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racial/ethnic discrimination

Yu Kong, Esther R Berko, Anthony Marckette, Shahina B Maqbool, Claudia A Simões-Pires, David F Kronn, Qian K Ye, Masako Suzuki, Adam Auton, John Greally
Current approaches to detect and characterize mosaic chromosomal aneuploidy are limited by sensitivity, efficiency, cost or the need to culture cells. We describe the mosaic aneuploidy detection by massively-parallel sequencing (MAD-seq) capture assay and the MADSEQ analytical approach that allow low (<10%) levels of mosaicism for chromosomal aneuploidy or regional loss of heterozygosity to be detected, assigned to a meiotic or mitotic origin, and quantified as a proportion of the cells in the sample. We show results from a multi-ethnic MAD-seq (meMAD-seq) capture design that works equally well in populations of diverse racial and ethnic origins, and how the MADSEQ analytical approach can be applied to exome or whole genome sequencing data, revealing previously unrecognized aneuploidy or copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity in samples studied by the 1000 Genomes project, cell lines from public repositories, and one of the Illumina Platinum Genomes samples...
May 17, 2018: Genome Research
L P Johnson, F M Asigbee, R Crowell, A Negrini
Using a novel qualitative approach, Photovoice, researchers assessed social, psychological, physical and economic barriers encountered by patients of weight loss surgery. Applying the Photovoice approach and Williams' theory of narrative reconstruction for qualitative interviewing, the research team set out to investigate the bariatric patient experience from pre-surgery to hospitalization to post-surgery. Fifteen participants were given digital cameras and asked to take photographs that represented their weight loss journeys...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
Abdellaziz Djellal
Many nursing homes look after residents from the majority population and employ staff from minority ethnic groups. This situation in these homes can generate a certain number of tensions resulting from racial discrimination. Employees share their experience.
May 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
Faizan Kabani, Kristine Lykens, Hyo Jung Tak
OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have destructive impacts on quality of life, health outcomes, and health-care expenditures. Studies further demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the number of ACEs and risk for experiencing chronic illness, such as oral diseases later in life. Research is scarce on the prioritization of contextualized public health interventions addressing this important threat. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provided a nationally representative sample of children in the United States, ages 1-17 for dentate status (n = 61,530)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Lisa P Oakley, S Marie Harvey, Daniel F López-Cevallos
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic discrimination and medical mistrust contribute to disparities in use of and satisfaction with health care services. Previous work examining the influence of discrimination and medical mistrust on health care experiences has focused primarily on African Americans. Despite the finding that Latinas report lower rates of contraceptive use than White women, little is known about the influence of these factors on health care satisfaction, specifically satisfaction with contraceptive services, among Latina women...
May 2, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Michelle Marie Johns, Oscar Beltran, Heather L Armstrong, Paula E Jayne, Lisa C Barrios
Transgender and gender variant (GV) youth experience elevated risk for poor health and academic outcomes due mainly to social experiences of stigma and discrimination. To supplement the growing evidence on health risks encountered by transgender/GV youth, we identified factors theorized to be protective for these youth across all four levels of Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model (individual, relationship, community, societal). We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed research. The articles included in this review were published in peer-reviewed journals in English or Spanish between 1999 and 2014, analyzed data from a sample or subsample of transgender or GV participants with a mean age between 10 and 24 years, and examined the relationship of at least one theorized protective factor to a health or behavioral outcome...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Carmen H Logie, Ying Wang, Natania Marcus, Angela Kaida, Nadia O'Brien, Val Nicholson, Kath Webster, Tracey Conway, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy
People living with HIV are disproportionately affected by food and housing insecurity. We assessed factors associated with experiencing food and/or housing insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Canada. In our sample of WLHIV (N = 1403) 65% reported an income less than $20,000 per year. Most (78.69%) participants reported food and/or housing insecurity: 27.16% reported experiencing food insecurity alone, 14.26% reported housing insecurity alone, and 37.28% reported experiencing food and housing insecurity concurrently...
April 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Safaa I Tayel, Eman A M Fouda, Suzy F Gohar, Elsayed I Elshayeb, Eman H El-Sayed, Salah M El-Kousy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide that affects men and women of all racial and ethnic groups. Recent evidence supports the role of microRNAs in CRC. We planned to investigate microRNA200c expression and its relation with diagnosis, prognosis, metastasis and overall survival in CRC patients. This study enrolled 90 subjects (3'0 CRC patients, 30 patients with benign colorectal polyps and 30 healthy control subjects). METHODS: Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum CA19-9 and CEA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and relative quantitation (RQ) of microRNA200c gene expression by real time PCR technique...
April 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Andre' Oliver, Ghilamichael Andemeskel, Carlise R King, Lyndsey Wallace, Serie McDougal, Kenneth P Monteiro, Avi Ben-Zeev
We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al...
December 2017: Race and Social Problems
Devon K Check, Neetu Chawla, Marilyn L Kwan, Laura Pinheiro, Janise M Roh, Isaac J Ergas, Anita L Stewart, Tatjana Kolevska, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi
PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic differences in cancer symptom burden are well documented, but limited research has evaluated modifiable factors underlying these differences. Our objective was to examine the role of patient-provider interactions to help explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cancer-specific physical well-being (PWB) among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of 4505 women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013...
April 5, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spirometers are used globally to diagnose respiratory diseases, and most commercially available spirometers "correct" for race. "Race correction" is built into the software of spirometers. To evaluate pulmonary function and to make recordings, the operator must enter the subject's race. In fact, the Joint Working Party of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommends the use of race- and ethnic-specific reference values. In the United States, spirometers apply correction factors of 10-15% for individuals labeled "Black" and 4-6% for people labeled "Asian...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Angel S Byrd, Alexander T Toth, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates in the USA have reached pandemic levels with one third of the population with obesity in 2015-2016 (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth). It is a major public health concern, and it is prudent to understand the factors which contribute. Racial and ethnic disparities are pronounced in both the prevalence and treatment of obesity and must be addressed in the efforts to combat obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Disparities in prevalence of obesity in racial/ethnic minorities are apparent as early as the preschool years and factors including genetics, diet, physical activity, psychological factors, stress, income, and discrimination, among others, must be taken into consideration...
April 3, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Elana R McDermott, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor, Stefanie Martinez-Fuentes
As the U.S. Latino youth population grows, understanding how family and individual resources may promote Latino adolescents' academic outcomes is important. The current investigation examined whether family ethnic socialization predicted adolescents' use of proactive strategies for coping with ethnic-racial discrimination and examined a potential pathway through which these contextual and individual resources may relate to educational outcomes. Drawing on data from a sample of Latino adolescents (n = 321; Mage = 15...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Courtney Stevens, Cindy H Liu, Justin A Chen
OBJECTIVE AND PARTICIPANTS: Using data from 69,722 US undergraduates participating in the spring 2015 National College Health Assessment, we examine racial/ethnic differences in students' experience of discrimination. METHOD: Logistic regression predicted the experience of discrimination and its reported negative effect on academics. Additional models examined the effect of attending a Minority Serving Institution (MSI). RESULTS: Discrimination was experienced by 5-15% of students, with all racial/ethnic minority groups examined- including Black, Hispanic, Asian, AI/NA/NA, and Multiracial students- more likely to report discrimination relative to White students...
March 22, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Soyoung Kwon, Daehoon Han
Experiences of discrimination and mental disorder have been recognized as risks for suicidality. Yet, few studies have examined the direct and indirect effects of discrimination on suicidal ideation through mental disorder among Latino adults in the U.S. This study aimed to examine whether everyday discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation and if mental disorder (i.e., DSM-IV depressive, anxiety, and substance use) mediates the association. Discrimination was operationalized with self-reported discriminatory experience...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Young Hwa Kim, Karen M O'Brien
The purpose of the study was to examine the factor structure, measurement invariance, and psychometric properties of a commonly used measure of perceived career barriers (The Perception of Barriers Scale; Luzzo & McWhirter, 2001) with racially diverse college women. The results supported a 9-factor structure for the Perception of Barriers Scale; configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the 9-factors were found with Asian, African American, Latina, and White college women. All groups of women of color reported higher career barriers due to racism and higher educational barriers due to racial discrimination than White women...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Sarah Soo-Hoo, Samantha Nemeth, Onur Baser, Michael Argenziano, Paul Kurlansky
Objective: To explore the impact of racial and ethnic diversity on the performance of cardiac surgical risk models, the Chinese SinoSCORE was compared with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk model in a diverse American population. Methods: The SinoSCORE risk model was applied to 13 969 consecutive coronary artery bypass surgery patients from twelve American institutions. SinoSCORE risk factors were entered into a logistic regression to create a 'derived' SinoSCORE whose performance was compared with that of the STS risk model...
2018: Heart Asia
Daniel J Perry, Clive H Wasserfall, Richard A Oram, MacKenzie D Williams, Amanda Posgai, Andrew B Muir, Michael J Haller, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Wallet, Clayton E Mathews, Mark A Atkinson, Todd M Brusko
Prior studies identified HLA class-II and 57 additional loci as contributors to genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that race and/or ethnicity would be contextually important for evaluating genetic risk markers previously identified from Caucasian/European cohorts. We determined the capacity for a combined genetic risk score (GRS) to discriminate disease-risk subgroups in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from the southeastern U.S. including 637 T1D patients, 46 at-risk relatives having two or more T1D-related autoantibodies (≥2AAb+ ), 790 first-degree relatives (≤1AAb+ ), 68 second-degree relatives (≤1 AAb+ ), and 405 controls...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Angie Denisse Otiniano Verissimo, Typhanye Penniman Dyer, Samuel R Friedman, Gilbert C Gee
OBJECTIVES: Discrimination, such as being treated unfairly due to race, contributes to stress. Individuals may cope with this by engaging in risky behaviors. Consistent with this premise, prior studies found that discrimination is associated with substance use. Research has also shown that sex while 'high' on alcohol and drugs is associated with increased risk for HIV and other STIs. The present study examines the relationship between discrimination and sexual risk. We investigate whether discrimination is associated with sex while high on alcohol and drugs...
March 2, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Brittany N Morey
Anti-immigrant rhetoric and political actions gained prominence and public support before, during, and after the 2016 presidential election. This anti-immigrant political environment threatens to increase health disparities among undocumented persons, immigrant groups, and people of color. I discuss the mechanisms by which anti-immigrant stigma exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities through increasing multilevel discrimination and stress, deportation and detention, and policies that limit health resources...
April 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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