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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230275/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-attitudes-in-african-american-youth
#1
Chun Bun Lam, Christine Stanik, Susan M McHale
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199464/identification-of-patients-with-stable-chest-pain-deriving-minimal-value-from-noninvasive-testing-the-promise-minimal-risk-tool-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Christopher B Fordyce, Pamela S Douglas, Rhonda S Roberts, Udo Hoffmann, Hussein R Al-Khalidi, Manesh R Patel, Christopher B Granger, John Kostis, Daniel B Mark, Kerry L Lee, James E Udelson
Importance: Guidelines recommend noninvasive testing for patients with stable chest pain, although many subsequently have normal test results and no adverse clinical events. Objective: To describe a risk tool developed to use only pretest clinical data to identify patients with chest pain with normal coronary arteries and no clinical events during follow-up (minimal-risk cohort). Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a randomized, pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain [PROMISE]) includes stable, symptomatic outpatients without known coronary artery disease referred for noninvasive testing at 193 sites in North America...
February 15, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165767/what-is-the-key-to-culturally-competent-care-reducing-bias-or-cultural-tailoring
#3
Adolfo G Cuevas, Kerth O'Brien, Somnath Saha
OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding as to whether disparities in patient-provider relationships arise from ethnic minority patients being treated differently than European American patients while they would prefer to be treated the same, or whether disparities arise when ethnic minority patients are treated the same as European American patients while they would prefer to be treated differently. METHOD: African-American, Latina/Latino and European American community members were recruited to participate in one of 27 focus group discussions...
February 6, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165263/-does-anger-regulation-mediate-the-discrimination-mental-health-link-among-mexican-origin-adolescents-a-longitudinal-mediation-analysis-using-multilevel-modeling-correction-to-park-et-al-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling" by Irene J. K. Park, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams and Margarita Alegría (Developmental Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 28, 2016, np). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%...
February 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165257/the-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-decent-work-scale
#5
Ryan D Duffy, Blake A Allan, Jessica W England, David L Blustein, Kelsey L Autin, Richard P Douglass, Joaquim Ferreira, Eduardo J R Santos
Decent work is positioned as the centerpiece of the recently developed Psychology of Working Theory (PWT; Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin, 2016). However, to date, no instrument exists which assesses all 5 components of decent work from a psychological perspective. In the current study, we developed the Decent Work Scale (DWS) and demonstrated several aspects of validity with 2 samples of working adults. In Study 1 (N = 275), a large pool of items were developed and exploratory factor analysis was conducted resulting in a final 15-item scale with 5 factors/subscales corresponding to the 5 components of decent work: (a) physically and interpersonally safe working conditions, (b) access to health care, (c) adequate compensation, (d) hours that allow for free time and rest, and (e) organizational values that complement family and social values...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159001/effects-over-time-of-self-reported-direct-and-vicarious-racial-discrimination-on-depressive-symptoms-and-loneliness-among-australian-school-students
#6
Naomi Priest, Ryan Perry, Angeline Ferdinand, Margaret Kelaher, Yin Paradies
BACKGROUND: Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students...
February 3, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139727/cortisol-awakening-response-and-acute-stress-reactivity-in-first-nations-people
#7
Maximus Berger, Anthony Leicht, Angela Slatcher, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Sarangan Ketheesan, Sarah Larkins, Zoltán Sarnyai
First Nations people globally have a higher incidence of mental disorders and non-communicable diseases. These health inequalities are partially attributed to a complex network of social and environmental factors which likely converge on chronic psychosocial stress. We hypothesized that alterations in stress processing and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might underlie health disparities in First Nations people. We assessed the cortisol awakening response and the dynamic response to a laboratory induced psychosocial stress of young Indigenous tertiary students (n = 11, mean age 23...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#8
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087793/race-ethnicity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-lgbt-older-adults
#9
Hyun-Jun Kim, Sarah Jen, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068132/east-asian-adolescents-ethnic-identity-development-and-cultural-integration-a-qualitative-investigation
#10
Eunju Yoon, Kristen Adams, Angela Clawson, Hanna Chang, Shruti Surya, Gihane Jérémie-Brink
Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045306/examining-the-association-between-perceived-discrimination-and-heart-rate-variability-in-african-americans
#11
LaBarron K Hill, Lori S Hoggard, Ashley S Richmond, DeLeon L Gray, Dewayne P Williams, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Previous research attempting to delineate the role of discrimination in racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension has focused largely on blood pressure, which is chiefly governed by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Consequently, few studies have considered the role of the parasympathetic branch and particularly its regulation of the heart via the vagus nerve. METHOD: In the present cross-sectional study, we employed hierarchical linear regressions to examine associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and resting heart rate variability (HRV), an important biomarker of parasympathetic cardiac modulation and overall health, in a sample (N = 103) of young, healthy African American participants (58% female, Mage = 19...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025736/drug-use-discrimination-predicts-formation-of-high-risk-social-networks-examining-social-pathways-of-discrimination
#12
Natalie D Crawford, Chandra Ford, Abby Rudolph, BoRin Kim, Crystal M Lewis
Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs...
December 26, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019654/drinking-alcohol-use-disorder-and-treatment-access-and-utilization-among-u-s-racial-ethnic-groups
#13
Patrice A C Vaeth, Meme Wang-Schweig, Raul Caetano
Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access, and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asian Americans are less affected...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988896/jim-crow-and-estrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-us-born-black-and-white-non-hispanic-women-1992-2012
#14
Nancy Krieger, Jaquelyn L Jahn, Pamela D Waterman
PURPOSE: It is unknown whether Jim Crow-i.e., legal racial discrimination practiced by 21 US states and the District of Columbia and outlawed by the US Civil Rights Act in 1964-affects US cancer outcomes. We hypothesized that Jim Crow birthplace would be associated with higher risk of estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) breast tumors among US black, but not white, women and also a higher black versus white risk for ER- tumors. METHODS: We analyzed data from the SEER 13 registry group (excluding Alaska) for 47,157 US-born black non-Hispanic and 348,514 US-born white non-Hispanic women, aged 25-84 inclusive, diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 2012...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977503/chronic-stress-and-c-reactive-protein-in-mothers-during-the-first-postpartum-year
#15
Christine M Guardino, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Calvin J Hobel, Robin Gaines Lanzi, Peter Schafer, John M Thorp, Madeleine U Shalowitz
OBJECTIVES: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The current study tested associations between psychosocial stress and CRP in a large sample of women during the first postpartum year. METHODS: We analyzed data collected by the five-site Community Child Health Network study, which studied a predominately poor population. Participants (n = 1206 women; 54% African American, 23% white, 23% Hispanic/Latina) were recruited shortly after the birth of a child...
December 13, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938389/hot-topics-urgent-priorities-and-ensuring-success-for-racial-ethnic-minority-young-investigators-in-academic-pediatrics
#16
REVIEW
Glenn Flores, Fernando S Mendoza, Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Jason A Mendoza, Lee Pachter, Juan Espinoza, Cristina R Fernandez, Danielle D P Arnold, Nicole M Brown, Kymberly M Gonzalez, Cynthia Lopez, Mikah C Owen, Kenya M Parks, Kimberly L Reynolds, Christopher J Russell
BACKGROUND: The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929330/differential-relationships-between-social-adversity-and-depressive-symptoms-by-hiv-status-and-racial-ethnic-identity
#17
Timothy J Williamson, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Taylor P Kuhn, April D Thames
OBJECTIVE: Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i...
February 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927726/geographic-region-matters-in-the-relation-between-perceived-racial-discrimination-and-psychiatric-disorders-among-black-older-adults
#18
Giyeon Kim, Patricia Parmelee, Ami N Bryant, Martha R Crowther, Soohyun Park, Jason M Parton, David H Chae
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study examined whether the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychiatric disorders varied by large geographic region among Black older adults in the United States. DESIGN AND METHODS: Black adults aged 55 or older who had experienced racial/ethnic-specific discrimination were drawn from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine main and interaction effects. RESULTS: Results show that there was a significant main effect of perceived racial discrimination, indicating that greater perceived discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of having any past-year psychiatric disorder...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916618/perceived-discrimination-associated-with-asthma-and-related-outcomes-in-minority-youth-the-gala-ii-and-sage-ii-studies
#19
Neeta Thakur, Nicolas E Barcelo, Luisa N Borrell, Smriti Singh, Celeste Eng, Adam Davis, Kelley Meade, Michael A LeNoir, Pedro C Avila, Harold J Farber, Denise Serebrisky, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Shannon Thyne, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Saunak Sen, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Esteban Gonzalez Burchard
BACKGROUND: Asthma disproportionately affects minority populations and is associated with psychosocial stress, such as racial/ethnic discrimination. We aim to examine the association of perceived discrimination with having asthma and poor asthma control in African American and Latino youth. METHODS: We included African American (n=954), Mexican American (n=1086), other Latino (n=522), and Puerto Rican Islander (n=1025) youth (aged 8 to 21 years old) from the GALA II and SAGE II studies...
December 1, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905205/severity-of-household-food-insecurity-and-lifetime-racial-discrimination-among-african-american-households-in-south-carolina
#20
Michael P Burke, Sonya J Jones, Edward A Frongillo, Maryah S Fram, Christine E Blake, Darcy A Freedman
OBJECTIVES: In 2014, 30% of African-American households with children had low or very low food security, a rate double that of white households with children. A household has low food security if its members experience food shortages and reductions in food quality attributable to a lack of household resources or access and very low food security if its members also experience reductions in food intake and disrupted eating patterns. Households that are either low or very low food secure are known collectively as food insecure...
December 1, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
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