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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753836/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#1
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642889/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#2
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456244/angiotensin-1-7-and-alamandine-similarities-and-differences
#3
REVIEW
Tawar Qaradakhi, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
A primary peptide of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), Angiotensin (Ang) II, is a vasoconstrictor and promotor of atherosclerosis. To counter this, the RAS also consists of peptides and receptors which increase nitric oxide release from the endothelium and decrease nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-related superoxide production. Two peptides, Ang (1-7) and alamandine are vasodilators, by activating the nitric oxide pathway via different receptors in the endothelium. Thus, herein we focus on the similarities and differences between alamandine and Ang (1-7) and the counterbalancing hypothesis on Ang II during endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447621/angiotensin-a-alamandine-mrgd-axis-another-clue-to-understanding-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Jaroslav Hrenak, Ludovit Paulis, Fedor Simko
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular regulations and its modulation is a challenging target for the vast majority of cardioprotective strategies. However, many biological effects of these drugs cannot be explained by the known mode of action. Our comprehension of the RAS is thus far from complete. The RAS represents an ingenious system of "checks and balances". It incorporates vasoconstrictive, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory compounds on one hand and molecules with opposing action on the other hand...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995300/ace-inhibition-ace2-and-angiotensin-1-7-axis-in-kidney-and-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Mauro Martins Teixeira
The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a pivotal physiological regulator of heart and kidney homeostasis, but also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart and kidney diseases. Recently, new components of the RAS have been discovered, including angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7), Mas receptor, Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine. These new components of RAS are formed by the hydrolysis of Ang I and Ang II and, in general, counteract the effects of Ang II. In experimental models of heart and renal diseases, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine produced vasodilation, inhibition of cell growth, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects...
May 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26275770/ace2-and-vasoactive-peptides-novel-players-in-cardiovascular-renal-remodeling-and-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Evelyn Mendoza-Torres, Alejandra Oyarzún, David Mondaca-Ruff, Andrés Azocar, Pablo F Castro, Jorge E Jalil, Mario Chiong, Sergio Lavandero, María Paz Ocaranza
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis...
August 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25954204/role-of-non-classical-renin-angiotensin-system-axis-in-renal-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Lin-Li Lv, Bi-Cheng Liu
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major regulator of renal fibrosis. Besides the classical renin/Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 and AT2 axis, multiple new axes have been recently described. The new members have added new dimensions to RAS, including the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, the prorenin/(pro)renin receptor(PRR)/intracelluar pathway axis, and the Angiotensin A (Ang A), alamandine-Mas-related G protein coupled receptor D(MrgD) axis. This review summarized recent studies regarding role of the non-classical RAS axis in renal fibrosis, and its possible implications to the intervention of progression of chronic kidney disease...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25847571/angiotensins-as-therapeutic-targets-beyond-heart-disease
#8
REVIEW
Danielle Gomes Passos-Silva, Enrique Brandan, Robson Augusto Souza Santos
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular and hydro-electrolyte homeostasis. Blockade of the RAS as a therapeutic strategy for treating hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases is well established. However, actions of the RAS go far beyond the targets initially described. In this regard, the recent identification of novel components of the RAS, including angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], Ang-(1-9), and alamandine, have opened new possibilities for interfering with the development and manifestations of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases...
May 2015: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25568136/an-angiotensin-1-7-peptidase-in-the-kidney-cortex-proximal-tubules-and-human-hk-2-epithelial-cells-that-is-distinct-from-insulin-degrading-enzyme
#9
Bryan A Wilson, Nildris Cruz-Diaz, Allyson C Marshall, Nancy T Pirro, Yixin Su, TanYa M Gwathmey, James C Rose, Mark C Chappell
Angiotensin 1-7 [ANG-(1-7)] is expressed within the kidney and exhibits renoprotective actions that antagonize the inflammatory, fibrotic, and pro-oxidant effects of ANG II. We previously identified an peptidase that preferentially metabolized ANG-(1-7) to ANG-(1-4) in the brain medulla and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sheep (Marshall AC, Pirro NT, Rose JC, Diz DI, Chappell MC. J Neurochem 130: 313-323, 2014); thus the present study established the expression of the peptidase in the kidney. Utilizing a sensitive HPLC-based approach, we demonstrate a peptidase activity that hydrolyzed ANG-(1-7) to ANG-(1-4) in the sheep cortex, isolated tubules, and human HK-2 renal epithelial cells...
March 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25328009/angiotensin-type-2-receptor-at2r-and-receptor-mas-a-complex-liaison
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Villela, Julia Leonhardt, Neal Patel, Jason Joseph, Sebastian Kirsch, Anders Hallberg, Thomas Unger, Michael Bader, Robson A Santos, Colin Sumners, U Muscha Steckelings
The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking similarities. Moreover, in some instances, antagonists for one receptor are able to inhibit the action of agonists for the respective other receptor. These observations suggest that there may be a functional or even physical interaction of both receptors...
February 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244929/mas-and-its-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors-mrgprs
#11
REVIEW
Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro, Robson A Santos
The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs or Mas-related genes) comprise a subfamily of receptors named after the first discovered member, Mas. For most Mrgprs, pruriception seems to be the major function based on the following observations: 1) they are relatively promiscuous in their ligand specificity with best affinities for itch-inducing substances; 2) they are expressed in sensory neurons and mast cells in the skin, the main cellular components of pruriception; and 3) they appear in evolution first in tetrapods, which have arms and legs necessary for scratching to remove parasites or other noxious substances from the skin before they create harm...
October 2014: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25007996/a-century-old-renin-angiotensin-system-still-grows-with-endless-possibilities-at1-receptor-signaling-cascades-in-cardiovascular-physiopathology
#12
REVIEW
Pitchai Balakumar, Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh
Ang II, the primary effector pleiotropic hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade, mediates physiological control of blood pressure and electrolyte balance through its action on vascular tone, aldosterone secretion, renal sodium absorption, water intake, sympathetic activity and vasopressin release. It affects the function of most of the organs far beyond blood pressure control including heart, blood vessels, kidney and brain, thus, causing both beneficial and deleterious effects. However, the protective axis of the RAS composed of ACE2, Ang (1-7), alamandine, and Mas and MargD receptors might oppose some harmful effects of Ang II and might promote beneficial cardiovascular effects...
October 2014: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24953785/reduction-of-angiotensin-a-and-alamandine-vasoactivity-in-the-rabbit-model-of-atherogenesis-differential-effects-of-alamandine-and-ang-1-7
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Belthrand Habiyakare, Hiba Alsaadon, Michael L Mathai, Alan Hayes, Anthony Zulli
Novel treatments are necessary to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alamandine binds to MrgD and is reported to induce vasodilation via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but its role in atherogenic blood vessels is yet to be determined. To determine the vasoactive role of alamandine and its precursor AngA in diseased aorta, New Zealand White rabbits were fed a diet containing 1% methionine + 0.5% cholesterol + 5% peanut oil for 4 weeks (MC, n = 5) or control (n = 6). In abdominal aorta, alamandine (1 μM) was added 30 min before a dose-response curve to angiotensin II or AngA (1 nM-1 μM), and immunohistochemistry was used to identify MrgD receptors and eNOS...
August 2014: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24867890/pharmacology-and-signaling-of-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Hans Jürgen Solinski, Thomas Gudermann, Andreas Breit
Signaling by heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulates many vital body functions. Consequently, dysfunction of GPCR signaling leads to pathologic states, and approximately 30% of all modern clinical drugs target GPCR. One decade ago, an entire new GPCR family was discovered, which was recently named MAS-related G protein-coupled receptors (MRGPR) by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. The MRGPR family consists of ∼40 members that are grouped into nine distinct subfamilies (MRGPRA to -H and -X) and are predominantly expressed in primary sensory neurons and mast cells...
July 2014: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24760442/new-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-alamandine-and-the-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-d
#15
REVIEW
Gisele Maia Etelvino, Antônio Augusto Bastos Peluso, Robson Augusto Souza Santos
The renin-angiotensin system is an important component of the central and humoral mechanisms of blood pressure and hydro-electrolytic balance control. Angiotensin II is a key player of this system. Twenty-five years ago the first manuscripts describing the formation and actions of another peptide of the RAS, angiotensin-(1-7), were published. Since then several publications have shown that angiotensin-(1-7) is as pleiotropic as angiotensin II, influencing the functions of many organs and systems. The identification of the ACE homologue ACE2 and, a few years later, Mas, as a receptor for angiotensin-(1-7) contributed a great deal to establish this peptide as a key player of the RAS...
June 2014: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24389733/alamandine-a-new-member-of-the-angiotensin-family
#16
REVIEW
Daniel C Villela, Danielle G Passos-Silva, Robson A S Santos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review the recent findings regarding a new derivative of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], alamandine, and its receptor, the Mas-related G-coupled receptor type D (MrgD) with a special emphasis on its role and how it can be formed. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last decade, there have been significant conceptual changes regarding the understanding of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). A cardioprotective axis has been elucidated by the discovery of the Mas receptor for the biologically active Ang-(1-7), and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that coverts Ang II into Ang-(1-7)...
March 2014: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23446738/discovery-and-characterization-of-alamandine-a-novel-component-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#17
Roberto Queiroga Lautner, Daniel C Villela, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Neiva Silva, Thiago Verano-Braga, Fabiana Costa-Fraga, Joachim Jankowski, Vera Jankowski, Frederico Sousa, Andreia Alzamora, Everton Soares, Claudiane Barbosa, Frank Kjeldsen, Aline Oliveira, Janaina Braga, Silvia Savergnini, Gisele Maia, Antonio Bastos Peluso, Danielle Passos-Silva, Anderson Ferreira, Fabiana Alves, Almir Martins, Mohan Raizada, Renata Paula, Daisy Motta-Santos, Friederike Klempin, Friederike Kemplin, Adriano Pimenta, Natalia Alenina, Ruben Sinisterra, Michael Bader, Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos, Robson A S Santos
RATIONALE: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system, electrolyte, and water balance. Here, we report identification and characterization of alamandine, a new heptapeptide generated by catalytic action of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 angiotensin A or directly from angiotensin-(1-7). OBJECTIVE: To characterize a novel component of the RAS, alamandine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry we observed that alamandine circulates in human blood and can be formed from angiotensin-(1-7) in the heart...
April 12, 2013: Circulation Research
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