaths on these studies and the only effect considered possibly related to treatment was decreased weight in females at the high-dose level in the 90-day study...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
J Bradford Rice, Alan White, Andrea Lopez, Winnie W Nelson
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in involved organs. Prior research has found that sarcoidosis imposes a significant economic burden to U.S. payers. However, the drivers of high health care costs among sarcoidosis patients are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To characterize sarcoidosis patients who were among the top 20% of total health care costs. METHODS: Patients with a first diagnosis of sarcoidosis between January 1, 1998, and March 31, 2015 (index date) were selected from a deidentified privately insured administrative claims database...
December 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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