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racial/ethnic discrimination

Jeanne L Alhusen, Kelly M Bower, Elizabeth Epstein, Phyllis Sharps
INTRODUCTION: This article presents an integrative review of the literature examining the relationship between racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Searches for research studies published from 2009 to 2015 were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Embase. Articles were assessed for potential inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met criteria for review...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Bethany G Everett, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Tonda L Hughes
RATIONALE: A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Edward D Vargas, Nadia C Winston, John A Garcia, Gabriel R Sanchez
Discrimination based on one's racial or ethnic background is one of the oldest and most perverse practices in the United States. While much of this research has relied on self-reported racial categories, a growing body of research is attempting to measure race through socially-assigned race. Socially-assigned or ascribed race measures how individuals feel they are classified by other people. This paper draws on the socially assigned race literature and explores the impact of socially assigned race on experiences with discrimination using a 2011 nationally representative sample of Latina/os (n=1,200)...
October 2016: Sociology of Race and Ethnicity (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Christina J Sun, Alice Ma, Amanda E Tanner, Lilli Mann, Beth A Reboussin, Manuel Garcia, Jorge Alonzo, Scott D Rhodes
Background. Little is known about the role of discrimination on depression among Latino sexual and gender identity minorities. This manuscript examined the relationship between ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual discrimination on clinically significant depressive symptoms among Latino sexual minority men (i.e., gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men) and Latina transgender women. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited participants (N = 186; 80.6% cisgender men) in North Carolina to a social network-based HIV intervention...
2016: Depression Research and Treatment
Lori S Hoggard, LaBarron K Hill
BACKGROUND: African Americans experience more problematic and disordered sleep than White Americans. Racial discrimination has been implicated in this disparity. However, the mechanisms by which discrimination disrupts sleep are unclear. It has been theorized that Perseverative Cognition (PC), characterized by recurrent patterns of reflective (i.e., rumination) and anticipatory (i.e., worry) negative thinking about personally relevant stressors, may reflect the functional mechanism linking discrimination to sleep...
October 3, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Sandra Graham
This commentary makes a case for the role of school racial/ethnic diversity in a new developmental science of equity and justice with a focus on intergroup attitudes, discrimination, and social exclusion. Creative ways to conceptualize and measure ethnic diversity as a multifaceted, dynamic, and fluid construct that changes across time and space are discussed. The commentary concludes with policy implications of this approach for improving the lives of children growing up in an increasingly multiracial/multiethnic society...
September 2016: Child Development
Laia Bécares, Polly Atatoa-Carr
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies document the association between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and adverse children's outcomes, but our understanding of how experiences of racial discrimination are associated with pre- and post-natal maternal mental health, is limited. In addition, existent literature rarely takes into consideration racial discrimination experienced by the partner. METHODS: We analysed data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study to examine the burden of lifetime and past year experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal and postnatal mental health among Māori, Pacific, and Asian women in New Zealand (NZ), and to study the individual and joint contribution of mother's and partner's experiences of lifetime and past year racial discrimination to women's prenatal and postnatal mental health...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Elizabeth Brondolo, Reanne Rahim, Stephanie Grimaldi, Amina Ashraf, Nini Bui, Joseph Schwartz
Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U...
November 2015: International Journal of Intercultural Relations: IJIR
(no author information available yet)
Nurses should be alert to the possibility of UK nurses from ethnic minority groups being denied equal employment opportunities in Europe after 1992, according to Keith Murray from the Portsmouth Branch.
May 29, 1991: Nursing Standard
Jaclyn M White Hughto, Gabriel R Murchison, Kirsty Clark, John E Pachankis, Sari L Reisner
PURPOSE: To identify geographic and individual-level factors associated with healthcare access among transgender people in the United States. METHODS: Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate lifetime healthcare refusal using national data from 5831 U.S. transgender adults. Hierarchical generalized linear models examined associations between individual (age, gender, race, income, insurance, and healthcare avoidance) and state-level factors (percent voting Republican, percent same-sex couple households, income inequality, and transgender protective laws) and lifetime refusal of care...
September 16, 2016: LGBT Health
Cha-Nam Shin, Erica Soltero, Scherezade K Mama, Christopher Sunseri, Rebecca E Lee
Psychological stressors can contribute to adverse health outcomes and lead to health disparities. To examine associations among psychological stressors, coping, blood pressure, body mass index, and body fat in ethnic minority women, we conducted a secondary analysis using data from 178 African American and Hispanic/Latina women who completed measures of perceived racial discrimination and stress, coping, blood pressure, and body composition. The mean age of participants was 45.3 (±9.3 years), and most were obese (74...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Nursing Research
Stacy C Parenteau, Kristen Waters, Brittany Cox, Tarsha Patterson, Richard Carr
BACKGROUND: An outgrowth of research has established a relationship between racial discrimination and alcohol use, as well as factors that moderate this association. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to determine if religious orientation moderates the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and alcohol use. METHODS: This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy to examine the relationship among discrimination, religious orientation, and alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 349) at a midsize southeastern university...
September 12, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Joseph G L Lee, Hope Landrine, Essie Torres, Kyle R Gregory
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco retailers are an important source of tobacco products for minors. Previous research shows racial discrimination in sales to minors, but no national study has examined neighbourhood correlates of retailer under-age sales. METHODS: We accessed publicly available results of 2015 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspections of tobacco retailers (n=108 614). In this cross-sectional study, we used multilevel logistic regression to predict the likelihood of retailer sale to a minor based on tract characteristics...
September 8, 2016: Tobacco Control
Linda P Juang, Ursula Moffitt, Su Yeong Kim, Richard M Lee, José Angel Soto, Eric Hurley, Robert S Weisskirch, Shelley A Blozis, Linda G Castillo, Que-Lam Huynh, Susan Krauss Whitborne
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether two key emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, moderated the relations between discrimination (i.e., foreigner objectification and general denigration) and adjustment. METHODS: Participants were U.S. Latino/a and Asian-heritage college students (N = 1,279, 67% female, 72% U.S. born) from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC). Students completed online self-report surveys in 2009...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
Dorainne J Levy, Jennifer A Heissel, Jennifer A Richeson, Emma K Adam
We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Christina S Lee, Suzanne M Colby, Molly Magill, Joanna Almeida, Tonya Tavares, Damaris J Rohsenow
BACKGROUND: The NIH Strategic Plan prioritizes health disparities research for socially disadvantaged Hispanics, to reduce the disproportionate burden of alcohol-related negative consequences compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments, such as motivational interviewing (MI), can improve access and response to alcohol treatment. However, the lack of rigorous clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and theoretical underpinnings of cultural adaptation has made proof of concept difficult...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Aprile D Benner, Yijie Wang
There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other race/ethnicity), the present study examined the moderating role of cross-ethnic friendships and close friends' experiences of discrimination in the link between adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and well-being...
August 25, 2016: Child Development
Naomi Priest, Tania King, Laia Bécares, Anne M Kavanagh
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization and racial discrimination by ethnicity. METHODS: We completed a cross-sectional analysis of 3956 children aged 12 to 13 years from wave 5 (2011-2012) of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. RESULTS: Bullying victimization and racial discrimination were weakly associated and differently patterned by ethnicity. Children from visible minorities reported less bullying victimization but more racial discrimination than did their peers with Australian-born parents...
October 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Lauren J Parker, Haslyn Hunte, Anita Ohmit, Roland J Thorpe
Black men are less likely to seek routine health care examinations or preventative care compared with their racial/ethnic and gender counterparts. Because of Black men's limited engagement with the health system, Black men's preference to receive health information is unclear. Guided by a revised version of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization Model, the aim of the study is to examine factors associated with Black men's preference for informal or formal health information. Findings from the study demonstrate that financial barriers to care (odds ratio [OR] = 0...
August 22, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
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