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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818654/water-based-fractionation-of-a-commercial-humic-acid-solid-state-and-colloidal-characterization-of-the-solubility-fractions
#1
Weronika M Swiech, Ian Hamerton, Huang Zeng, David J Watson, Eleonore Mason, Spencer E Taylor
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Humic acid (HA) is of considerable environmental significance, being a major component of soil, as well as being considered for application in other technological areas. However, its structure and colloidal properties continue to be the subject of debate, largely owing to its molecular complexity and association with other humic substances and mineral matter. As a class, HA is considered to comprise supramolecular assemblies of heterogeneous species, and herein we consider a simple route for the separation of some HA sub-fractions...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816051/lipid-stabilized-water-oil-interfaces-studied-by-micro-focusing-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#2
Emanuela Di Cola, Kristian Torbensen, Ilaria Clemente, Federico Rossi, Sandra Ristori, Ali Abou-Hassan
Water in oil (w/o) simple emulsions are dispersed micro-confined systems which find applications in many areas of advanced materials and biotechnology, such as food industry, drug delivery and cosmetics, to name but a few. In these systems, the structural and chemical properties of the boundary layer at the w/o interface are of paramount importance to determine functionality and stability. Recently, microfluidic methods have emerged as a valuable tool to fabricate monodisperse emulsion droplets. Due to the intrinsic flexibility of microfluidics, different interfaces can be obtained, and general principles governing the interfacial stability are needed to guide the experimental approach...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815927/metallofullerenol-inhibits-cellular-iron-uptake-by-inducing-transferrin-tetramerization
#3
Jinxia Li, Xueqing Xing, Baoyun Sun, Yuliang Zhao, Zhonghua Wu
Herein, A549 tumor cell proliferation was confirmed to be positively dependent on the concentration of Fe3+ or transferrin (Tf). Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ or C₆₀(OH)₂₂ effectively inhibited the iron uptake and the subsequent proliferation of A549 cells. The conformation changes of Tf mixed with FeCl₃, GdCl₃, C₆₀(OH)₂₂ or Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ were obtained by SAXS. The results demonstrate that Tf homodimers can be decomposed into monomers in the presence of FeCl₃, GdCl3 or C₆₀(OH)₂₂, but aggregated into tetramers in the presence of Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814520/contributions-of-individual-domains-to-function-of-the-hiv-1-rev-response-element
#4
Ina P O'Carroll, Yashna Thappeta, Lixin Fan, Edric A Ramirez-Valdez, Sean Smith, Yun-Xing Wang, Alan Rein
The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an "A" shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814505/the-molecular-architecture-of-the-yeast-spindle-pole-body-core-determined-by-bayesian-integrative-modeling
#5
Shruthi Viswanath, Massimiliano Bonomi, Seung Joong Kim, Vadim A Klenchin, Keenan C Taylor, King C Yabut, Neil T Umbreit, Heather A Van Epps, Janet Meehl, Michele H Jones, Daniel Russel, Javier A Velazquez-Muriel, Mark Winey, Ivan Rayment, Trisha N Davis, Andrej Sali, Eric G Muller
Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) form, anchor and stabilize the polarized network of microtubules in a cell. The central MTOC is the centrosome that duplicates during the cell cycle and during mitosis assembles a bipolar spindle to capture and segregate sister chromatids. Yet, despite their importance in cell biology, the physical structure of MTOCs is poorly understood. Here we determine the molecular architecture of the core of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) by Bayesian integrative structure modeling based on in vivo FRET, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and two-hybrid analysis...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813482/cysteine-rich-protein-2-accelerates-actin-filament-cluster-formation
#6
Takanori Kihara, Yasunobu Sugimoto, Satoko Shinohara, Shunpei Takaoka, Jun Miyake
Filamentous actin (F-actin) forms many types of structures and dynamically regulates cell morphology and movement, and plays a mechanosensory role for extracellular stimuli. In this study, we determined that the smooth muscle-related transcription factor, cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2), regulates the supramolecular networks of F-actin. The structures of CRP2 and F-actin in solution were analyzed by small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS). The general shape of CRP2 was partially unfolded and relatively ellipsoidal in structure, and the apparent cross sectional radius of gyration (Rc) was about 15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811590/structural-analysis-of-wss1-protein-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Xiaoyun Yang, Yanhua Li, Zengqiang Gao, Zongqiang Li, Jianhua Xu, Wenjia Wang, Yuhui Dong
Wss1 is a DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) repair protein, which is responsible for degradation of the protein components in DPCs. In this investigation, crystal structure of the protease domain from saccharomyces cerevisiae Wss1 (ScWss1) was solved and was compared with the known crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces prombe Wss1 (SpWss1). It is found that the cleft near zinc ion to be the most conserved core region of Wss1 and that the electronic surface distributions vary greatly between the two homologs...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808439/saxs4coll-an-integrated-software-tool-for-analysing-fibrous-collagen-based-tissues
#8
Ahmed Abass, James S Bell, Martin T Spang, Sally Hayes, Keith M Meek, Craig Boote
This article provides an overview of a new integrated software tool for reduction and analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data from fibrous collagen tissues, with some wider applicability to other cylindrically symmetric scattering systems. SAXS4COLL combines interactive features for data pre-processing, bespoke background subtraction, semi-automated peak detection and calibration. Both equatorial and meridional SAXS peak parameters can be measured, and the former can be deconstructed into cylinder and lattice contributions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808061/structural-analyses-of-the-bacterial-primosomal-protein-dnab-reveal-that-it-is-a-tetramer-and-forms-a-complex-with-a-primosomal-re-initiation-protein
#9
Yi-Ching Li, Vankadari Naveen, Min-Guan Lin, Chwan-Deng Hsiao
The DnaB primosomal protein from Gram-positive bacteria plays a key role in DNA replication and restart as a loader protein for the recruitment of replisome cascade proteins. Previous investigations have established that DnaB is composed of an N-terminal domain, a middle domain, and a C-terminal domain. However, structural evidence for how DnaB functions at the atomic level is lacking. Here, we report the crystal structure of DnaB, encompassing the N-terminal and middle domains (residues 1-300), from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GstDnaB1-300) at 2...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#10
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806144/particle-size-distributions-of-lead-measured-in-battery-manufacturing-and-secondary-smelter-facilities-and-implications-in-setting-workplace-lead-exposure-limits
#11
Catherine Petito Boyce, Sonja N Sax, Joel M Cohen
Inhalation plays an important role in exposures to lead in airborne particulate matter in occupational settings, and particle size determines where and how much of airborne lead is deposited in the respiratory tract and how much is subsequently absorbed into the body. Although some occupational airborne lead particle size data have been published, limited information is available reflecting current workplace conditions in the U.S. To address this data gap, the Battery Council International (BCI) conducted workplace monitoring studies at nine lead acid battery manufacturing facilities (BMFs) and five secondary smelter facilities (SSFs) across the U...
August 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805064/double-crystalline-multiblock-copolymers-with-controlling-microstructure-for-high-shape-memory-fixity-and-recovery
#12
Miaoming Huang, Liuchun Zheng, Lili Wang, Xia Dong, Xia Gao, Chuncheng Li, Dujin Wang
The shape memory performance of double crystalline poly(butylene succinate)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PBS-co-PCL) multiblock copolymers with controlling microstructure was studied, and the corresponding microstructure origin was further quantitatively analyzed by wide and small angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) experiments. It was found that the multiblock copolymer with higher PCL content, proper deformation strain and inhibited crystallization of PBS (lower crystallinity and smaller crystal size, which could be realized by quenching from the melt) would exhibit better shape memory fixity and recovery performance...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801928/cyclic-oligomer-design-with-de-novo-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-proteins
#13
Yu-Ru Lin, Nobuyasu Koga, Sergey M Vorobiev, David Baker
We have previously shown that monomeric globular αβ- proteins can be designed de novo with considerable control over topology, size and shape. In this paper, we investigate the design of cyclic homo-oligomers from these starting points. We experimented with both keeping the original monomer backbones fixed during the cyclic docking and design process, and allowing the backbone of the monomer to conform to that of adjacent subunits in the homo-oligomer. The latter flexible backbone protocol generated designs with shape complementarity approaching that of native homo-oligomers, but experimental characterization showed that the fixed backbone designs were more stable and less aggregation prone...
August 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801008/the-course-of-quality-of-life-and-neurocognition-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-glioblastoma
#14
B Flechl, C Sax, M Ackerl, R Crevenna, A Woehrer, J Hainfellner, M Preusser, G Widhalm, B Kiesel, C Lütgendorf-Caucig, K Dieckmann, C Steffal, C Marosi, M R Hassler
BACKGROUND: The importance of QoL and neurocognitive functions in patients with glioblastoma (GB) is above controversy by now. We followed newly diagnosed GB patients treated with radio-chemotherapy during their course of disease by continuously evaluating their quality of life (QoL) and cognitive functions. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with newly diagnosed GB from 2010 to 2013 at the Medical University of Vienna. To assess QoL the EORTC QLQ C30 and BN20 questionnaire were used...
August 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800390/how-ag-nanospheres-are-transformed-into-agau-nanocages
#15
Liane M Moreau, Charles A Schurman, Sumit Kewalramani, Mohammad M Shahjamali, Chad A Mirkin, Michael J Bedzyk
Bimetallic hollow, porous noble metal nanoparticles are of broad interest for biomedical, optical and catalytic applications. The most straightforward method for preparing such structures involves the reaction between HAuCl4 and well-formed Ag particles, typically spheres, cubes, or triangular prisms, yet the mechanism underlying their formation is poorly understood at the atomic scale. By combining in situ nanoscopic and atomic-scale characterization techniques (XAFS, SAXS, XRF, and electron microscopy) to follow the process, we elucidate a plausible reaction pathway for the conversion of citrate-capped Ag nanospheres to AgAu nanocages; importantly, the hollowing event cannot be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, nor by Galvanic exchange alone, two processes that have been previously proposed...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798234/structural-transitions-in-conserved-ordered-beclin-1-domains-essential-to-regulating-autophagy
#16
Karen Glover, Yue Li, Shreya Mukhopadhyay, Zoe Leuthner, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Christopher L Colbert, Sangita C Sinha
Beclin 1 (BECN1) is a key regulator of autophagy, a critical catabolic homeostasis pathway that involves the sequestration of cytoplasmic components by multilayered vesicles called autophagosomes, followed by lysosomal fusion and degradation. BECN1 is a core component of class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase complexes responsible for autophagosome nucleation. Without heterologous binding partners, BECN1 forms an antiparallel homodimer via its coiled-coil domain (CCD). However, the last 16 CCD residues, composing an overlap helix (OH), have been crystallized in two mutually exclusive states: either as part of the CCD or packed against the C-terminal lower case β-α-repeated, autophagy-specific domain (BARAD)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796519/coarse-grained-modelling-of-antibodies-from-small-angle-scattering-profiles
#17
Daniel Corbett, Max Hebditch, Rose Keeling, Peng Ke, Sofia Ekizoglou, Prasad Srinivasan Sarangapani, Jai A Pathak, Christopher F van der Walle, Shahid Uddin, Clair Baldock, Carlos Avendano, Robin A Curtis
Predicting the concentrated solution behaviour for monoclonal antibodies requires developing and using minimal models to describe their shape and interaction potential. Towards this end, the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles for a monoclonal antibody (COE-03) have been measured under solution conditions chosen to produce weak self-association. The experiments are complemented with molecular simulations of a three-bead antibody model with and without inter-bead attraction. The scattering profile is extracted directly from the molecular simulation to avoid using the decoupling approximation...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794953/dispersion-interactions-and-the-stability-of-amine-dimers
#18
Robin Guttmann, Alexander F Sax
Weak, intermolecular interactions in amine dimers were studied by using the combination of a dispersionless density functional and a function that describes the dispersion contribution to the interaction energy. The validity of this method was shown by comparison of structural and energetic properties with data obtained with a conventional density functional and the coupled cluster method. The stability of amine dimers was shown to depend on the size, the shape, and the relative orientation of the alkyl substituents, and it was shown that the stabilization energy for large substituents is dominated by dispersion interactions...
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794493/structural-and-thermal-stability-of-polycarbonate-decorated-fumed-silica-nanocomposite-via-thermomechanical-analysis-and-in-situ-temperature-assisted-saxs
#19
Ramdayal Yadav, Minoo Naebe, Xungai Wang, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
The inorganic and organic nanocomposites have enticed wide interest in the field of polymer-based composite systems to augment their physiochemical properties like mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Achieving interfacial interaction between inorganic filler and polymer matrix is a recurring challenge, which has significant implications for mechanical properties of nanocomposites. In this context, the effect of "interfacial zone" on structural and thermal attributes of the melt blended pristine polycarbonate and polycarbonate (PC) decorated fumed silica nanocomposite have been examined from ambient temperature to the glass transition temperature...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781947/structural-flexibility-of-human-%C3%AE-dystroglycan
#20
Sonia Covaceuszach, Manuela Bozzi, Maria Giulia Bigotti, Francesca Sciandra, Petr Valeryevich Konarev, Andrea Brancaccio, Alberto Cassetta
Dystroglycan (DG), composed of α and β subunits, belongs to the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. α-DG is an extracellular matrix protein that undergoes a complex post-translational glycosylation process. The bifunctional glycosyltransferase like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE) plays a crucial role in the maturation of α-DG, enabling its binding to laminin. We have already structurally analyzed the N-terminal region of murine α-DG (α-DG-Nt) and of a pathological single point mutant that may affect recognition of LARGE, although the structural features of the potential interaction between LARGE and DG remain elusive...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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