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racial/ethnic discrimination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929330/differential-relationships-between-social-adversity-and-depressive-symptoms-by-hiv-status-and-racial-ethnic-identity
#1
Timothy J Williamson, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Taylor P Kuhn, April D Thames
OBJECTIVE: Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927726/geographic-region-matters-in-the-relation-between-perceived-racial-discrimination-and-psychiatric-disorders-among-black-older-adults
#2
Giyeon Kim, Patricia Parmelee, Ami N Bryant, Martha R Crowther, Soohyun Park, Jason M Parton, David H Chae
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study examined whether the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychiatric disorders varied by large geographic region among Black older adults in the United States. DESIGN AND METHODS: Black adults aged 55 or older who had experienced racial/ethnic-specific discrimination were drawn from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine main and interaction effects. RESULTS: Results show that there was a significant main effect of perceived racial discrimination, indicating that greater perceived discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of having any past-year psychiatric disorder...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916618/perceived-discrimination-associated-with-asthma-and-related-outcomes-in-minority-youth-the-gala-ii-and-sage-ii-studies
#3
Neeta Thakur, Nicolas E Barcelo, Luisa N Borrell, Smriti Singh, Celeste Eng, Adam Davis, Kelley Meade, Michael A LeNoir, Pedro C Avila, Harold J Farber, Denise Serebrisky, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Shannon Thyne, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Saunak Sen, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Esteban Gonzalez Burchard
BACKGROUND: Asthma disproportionately affects minority populations and is associated with psychosocial stress, such as racial/ethnic discrimination. We aim to examine the association of perceived discrimination with having asthma and poor asthma control in African American and Latino youth. METHODS: We included African American (n=954), Mexican American (n=1086), other Latino (n=522), and Puerto Rican Islander (n=1025) youth (aged 8 to 21 years old) from the GALA II and SAGE II studies...
December 1, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905205/severity-of-household-food-insecurity-and-lifetime-racial-discrimination-among-african-american-households-in-south-carolina
#4
Michael P Burke, Sonya J Jones, Edward A Frongillo, Maryah S Fram, Christine E Blake, Darcy A Freedman
OBJECTIVES: In 2014, 30% of African-American households with children had low or very low food security, a rate double that of white households with children. A household has low food security if its members experience food shortages and reductions in food quality attributable to a lack of household resources or access and very low food security if its members also experience reductions in food intake and disrupted eating patterns. Households that are either low or very low food secure are known collectively as food insecure...
December 1, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902132/tackling-racism-in-the-nhs
#5
Erin Dean
Essential facts Trade union Unite has developed a policy briefing on a new toolkit to combat racism in the NHS. It can help nurses and other staff tackle racial discrimination in health, with black and minority ethnic (BME) nurses often treated unequally compared with their white colleagues.
November 30, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898457/ethnicity-cortisol-and-experimental-pain-responses-among-persons-with-symptomatic-knee-osteoarthritis
#6
Matthew S Herbert, Burel R Goodin, Hailey W Bulls, Adriana Sotolongo, Megan E Petrov, Jeffrey C Edberg, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
OBJECTIVES: While several factors are known to contribute to ethnic differences in pain, relatively little attention has been devoted to physiological factors. Our first aim was to examine the relationship between cortisol and pain responses during a cold-pressor task (CPT) among African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our second aim was to assess the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and cortisol among AA participants...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893238/does-anger-regulation-mediate-the-discrimination-mental-health-link-among-mexican-origin-adolescents-a-longitudinal-mediation-analysis-using-multilevel-modeling
#7
Irene J K Park, Lijuan Wang, David R Williams, Margarita Alegría
Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents (Mage = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885963/coping-with-discrimination-among-hiv-positive-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Laura M Bogart, Sannisha K Dale, Jana Christian, Kinjal Patel, Gary K Daffin, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone
In the USA, HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men show large disparities in disease outcomes compared to other racial/ethnic and risk groups. This study examined the strategies that HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men use to cope with different types of discrimination. A total of 27 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim and coded using thematic analysis by multiple raters. Major coping themes included reactive avoidance (using behaviours, cognitions and emotions to escape from discrimination), a common reaction to racism; proactive avoidance (avoiding situations in which discrimination is anticipated), manifested as selective disclosure of HIV-serostatus; external attribution for discrimination (versus self-blame), used more for sexual orientation and HIV discrimination; and social support-seeking, which most often emerged in response to racism...
November 25, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860251/incorporating-antiracism-coursework-into-a-cultural-competency-curriculum
#9
Wendy M Gordon, Safiya A U McCarter, Susan J Myers
Creating a socially conscious educational environment is an imperative if health care practitioners are to have a significant impact on health inequities. The effects of practitioner bias, prejudice, and discrimination on health and health outcomes have been well documented in the literature. Individuals being trained to provide health care will be entering into an increasingly diverse world and must be equipped with the appropriate knowledge and skills in order to meet the needs of those seeking their care...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860214/infusing-diversity-and-equity-into-clinical-teaching-training-the-trainers
#10
Karline Wilson-Mitchell, Manavi Handa
Clinical instructors in health care disciplines are charged with engaging students in experiential learning wherein respect and cultural sensitivity is applied. This article reports on the results of 3 diversity workshops conducted for clinical preceptors and field instructors from various disciplines. The workshops were developed in response to students' growing concerns that their academic learning experiences were negatively affected by dissatisfying management of differences between students, faculty, and preceptors with respect to ethno-racial group membership, socioeconomic level, and degree of privilege and power...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852433/decoupling-of-the-minority-phd-talent-pool-and-assistant-professor-hiring-in-medical-school-basic-science-departments-in-the-us
#11
Kenneth D Gibbs, Jacob Basson, Imam Xierali, David A Broniatowski
Faculty diversity is a longstanding challenge in the US. However, we lack a quantitative and systemic understanding of how the career transitions into assistant professor positions of Ph.D. scientists from underrepresented minority (URM) and well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds compare. Between 1980 and 2013, the number of PhD graduates from URM backgrounds increased by a factor of 9.3, compared with a 2.6-fold increase in the number of PhD graduates from WR groups. However, the number of scientists from URM backgrounds hired as assistant professors in medical school basic science departments was not related to the number of potential candidates (R2=0...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852109/a-review-of-recent-literature-on-materialist-and-psychosocial-models-for-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-birth-outcomes-in-the-us-2000-2014
#12
Miriam Mutambudzi, John D Meyer, Susan Reisine, Nicholas Warren
OBJECTIVE: Material and psychosocial factors exacerbate racial disparities in health outcomes. This review sought to ascertain recent knowledge of the effects of materialist and psychosocial factors on differences in low birthweight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PTD) outcomes between Black and White mothers. DESIGN: Search and review was conducted for studies that examined: (a) neighborhood-level deprivation as an indicator of material conditions, and (b) racial discrimination or occupational stressors as indicators of psychosocial stress...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852107/a-multi-group-path-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-perceived-racial-discrimination-and-self-rated-stress-how-does-it-vary-across-racial-ethnic-groups
#13
Tse-Chuan Yang, Danhong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? DESIGN: Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346)...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846733/ethnicity-work-related-stress-and-subjective-reports-of-health-by-migrant-workers-a-multi-dimensional-model
#14
Roberto Capasso, Maria Clelia Zurlo, Andrew P Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806018/perceived-discrimination-racial-identity-and-multisystem-stress-response-to-social-evaluative-threat-among-african-american-men-and-women
#15
Todd Lucas, Rhiana Wegner, Jennifer Pierce, Mark A Lumley, Heidemarie K Laurent, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVES: Understanding individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response is critical to grasping how psychosocial factors contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. However, the ways in which environmentally sensitive biological systems coordinate in response to acute stress is not well understood. We used a social-evaluative stress task to investigate coordination among the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune/inflammatory system in a community sample of 85 healthy African American men and women...
November 1, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773977/dimensions-of-racial-identity-and-perceived-discrimination-in-health-care
#16
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768979/cortisol-profiles-differ-by-race-ethnicity-among-young-sexual-minority-men
#17
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763427/historical-factors-discrimination-and-oral-health-among-aboriginal-australians
#18
Margie Steffens, Lisa Jamieson, Kostas Kapellas
Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737504/racial-discrimination-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-an-integrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Jeanne L Alhusen, Kelly M Bower, Elizabeth Epstein, Phyllis Sharps
INTRODUCTION: This article presents an integrative review of the literature examining the relationship between racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Searches for research studies published from 2009 to 2015 were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Embase. Articles were assessed for potential inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met criteria for review...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736098/culture-and-biology-interplay-an-introduction
#20
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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