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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#1
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027336/trends-in-utilization-of-benzodiazepine-and-z-drugs-in-israel
#2
Erez Berman, Sara Eyal, Eli Marom
BACKGROUND: Studies on benzodiazepine (BZDs) as well as Zopiclone and Zolpidem (Z-drugs) utilization are important for estimating the prevalence of medical conditions, providing the basis for pharmacovigilance, and identifying temporal trends of consumption. Such studies that involve the Israeli population have not been conducted yet. PURPOSE: Identify trends over time in utilization of BZDs and Z-drugs in a nationwide population in Israel. METHODS: Data on BZD and Z-drugs utilization (for all indications) for the period 2005 to 2013 were obtained from pharmaceutical companies that distribute BZDs in Israel...
October 13, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027209/heterogeneous-distribution-of-alectinib-in-neuroblastoma-xenografts-revealed-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-a-pilot-study
#3
Shoraku Ryu, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Aikawa, Isamu Okamoto, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Akinobu Hamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The penetration of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib in neuroblastomas and the relationship between alectinib and ALK expression are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative investigation of the inter- and intra-tumoural distribution of alectinib in different neuroblastoma xenograft models using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The distribution of alectinib in NB1 (ALK amplification) and SK-N-FI (ALK wild-type) xenograft tissues was analysed using MALDI-MSI...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025446/inefficient-procurement-processes-undermine-access-to-medicines-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#4
Bvudzai P Magadzire, Kim Ward, Henry M J Leng, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021718/epidemiology-and-outcome-of-2-590-burned-patients-in-northwest-iran
#5
S N Hosseini, V Rashtchi, K Kamali, M H Moghimi
Burns are calamities with considerable morbidity and mortality rates. We attempted to examine the epidemiology of burns in Zanjan city, in northwest Iran, by a systematic study of existing information. The medical files of 2,590 thermal burn patients treated in our hospital in Zanjan city, Iran, from December 2010 to November 2016 were studied. Patient information, including age, sex, burn degree, season, cause of burn, hospital stay and treatment results were analyzed. About 65% of the patients were male (n=1691)...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020749/the-draft-genome-assembly-of-rhododendron-delavayi-franch-var-delavayi
#6
Lu Zhang, Pengwei Xu, Yanfei Cai, Lulin Ma, Shifeng Li, Shufa Li, Weijia Xie, Jie Song, Lvchun Peng, Huijun Yan, Ling Zou, Yongpeng Ma, Chengjun Zhang, Qiang Gao, Jihua Wang
Rhododendron delavayi Franch. is globally famous as an ornamental plant. Its distribution in southwest China covers several different habitats and environments. However, not much research had been conducted on Rhododendron spp. at the molecular level, which hinders understanding of its evolution, speciation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as its wide adaptability to different environments. Here, we report the genome assembly and gene annotation of R. delavayi var. delavayi (the second genome sequenced in the Ericaceae), which will facilitate the study of the family...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020609/overview-of-pat-process-analysers-applicable-in-monitoring-of-film-coating-unit-operations-for-manufacturing-of-solid-oral-dosage-forms
#7
REVIEW
Klemen Korasa, Franc Vrečer
Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i...
October 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019083/microbial-stability-of-pharmaceutical-and-cosmetic-products
#8
REVIEW
Huy Dao, Prit Lakhani, Anitha Police, Venkataraman Kallakunta, Sankar Srinivas Ajjarapu, Kai-Wei Wu, Pranav Ponkshe, Michael A Repka, S Narasimha Murthy
This review gives a brief overview about microbial contamination in pharmaceutical products. We discuss the distribution and potential sources of microorganisms in different areas, ranging from manufacturing sites, pharmacy stores, hospitals, to the post-market phase. We also discuss the factors that affect microbial contamination in popular dosage forms (e.g., tablets, sterile products, cosmetics). When these products are contaminated, the microorganisms can cause changes. The effects range from mild changes (e...
October 10, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018563/pharmacotherapy-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-going-beyond-the-guidelines
#9
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Davidson
SUMMARY: This article discusses the study of Harpaz-Rotem and associates, who examined patterns of medication use in first-diagnosed veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It considers the difference between practice guidelines and actual prescribing; selectively identifies issues with antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and prazosin; and reviews the possible impact of new medications in the pipeline. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: In the past 36 months, J...
November 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992484/emerging-contaminants-in-indian-environmental-matrices-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Jeeva M Philip, Usha K Aravind, Charuvila T Aravindakumar
The emergence of issues related to environment from ECs is a topic under serious discussions worldwide in recent years. Indian scenario is not an exception as it is tremendously growing in its rate of production and consumption of compounds belongs to ECs categories. However, a comprehensive documentation on the occurrence of ECs and consequent ARGs as well as their toxic effects on vertebrates on Indian context is still lacking. In the present study, an extensive literature survey was carried out to get an idea on the geographical distribution of ECs in various environmental matrices (water, air, soil, sediment and sludge) and biological samples by dividing the entire subcontinent into six zones based on climatic, geographical and cultural features...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989712/pair-distribution-functions-of-amorphous-organic-thin-films-from-synchrotron-x-ray-scattering-in-transmission-mode
#11
Chenyang Shi, Rattavut Teerakapibal, Lian Yu, Geoff G Z Zhang
Using high-brilliance high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation, for the first time the total scattering of a thin organic glass film deposited on a strongly scattering inorganic substrate has been measured in transmission mode. The organic thin film was composed of the weakly scattering pharmaceutical substance indomethacin in the amorphous state. The film was 130 µm thick atop a borosilicate glass substrate of equal thickness. The atomic pair distribution function derived from the thin-film measurement is in excellent agreement with that from bulk measurements...
September 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988506/in-silico-adme-tox-modeling-progress-and-prospects
#12
Saeed Alqahtani
Although significant progress has been made in high-throughput screening of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and toxicity (ADME-Tox) properties in drug discovery and development, in silico ADME-Tox prediction continues to play an important role in facilitating the appropriate selection of candidate drugs by pharmaceutical companies prior to expensive clinical trials. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the available in silico models that have been used to predict the ADME-Tox properties of compounds...
October 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986321/an-optimized-two-vial-formulation-lipid-nanoemulsion-of-paclitaxel-for-targeted-delivery-to-tumor
#13
Lina Chen, Bingchen Chen, Li Deng, Baoan Gao, Yuansheng Zhang, Chan Wu, Nong Yu, Qinqin Zhou, Jianzhong Yao, Jianming Chen
The discovery of new intravenous drug delivery carrier for water-insoluble drug is a challenging task. In this paper, novel two-vial formulation of paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded lipid nanoemulsions (TPLEs) with particle sizes of 110nm (TPLE-1), 220nm (TPLE-2) and 380nm (TPLE-3), which were formed by mixing a PEG400 solution of PTX and 10% (w/w) blank lipid emulsions (BLEs) with different particle size prior to use, were developed and comparatively evaluated for their pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficiency...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978326/tracking-of-pigment-accumulation-and-secretion-in-extractive-fermentation-of-monascus-anka-gim-3-592
#14
Gong Chen, Qi Bei, Tao Huang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. RESULTS: The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972499/impact-of-pharmacy-reform-on-the-dynamics-of-the-use-of-drugs-and-psychoactive-substances-according-to-the-2013-2016-clinical-data-from-the-center-for-mental-health-and-prevention-of-addiction
#15
L Kiladze, Kh Todadze, T Balkhamishvili, E Gadelia, G Lezhava
Use of medications without doctor's prescription widely established in Georgia had negative impact on the health of the population and on the whole social situation. The use of home-made drugs "Krokodil", "Jeff" and "Vint" produced from the preparations bought without prescriptions (Codeine, Ephedrine), became a special matter of concern. Psychoactive substances became available for teenagers causing damage to their central nervous system and formation of drug-addiction in them. Due to the situation Georgian Government took a number of legislative measures, particularly, it set Criminal Liability for illegal circulation of pharmaceutical products containing Codeine and Ephedrine and Administrative Measures for issuing the psychoactive substances without prescription...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970455/development-of-pharmacy-practice-in-european-countries-the-polish-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Damian Świeczkowski, Piotr Merks, Natalia Cwalina, Miłosz J Jaguszewski
Polish pharmacy practice and the distribution of medicinal products in some European countries are still going through a significant transformation. Changes postulated by the pharmacists should strengthen their role, and the place of community pharmacies in the health care system in the context of-among others-the introduction and popularization of pharmaceutical care. Subsequently, these efforts may essentially ensure the professional independence of the pharmacists. The introduction of pharmaceutical care to the pharmacy practice in all European countries will help to improve the quality of patient care and treatment outcomes, and will lead to a better allocation of available resources...
August 2, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970437/are-we-ready-to-implement-competence-based-teaching-in-pharmacy-education-in-poland
#17
Agnieszka Skowron, Justyna Dymek, Anna Gołda, Wioletta Polak
Pharmacists in Poland are responsible for the dispensing and quality control of pharmaceuticals. The education process in pharmacy is regulated and monitored at the national level. Pharmacy education at Jagiellonian University is organized in a traditional way based on input and content teaching. The aim of the study was to determinate whether the Jagiellonian University curriculum in the Pharmacy program meets the criteria of the European Competence Framework. The mapping of the intended curriculum was done by four academic teachers...
May 9, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968581/kinetic-accumulation-processes-and-models-for-43-micropollutants-in-pharmaceutical-pocis
#18
Nicolas A O Morin, Nicolas Mazzella, Hans Peter H Arp, Jérôme Randon, Julien Camilleri, Laure Wiest, Marina Coquery, Cécile Miège
The "pharmaceutical" polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampler composed of an outer polyethersulfone (PES) membrane and an inner receiving Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) phase. Target micropollutants can accumulate in the POCIS HLB phase following different uptake patterns. Two of the most common ones are a first-order kinetic uptake (Chemical Reaction Kinetic 1, CRK1 model), and a first-order kinetic uptake with an inflexion point (CRK2 model). From a previous study, we identified 30 and 13 micropollutants following CRK1 and CRK2 accumulation model in the POCIS HLB phase, respectively...
September 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966958/salient-features-and-outline-of-the-joint-japanese-guidelines-for-safe-handling-of-cancer-chemotherapy-drugs
#19
Kiyoko Kanda, Kazue Hirai, Keiko Iino, Hisanaga Nomura, Hisateru Yasui, Taro Kano, Chisato Ichikawa, Sumiko Hiura, Tomoko Morita, Ayako Mitsuma, Hiroko Komatsu
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the outline and describe the salient features of the "Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs" (hereinafter, "Guideline"), which were published in July 2015. The purpose of this Guideline is to provide guidance to protect against occupational exposure to hazardous drugs (HDs) to all medical personnel involved in cancer chemotherapy, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses and home health-care providers. The Guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service guidance for developing clinical practice guidelines, with reference to five authoritative guidelines used worldwide...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966240/survey-on-the-original-plant-species-of-crude-drugs-distributed-as-cynanchi-wilfordii-radix-and-its-related-crude-drugs-in-the-korean-and-chinese-markets
#20
Naoko Sato-Masumoto, Takashi Uchikura, Hidemi Sugiwaki, Morio Yoshimura, Sayaka Masada, Toshiyuki Atsumi, Masato Watanabe, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Nahoko Uchiyama, Yoshiaki Amakura, Takashi Hakamatsuka
Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR) is used in Korea as a substitute for Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR), which is a crude drug traditionally used in East Asian countries. Recently, the use of Cynanchi Auriculati Radix (CAR) in place of PMR and CWR has emerged a major concern in the Korean market. In Japan, PMR is permitted to be distributed as a pharmaceutical regulated by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 17th edition (JP17). Although CWR and CAR have not traditionally been used as medicines, CWR was recently introduced as a health food...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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