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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908300/acute-and-chronic-escitalopram-alter-eeg-gamma-oscillations-differently-relevance-to-therapeutic-effects
#1
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907939/feasibility-of-quantitative-ultrasonography-for-the-detection-of-metabolic-bone-disease-in-preterm-infants-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Liting Tong, Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Amaka C Offiah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by disordered bone mineralisation and is therefore an increased fracture risk. Preterm infants are especially at risk due to incomplete in utero bone accretion during the last trimester. Currently, diagnosing metabolic bone disease mainly relies on biochemistry and radiographs. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (US) are used less frequently. However, biochemical measurements correlate poorly with bone mineralisation and although scoring systems exist for metabolic bone disease, radiographs are subjective and do not detect early features of osteopenia...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907835/structural-neural-correlates-of-physiological-mirror-activity-during-isometric-contractions-of-non-dominant-hand-muscles
#3
Tom Maudrich, Rouven Kenville, Jöran Lepsien, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror Activity (MA) describes involuntarily occurring muscular activity in contralateral homologous limbs during unilateral movements. This phenomenon has not only been reported in patients with neurological disorders (i.e. Mirror Movements) but has also been observed in healthy adults referred to as physiological Mirror Activity (pMA). However, despite recent hypotheses, the underlying neural mechanisms and structural correlates of pMA still remain insufficiently described. We investigated the structural correlates of pMA during isometric contractions of hand muscles with increasing force demands on a whole-brain level by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907476/a-case-of-tubulinopathy-presenting-with-porencephaly-caused-by-a-novel-missense-mutation-in-the-tuba1a-gene
#4
Tatsuharu Sato, Mitsuhiro Kato, Kaoru Moriyama, Kohei Haraguchi, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Moriuchi
BACKGROUND: Tubulinopathies include a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from abnormal ocular movement to severe brain malformations, and typically present as diffuse agyria or perisylvian pachygyria with microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia. They are caused by the dysfunction of tubulins encoded by tubulin-related genes, and the TUBA1A gene encoding alpha-1A tubulin is most frequently responsible for this clinical entity. Porencephaly is relatively rare among patients with the TUBA1A mutations...
June 12, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907388/assessment-of-the-corticospinal-fiber-integrity-in-mirror-movement-disorder
#5
Bilgehan Solmaz, Mustafa Görkem Özyurt, Demir Berk Ata, Fulya Akçimen, Mohammed Shabsog, Kemal Sıtkı Türker, Hakkı Dalçik, Oktay Algin, Ayşe Nazlı Başak, Merve Özgür, Safiye Çavdar
Mirror movements are unintended movements occurring on one side of the body that mirror the contralateral voluntary ones. It has been proposed that mirror movements occur due to abnormal decussation of the corticospinal pathways. Using detailed multidisciplinary approach, we aimed to enlighten the detailed mechanism underlying the mirror movements in a case subject who is diagnosed with mirror movements of the hands and we compared the findings with the unaffected control subjects. To evaluate the characteristics of mirror movements, we used several techniques including whole exome sequencing, computed tomography, diffusion tensor imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906474/acteoside-protects-against-6-ohda-induced-dopaminergic-neuron-damage-via-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#6
Maiquan Li, Fei Zhou, Tao Xu, Huaxin Song, Baiyi Lu
Acteoside has been reported to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effect, which is a promising therapeutic way in prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study was aimed to understand the neuroprotective effect of acteoside and to elucidate its underlying mechanism. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neural damage in zebrafish model was used to study the protective effect of acteoside on Parkinson disease (PD). Locomotion behavioral test showed that acteoside could prevent 6-OHDA-stimulated movement disorders...
June 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905970/neurexin-superfamily-cell-membrane-receptor-contactin-associated-protein-like-4-cntnap4-is-involved-in-neural-egfl-like-1-nell-1-responsive-osteogenesis
#7
Chenshuang Li, Zhong Zheng, Pin Ha, Xiaoyan Chen, Wenlu Jiang, Shan Sun, Feng Chen, Greg Asatrian, Emily A Berthiaume, Jong Kil Kim, Eric C Chen, Shen Pang, Xinli Zhang, Kang Ting, Chia Soo
Contactin-associated protein-like 4 (Cntnap4) is a member of the neurexin superfamily of transmembrane molecules that have critical functions in neuronal cell communication. Cntnap4 knockout mice display decreased presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased dopamine release that is associated with severe, highly penetrant, repetitive, and perseverative movements commonly found in human autism spectrum disorder patients. However, no known function of Cntnap4 has been revealed besides the nervous system...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904974/anti-glycine-receptor-antibody-related-disease-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#8
Andrew Swayne, Linda Tjoa, Simon Broadley, Sasha Dionisio, David Gillis, Leslie Jacobson, Mark R Woodhall, Andrew McNabb, Daniel Schweitzer, Ben Tsang, Angela Vincent, Sarosh R Irani, Richard Wong, Patrick Waters, Stefan Blum
INTRODUCTION: Antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) were first defined in progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), but subsequently identified in other clinical presentations. We aimed to assess the clinical associations of all patients identified with GlyR-Abs in Queensland, Australia between April 2014 to May 2017, and compared these to cases reported in the literature. METHODS: A literature review identified the clinical features of all published GlyR-Ab positive cases through online databases...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904635/successful-treatment-of-holmes-tremor-with-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-prelemniscal-radiations
#9
Vicente Martinez, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Foutz, Andew Ko
Holmes tremor (HT) is a rare movement disorder that is typically associated with cerebellar, thalamic or brainstem lesions following a delay. Treatment of HT with deep brain stimulation (DBS) has yielded positive results however; it is unclear which deep brain targets provide optimal therapeutic effects. Here we describe a case report in which a 34 year old man with HT treated successfully with DBS. The ventrointermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus was considered as the initial target. Following electrode placement we determined that the ventral-most electrode contacts were located in the prelemniscal radiations (Raprl)...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904418/acquired-hypophosphatemic-osteomalacia-is-easily-misdiagnosed-or-neglected-by-rheumatologists-a-report-of-9-cases
#10
Ling Li, Shu-Xia Wang, Hong-Mei Wu, Dong-Lan Luo, Guang-Fu Dong, Yuan Feng, Xiao Zhang
The aim of the present study was to assist rheumatologists in differentiating hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) from mimic rheumatology diseases. Clinical data was obtained from 9 patients with acquired HO, initially misdiagnosed as mimic rheumatologic diseases. The data were retrospectively analyzed and a literature review was performed. The etiology of the cases was as follows: Adefovir dipivoxil-induced Fanconi syndrome was present in 6 of the cases, 2 were tumors and 1 case was chronic nephropathy. The chief complaint was thoracic or back pain and arthralgia, followed by progressive muscle weakness and dramatic movement limitation...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903442/probing-the-neuroanatomy-of-the-cerebellum-using-tractography
#11
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903437/cerebellar-motor-syndrome-from-children-to-the-elderly
#12
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903014/lrrk-2-gene-mutations-in-the-pathophysiology-of-the-roco-domain-and-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Meng-Ling Chen, Ruey-Meei Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and manifests as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Pathologically, PD is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein and ubiquitin called Lewy bodies. Consequently, a remarkable deficiency of dopamine in the striatum causes progressive disability of motor function. The etiology of PD remains uncertain. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial PD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902590/hemizygous-uba5-missense-mutation-unmasks-recessive-disorder-in-a-patient-with-infantile-onset-encephalopathy-acquired-microcephaly-small-cerebellum-movement-disorder-and-severe-neurodevelopmental-delay
#14
Karen J Low, J Baptista, M Babiker, R Caswell, C King, S Ellard, I Scurr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902468/intravenous-immunoglobulin-ameliorates-motor-and-cognitive-deficits-and-neuropathology-in-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-by-decreasing-mutant-huntingtin-protein-level-and-normalizing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#15
Shu-Ying Liu, Xiao-Lin Yu, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Yue Zhang, Quan-Xiu Dong, Shan Ma, Rui-Tian Liu
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits, which is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). Reduction of mutant HTT levels and inhibition of neuroinflammation has been proposed as a major therapeutic strategy in treating HD. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has been firmly established for the treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory neurological diseases, either as adjunctive treatment or as first-line therapy...
June 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902391/sleep-disorders-and-the-risk-of-stroke
#16
Mollie McDermott, Devin L Brown, Ronald D Chervin
Stroke is a major cause of disability and death in the United States and across the world, and the incidence and prevalence of stroke are expected to rise significantly due to an aging population. Obstructive sleep apnea, an established independent risk factor for stroke, is a highly prevalent disease that is estimated to double the risk of stroke. It remains uncertain whether non-apnea sleep disorders increase the risk of stroke. Areas covered: This paper reviews the literature describing the association between incident stroke and sleep apnea, REM sleep behavior disorder, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, insomnia, and shift work...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902389/the-diagnosis-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-current-opinions-and-challenges
#17
Farwa Ali, Keith Josephs
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with microtubule associated protein tau dysfunction. Originally thought to result in a syndrome of atypical parkinsonism, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and cognitive impairment, several additional phenotypic manifestations of PSP pathology have been described over the last 20 years. Furthermore, prototypical PSP features may develop late, making early diagnosis challenging. Areas covered: An in-depth view of emerging knowledge in the field of PSP. Advances in clinicopathologic correlation, blood, cerebrospinal, and more importantly neuroimaging biomarkers are discussed in light of the 2017 PSP diagnostic criteria by the Movement Disorders Society Study Group...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901253/altered-serum-levels-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-male-chronic-schizophrenia-patients-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#18
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Many research indicate that the tardive dyskinesia (TD) is generally linked with long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a critical role in the protection of catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurons. Thus, we examined the serum GDNF levels in schizophrenia patients with TD (WTD) and without TD (NTD) and compared with healthy controls (HC), respectively. METHODS: Totally 75 males with schizophrenia were recruited into this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900088/improving-the-standard-for-deep-brain-stimulation-therapy-target-structures-and-feedback-signals-for-adaptive-stimulation-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Franz Hell, Thomas Köglsperger, Jan Mehrkens, Kai Boetzel
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapeutic option for the treatment of various neurological disorders and has been used successfully in movement disorders for over 25 years. However, the standard stimulation schemes have not changed substantially. Two major points of interest for the further development of DBS are target-structures and novel adaptive stimulation techniques integrating feedback signals. We describe recent research results on target structures and on neural and behavioural feedback signals for adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS), as well as outline future directions...
April 12, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899766/actual-insights-into-treatable-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-causing-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
Mario Mastrangelo
This review offers an update on a group of inborn errors of metabolism causing severe epilepsy with the onset in pediatric age (but also other neurological manifestations such as developmental delay or movement disorders) with available effective or potentially effective treatments. The main pathogenic and clinical features and general recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic workup of the following disorders are discussed: vitamin B6 -dependent epilepsies, cerebral folate deficiency, congenital disorders of serine metabolism, biotinidase deficiency, inborn errors of creatine metabolism, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, and glucose transporter 1 deficiency...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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