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Joanna K Sax
Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value...
2017: Seton Hall Law Review
Shelley Wiechman, Glenn Saxe, James A Fauerbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Hideaki Takagi, Ryo Hashimoto, Noriyuki Igarashi, Shunji Kishimoto, Katsuhiro Yamamoto
Microphase-separated structures in a polybutadiene-poly(ε-caprolactone) diblock copolymer (PB-PCL)/polybutadiene homopolymer (PB) blend were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Non-equilibrium spherical micelles were observed at temperatures ranging between 60 and 100 °C. An SAXS profile with >60 scattering peaks was recorded at 140 °C. All the peak positions were in good agreement with theoretical Frank-Kasper  phase peak positions. Thus, these results indicate the formation of a Frank-Kasper  phase in the PB-PCL/PB blend at 140 °C...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Carlo Diaferia, Eliana Gianolio, Teresa Sibillano, Flavia Anna Mercurio, Marilisa Leone, Cinzia Giannini, Nicole Balasco, Luigi Vitagliano, Giancarlo Morelli, Antonella Accardo
Very recently we proposed novel di- and tetra-phenylalanine peptides derivatized with gadolinium complexes as potentials supramolecular diagnostic agents for applications in MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). It was observed that in very short FF dipeptide building blocks, the propensity to aggregate decreases significantly after modification with bulky moiety such as Gd-complexes, thus limiting their potential as CAs. We hypothesized that the replacement of the Phe side chain with more extended aromatic groups could improve the self-assembling...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Robert A Parker, Dustin J Rabideau, Paul E Sax, Camlin Tierney, Eric S Daar, Ann C Collier, Elena Losina, Kenneth A Freedberg
In ACTG A5202, participants reporting missing their medication within the past month or not providing adherence reports at both 8 and 24 weeks had five times the hazard of virological failure compared to more adherent participants. Adherence interventions should focus on such patients.
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
I C Bellettini, S J Fayad, V G Machado, E Minatti
Polycationic polymers and DNA form soluble complexes in aqueous solution, which allows the transfer of genetic material into cells. Therefore, these chemically-modified polymers are of interest for use in studies aimed at better transfection efficiency and gene expression along with reduced cytotoxicity. In this study, branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) was modified by alkylation with n-alkyl groups (n = 4, 6, 8 and 12 carbons). The polyplexes formed through interaction of the modified PEIs and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, ethidium bromide fluorescence emission, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques along with the determination of the zeta potential and viscosity...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
Rosemary J Korda, Wei Du, Cathy Day, Karen Page, Peter S Macdonald, Emily Banks
BACKGROUND: Hospitalisation for heart failure is common and post-discharge outcomes, including readmission and mortality, are often poor and are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine patient- and hospital-level variation in the risk of 30-day unplanned readmission and mortality following discharge from hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. METHODS: Prospective cohort study using data from the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study, linking baseline survey (Jan 2006-April 2009) to hospital and mortality data (to Dec 2011)...
March 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Pierandrea Lo Nostro, Elia Tempestini, Martina Bucci, Vincenzo Mastromartino, Marianna Gori, Damiano Tanini, Moira Ambrosi, Emiliano Fratini, Antonella Capperucci
We report on the synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of double chained amphiphilic compounds obtained from vitamin C: Di-alkanoyl-5,6-O-ascorbic acid esters, Di-ASCn, with n = 8, 10 and 12. The acetyl-5-dodecanoyl-6-ascorbic acid ester was synthesized and investigated for comparison. These products are quite insoluble in water and in polar solvents, while they form homogeneous dispersions in cyclohexane. By cooling, these dispersions turn into a gel-like phase. DSC, FTIR, and SAXS/WAXS experiments were carried out to investigate the properties of the pure solids and of their liquid dispersions...
March 20, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
M Martínez-Negro, G Caracciolo, S Palchetti, D Pozzi, A L Capriotti, C Cavaliere, A Laganà, C Ortiz Mellet, J M Benito, J M García Fernández, E Aicart, E Junquera
The self-assembling processes underlining the capabilities of facially differentiated ("Janus") polycationic amphiphilic cyclodextrins (paCDs) as non-viral gene nanocarriers have been investigated by a pluridisciplinary approach. Three representative Janus paCDs bearing a common tetradecahexanoyl multitail domain at the secondary face and differing in the topology of the cluster of amino groups at the primary side were selected for this study. All of them compact pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA and promote transfection in HeLa and MCF-7 cells, both in absence and in presence of human serum...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andreas Schlundt, Jan-Niklas Tants, Michael Sattler
Recent advances in RNA sequencing technologies have greatly expanded our knowledge of the RNA landscape in cells, often with spatiotemporal resolution. These techniques identified many new (often non-coding) RNA molecules. Large-scale studies have also discovered novel RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which exhibit single or multiple RNA binding domains (RBDs) for recognition of specific sequence or structured motifs in RNA. Starting from these large-scale approaches it is crucial to unravel the molecular principles of protein-RNA recognition in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) to understand the underlying mechanisms of gene regulation...
March 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Matej Vizovišek, Robert Vidmar, Marko Fonović
Profiling of protease specificity is crucial for characterization of these important enzymes that play numerous roles in health and disease. In the past, several proteomic methods have been developed that enable profiling of protease specificities. Although able to identify thousands of protease cleavage events, these degradomics approaches are often time consuming and methodologically challenging, which limits their application to specialized proteomic groups or the laboratories that initially introduced them...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sushil Kumar Saxena, Agnes Raju Karipalli, Anoop A Krishnan, Rajesh Rangasamy, Praveen Malekadi, Dhirendra P Singh, Vimesh Vasu, Vijay K Singh
This study enables the selective determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) with a low detection limit using an economical instrument [atomic absorption spectrometer with hydride generation (HG)] to meet the regulatory requirements as per European Commission (EC) and Codex guidelines. Dry rice samples (0.5 g) were diluted using 0.1 M HNO<sub>3</sub>–3% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and heated in a water bath (90 ± 2°C) for 60 min. Through this process, all the iAs is solubilized and oxidized to arsenate [As(V)]...
March 16, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Louise E Butt, Robert A Holland, Nikul S Khunti, Debra L Quinn, Andrew R Pickford
Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides information about the conformation and flexibility of proteins in solution, and hence provides complementary structural information to that obtained from X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this chapter, we describe the methods for the preparation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) samples for SAXS analyses, and for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the SAXS data.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Oliva Saldanha, Rita Graceffa, Clement Hemonnot, Christiane Ranke, Gerrit Brehm, Marianne Liebi, Benedetta Marmiroli, Britta Weinhausen, Manfred Burghammer, Sarah Koester
Encapsulating reacting biological or chemical samples in microfluidic droplets has the great advantage over phase flows of providing separate reaction compartments. These compartments can be filled in a combinatoric way and prevent the sample from adsorbing to the channel walls. In recent years, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in combination with microfluidics has evolved as a nanoscale method of such systems. Here, we approach two major challenges associated with combining droplet microfluidics and SAXS...
March 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Livia N Borgheti-Cardoso, Sander A A Kooijmans, Marcel H A M Fens, Roy van der Meel, Fabiana T M C Vicentini, Marcia C A Fantini, Maria Vitória L B Bentley, Raymond M Schiffelers
An effective short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system protects the siRNA from degradation, facilitates its cellular uptake, and promotes its release into the cytoplasm. Local administration of siRNA presents advantages over systemic administration, such as the possibility to use lower doses and allow local and sustained release. In this context, in situ solidifying organogels based on monoglycerides (MO), polyethylenimine (PEI), propylene glycol (PG) and tris buffer are an attractive strategy for intratumoral delivery of siRNA...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Gildas Nyame Mendendy Boussambe, Romain Valentin, Jean-François Fabre, Laurence Navailles, Frédéric Nallet, Cédric Gaillard, Zéphirin Mouloungui
The self-assembling properties of glycerol esters in water are well known. Still, few data on glycerol monoesters of undecylenic acid are available. The aim of this study was to highlight the behavior of glycerol monoundecenoate (GM-C11:1) in different diluted and concentrated states. Its self-assembling properties in water and upon solid inorganic surfaces were investigated in the diluted state using surface tension experiments, atomic force microscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy studies...
March 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Po-Wei Yang, Subashchandrabose Thoka, Po-Chang Lin, Chun-Jen Su, Hwo-Shuenn Sheu, Michael H Huang, U-Ser Jeng
The nucleation and growth process of gold supercrystals in a surfactant diffusion approach is followed by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), supplemented with scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that supercrystal nucleation can be activated efficiently upon placing a concentrated surfactant solution of a nematic phase on top of a gold nanocrystal solution droplet trapped in the middle of a vertically oriented capillary tube. Supercrystal nuclei comprised of tens of gold nanocubes are observed nearly instantaneously in the broadened liquid-liquid interface zone of a steep gradient of surfactant concentration, revealing a diffusion-kinetics-controlled nucleation process...
March 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Aihua Zou, Yawen Li, Yiyin Chen, Angelina Angelova, Vasil M Garamus, Na Li, Markus Drechsler, Borislav Angelov, Yabin Gong
Sponge-type nanocarriers (spongosomes) are produced upon dispersion of a liquid crystalline sponge phase formed by self-assembly of an amphiphilic lipid in excess aqueous phase. The inner organization of the spongosomes is built-up by randomly ordered bicontinuous lipid membranes and their surfaces are stabilized by alginate chains providing stealth properties and colloidal stability. The present study elaborates spongosomes for improved encapsulation of Brucea javanica oil (BJO), a traditional Chinese medicine that may strongly inhibit proliferation and metastasis of various cancers...
February 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Valentina Nairi, Luca Medda, Maura Monduzzi, Andrea Salis
In this work the adsorption and the release of ampicillin - a β-lactam penicillin-like antibiotic - from MCM-41, SBA-15, and (amino functionalized) SBA-15-NH2 ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) materials were investigated. The silica matrices differ for their pore size (SBA-15 vs. MCM-41) mainly, and also for surface charge (SBA-15 and MCM-41, vs. SBA-15-NH2). OMS samples were characterized through small-angle X-rays scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and potentiometric titrations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
José R Arribas, Melanie Thompson, Paul E Sax, Bernhard Haas, Cheryl McDonald, David A Wohl, Edwin DeJesus, Amanda E Clarke, Susan Guo, Hui Wang, Christian Callebaut, Andrew Plummer, Andrew Cheng, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister
In two double-blind Phase 3 trials, 1733 antiretroviral-naïve adults were randomized to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), each coformulated with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (E/C/F). At 144 weeks, TAF was superior to TDF in virologic efficacy, with 84.2% vs. 80.0% having HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (difference 4.2%; 95%CI 0.6% to 7.8%). TAF had less impact than TDF on bone mineral density and renal biomarkers. No participants on TAF had renal-related discontinuations vs 12 on TDF (P<0...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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