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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#1
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213042/gene-duplication-conservation-and-divergence-of-heme-oxygenase-2-genes-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-their-responses-to-hypoxia
#2
Xue-Li Zhang, Yi-Wen Sun, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Heme oxygenase (HO) that catalyzes the degradation of heme, is involved in responding and using oxygen in teleost fish. Physiologic heme degradation can be catalyzed by two isozymes of HO (HO-1 and HO-2). In fish, the molecular constructions, expression characteristics and hypoxic regulation of HO-2 are still not well known. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of duplicated HO-2 genes in blunt snout bream, a hypoxia sensitive fish species. Blunt snout bream HO-2a and -2b genes shared a relatively low sequence identity of 67%...
February 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211111/regulation-of-nrf-operon-expression-in-pathogenic-enteric-bacteria-sequence-divergence-reveals-new-regulatory-complexity
#3
Rita E Godfrey, David J Lee, Stephen J W Busby, Douglas F Browning
The Escherichia coli K-12 nrf operon encodes a periplasmic nitrite reductase, the expression of which is driven from a single promoter, pnrf. Expression from pnrf is activated by the FNR transcription factor in response to anaerobiosis and further increased in response to nitrite by the response regulator proteins, NarL and NarP. FNR-dependent transcription is suppressed by the binding of two nucleoid associated proteins, IHF and Fis. As Fis levels increase in cells grown in rich medium, the positioning of its binding site, overlapping the promoter -10 element, ensures that pnrf is sharply repressed...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209164/rnf40-regulates-gene-expression-in-an-epigenetic-context-dependent-manner
#4
Wanhua Xie, Sankari Nagarajan, Simon J Baumgart, Robyn Laura Kosinsky, Zeynab Najafova, Vijayalakshmi Kari, Magali Hennion, Daniela Indenbirken, Stefan Bonn, Adam Grundhoff, Florian Wegwitz, Ahmed Mansouri, Steven A Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Monoubiquitination of H2B (H2Bub1) is a largely enigmatic histone modification that has been linked to transcriptional elongation. Because of this association, it has been commonly assumed that H2Bub1 is an exclusively positively acting histone modification and that increased H2Bub1 occupancy correlates with increased gene expression. In contrast, depletion of the H2B ubiquitin ligases RNF20 or RNF40 alters the expression of only a subset of genes. RESULTS: Using conditional Rnf40 knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, we show that genes occupied by low to moderate amounts of H2Bub1 are selectively regulated in response to Rnf40 deletion, whereas genes marked by high levels of H2Bub1 are mostly unaffected by Rnf40 loss...
February 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203231/error-prone-dnae2-balances-the-genome-mutation-rates-in-myxococcus-xanthus-dk1622
#5
Ran Peng, Jiang-He Chen, Wan-Wan Feng, Zheng Zhang, Jun Yin, Ze-Shuo Li, Yue-Zhong Li
dnaE is an alpha subunit of the tripartite protein complex of DNA polymerase III that is responsible for the replication of bacterial genome. The dnaE gene is often duplicated in many bacteria, and the duplicated dnaE gene was reported dispensable for cell survivals and error-prone in DNA replication in a mystery. In this study, we found that all sequenced myxobacterial genomes possessed two dnaE genes. The duplicate dnaE genes were both highly conserved but evolved divergently, suggesting their importance in myxobacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#6
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202756/a-glycosylation-benchmark-profile-for-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-production-based-on-eleven-env-trimers
#7
Eden P Go, Haitao Ding, Shijian Zhang, Rajesh P Ringe, Nathan Nicely, David Hua, Robert T Steinbock, Michael Golabek, James Alin, S Munir Alam, Albert Cupo, Barton F Haynes, John C Kappes, John P Moore, Joseph G Sodroski, Heather Desaire
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) glycosylation is important because individual glycans are components of multiple broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes, while shielding other sites that might otherwise be immunogenic. The glycosylation on Env is influenced by a variety of factors, including the genotype of the protein, the cell line used for its expression, and the details of the construct design. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to map the complete glycosylation profile at every site in multiple HIV-1 Env trimers, accomplishing two goals: 1) We determined which glycosylation sites contain conserved glycan profiles across many trimeric Envs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202598/early-flowering-3-redundancy-fine-tunes-photoperiod-sensitivity
#8
Andrew J S Rubenach, Valerie Fg Hecht, Jacqueline K Vander Schoor, Lim Chee Liew, Gregoire Aubert, Judith Burstin, James L Weller
Three pea loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE) and STERILE NODES (SN) have recently been shown to correspond to orthologs of Arabidopsis circadian clock genes EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), ELF4, and LUX ARRHYTHMO, respectively. A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. However, the molecular identity of PPD has so far remained elusive...
February 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197171/genome-wide-microrna-binding-site-variation-between-extinct-wild-aurochs-and-modern-cattle-identifies-candidate-microrna-regulated-domestication-genes
#9
Martin Braud, David A Magee, Stephen D E Park, Tad S Sonstegard, Sinead M Waters, David E MacHugh, Charles Spillane
The domestication of cattle from the now-extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) involved selection for physiological and behavioral traits, with underlying genetic factors that remain largely unknown. Non-coding microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of the spatio-temporal expression of target genes controlling mammalian growth and development, including in livestock species. During the domestication process, selection of mutational changes in miRNAs and/or miRNA binding sites could have provided a mechanism to generate some of the traits that differentiate domesticated cattle from wild aurochs...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196070/differential-paralog-divergence-modulates-genome-evolution-across-yeast-species
#10
Monica R Sanchez, Aaron W Miller, Ivan Liachko, Anna B Sunshine, Bryony Lynch, Mei Huang, Erica Alcantara, Christopher G DeSevo, Dave A Pai, Cheryl M Tucker, Margaret L Hoang, Maitreya J Dunham
Evolutionary outcomes depend not only on the selective forces acting upon a species, but also on the genetic background. However, large timescales and uncertain historical selection pressures can make it difficult to discern such important background differences between species. Experimental evolution is one tool to compare evolutionary potential of known genotypes in a controlled environment. Here we utilized a highly reproducible evolutionary adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate whether experimental evolution of other yeast species would select for similar adaptive mutations...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195647/molecular-classification-of-urothelial-carcinoma-global-mrna-classification-versus-tumour-cell-phenotype-classification
#11
Gottfrid Sjödahl, Pontus Eriksson, Fredrik Liedberg, Mattias Höglund
Global mRNA expression analysis is efficient for phenotypic profiling of tumours and has been used to define molecular subtypes for almost every major tumour type. A key limitation is that most tumours are communities of both tumour and non-tumour cells. This problem is particularly pertinent when analysing advanced invasive tumours, known to induce major changes and responses in both the tumour and the surrounding tissue. To identify bladder cancer tumour-cell phenotypes and compare classification by tumour-cell phenotype with classification by global gene expression analysis, we analysed 307 advanced bladder cancers (cystectomised) both by genome gene expression analysis and by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for 28 proteins...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195222/rna-seq-based-detection-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-duroc-pigs-with-distinct-lipid-profiles
#12
T F Cardoso, A Cánovas, O Canela-Xandri, R González-Prendes, M Amills, R Quintanilla
We have used a RNA-seq approach to investigate differential expression in the skeletal muscle of swine (N = 52) with divergent lipid profiles i.e. HIGH (increased intramuscular fat and muscle saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents, higher serum lipid concentrations and fatness) and LOW pigs (leaner and with an increased muscle polyunsaturated fatty acid content). The number of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed in the porcine gluteus medius muscle were 18,104 and 1,558, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193730/mismatch-repair-incompatibilities-in-diverse-yeast-populations
#13
Duyen T Bui, Anne Friedrich, Najla Al-Sweel, Gianni Liti, Joseph Schacherer, Charles F Aquadro, Eric Alani
An elevated mutation rate can provide cells with a source of mutations to adapt to changing environments. We identified a negative-epistatic interaction involving naturally occurring variants in the MLH1 and PMS1 mismatch repair (MMR) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae We hypothesized that this MMR incompatibility, created through mating between divergent S. cerevisiae, yields mutator progeny that can rapidly but transiently adapt to an environmental stress. Here we analyzed the MLH1 and PMS1 genes across 1,010 S...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193729/sequential-divergent-and-cooperative-requirements-of-foxl2a-and-foxl2b-in-ovary-development-and-maintenance-of-zebrafish
#14
Yan-Jing Yang, Yang Wang, Zhi Li, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Foxl2 is essential for mammalian ovary maintenance. Although sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 was observed in many teleost, its role and regulative mechanism in fish remained largely unclear. In this study, we first identified two transcript variants of foxl2a and its homologous gene foxl2b in zebrafish, and revealed their specific expression in follicular layer cells in a sequential and divergent fashion during ovary differentiation, maturation and maintenance. Then, homozygous foxl2a mutants (foxl2a(-/-)) and foxl2b mutants (foxl2b(-/-)) were constructed, and detailed comparisons, such as sex ratio, gonadal histological structure, transcriptome profiling and dynamic expression of gonadal development-related genes, were carried out...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193280/functional-role-of-alk-related-signal-cascades-on-modulation-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-apoptosis-in-uterine-carcinosarcoma
#15
H Inoue, M Hashimura, M Akiya, R Chiba, M Saegusa
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which is a receptor tyrosine kinase, is essentially and transiently expressed in the developing nervous system. Recently, the deregulated expression of full-length ALK has been observed in some primary solid tumors, but little is known about its involvement in the tumorigenesis of uterine carcinosarcomas (UCSs). Here we examined the functional role of the ALK gene in UCSs. METHODS: Regulation and function of the ALK gene were assessed using two endometrial carcinoma cell lines...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193161/systematic-comparison-of-lncrnas-with-protein-coding-mrnas-in-population-expression-and-their-response-to-environmental-change
#16
Qin Xu, Zhihong Song, Caiyun Zhu, Chengcheng Tao, Lifang Kang, Wei Liu, Fei He, Juan Yan, Tao Sang
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of non-coding RNA with important regulatory roles in biological process of organisms. The systematic comparison of lncRNAs with protein coding mRNAs in population expression and their response to environmental change are still poorly understood. Here we identified 17,610 lncRNAs and calculated their expression levels based on RNA-seq of 80 individuals of Miscanthus lutarioriparius from two environments, the nearly native habitats and transplanted field, respectively...
February 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192619/genomic-signatures-of-adaptation-to-wine-biological-aging-conditions%C3%A2-in-biofilm-forming-flor-yeasts
#17
A L Coi, F Bigey, S Mallet, S Marsit, G Zara, P Gladieux, V Galeote, M Budroni, S Dequin, J L Legras
The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological aging are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose, and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192178/identification-and-characterization-of-the-expression-profile-of-the-micrornas-in-the-amazon-species-colossoma-macropomum-by-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Fátima Gomes, Luciana Watanabe, Sérgio Nozawa, Layanna Oliveira, Jedson Cardoso, João Vianez, Márcio Nunes, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio
Colossoma macropomum is a resistant species native of Amazonas and Orinoco river basins. It is regarded as the second largest finfish of Solimões and Amazon rivers, representing a major fishery resource in Amazonas and an important species in tropical aquaculture. MicroRNAs are non-coding endogenous riboregulators of nearly 22 nucleotides that play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation of several organisms. We analyzed samples of liver and skin from specimens of C. macropomum using next generation sequencing...
February 10, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191733/a-novel-dynamic-expression-of-vasa-in-male-germ-cells-during-spermatogenesis-in-the-chinese-soft-shell-turtle-pelidiscus-sinensis
#19
Wei Li, Piaoyi Zhang, Xuling Wu, Xinping Zhu, Hongyan Xu
vasa gene encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase, required for germ cell development across animal kingdom. Vasa mutations cause male infertility in mammals. It has been widely used as a biomarker for studying animal fertility or manipulating germ cells in organisms. However, in reptilians, the functions of vasa gene involved in germ cell differentiation are largely unclear; this hampers the development of biological techniques and the improvement of the productivity in these species. Here a vasa cDNA was isolated in Chinese soft-shell turtle and it predicts a protein of 691 amino acid residues, which is 72%, 69%, 58%, 59%, and 54-56% identical to its homolog from mouse, platypus, frog, chicken, and fish, respectively, and named as PsVasa...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191009/defective-il-23-il-17-axis-protects-p47phox-mice-from-colon-cancer
#20
Cornelia Richter, Martina Herrero San Juan, Benno Weigmann, Dominik Bergis, Katrin Dauber, Michael H Muders, Gustavo B Baretton, Josef Martin Pfeilschifter, Halvard Bonig, Sebastian Brenner, Heinfried H Radeke
In the colon, a sophisticated balance between immune reaction and tolerance is absolutely required. Dysfunction may lead to pathologic phenotypes ranging from chronic inflammatory processes to cancer development. Two prominent modulators of colon inflammation are represented by the closely related cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, which initiate adaptive Th1 and Th17 immune responses, respectively. In this study, we investigated the impact of the NADPH oxidase protein p47phox, which negatively regulates IL-12 in dendritic cells, on colon cancer development in a colitis-associated colon cancer model...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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