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Carla Marega, Roberta Saini
Conductive polymer blends of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were obtained in the form of films and fibers, respectively by solvent casting and electrospinning. Different amounts of PPy were introduced in the blends in order to study the effect of the conductive polymer on the properties of the final material and in particular to elucidate the influence of the different morphology on conductivity. The structure and morphology of PPy/PEO blends were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to understand the influence of different PPy content on thermal behavior and stability, electrospun fibrous mats were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kedar Sharma, Inês Lobo Antunes, Vikky Rajulapati, Arun Goyal
The structure and biophysical properties of endo β-1,4-xylanase (PsGH10A) of family 10 glycoside hydrolase were characterized. The modeled PsGH10A structure showed classical (β/α)8-barrel fold. Ramachandran plot displayed 99.1% residues in favored and 0.3% in the generously allowed region and only 0.6% residues in disallowed region. The secondary structure analysis of PsGH10A by CD revealed 31.75% α-helices 20.0% β-strands and 48.25% random coils. Protein melting study of PsGH10A showed complete unfolding at 60 °C and did not require any metal ion for its stability...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Alexandra Rieger, Cédric Sax, Tobias Bauert, Christian Wäckerlin, Karl-Heinz Ernst
The adsorption of diastereoisomers of tartaric acid, namely, meso (R,S)-tartaric acid, (R,R)-tartaric acid, and the racemic mixture of (R,R) and (S,S) tartaric acid on the (111) surface of a copper single crystal has been studied by means of reflection-absorption IR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Two distinct adsorption modes are identified for all three adsorbate systems. All molecules undergo an identical thermally induced autocatalytic decomposition reaction above 510 K...
February 13, 2018: Chirality
Eniko Holndonner-Kirst, Adam Nagy, Nikoletta Rahel Czobor, Levente Fazekas, Daniel Janos Lex, Balazs Sax, Istvan Hartyanszky, Bela Merkely, Janos Gal, Andrea Szekely
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative liver function in heart failure patients is associated with extensive functional, structural, and hemodynamic abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that perioperative liver dysfunction is associated with worse 2-year survival after orthotopic heart transplantation. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single-center, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 209 consecutive patients undergoing heart transplantation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Sandra Ristori, Isabelle Grillo, Sara Lusa, Jana Thamm, Gina Valentino, Virginia Campani, Michele Caraglia, Frank Steiniger, Paola Luciani, Giuseppe De Rosa
Hybrid self-assembling nanoparticles (hsaNPs) encapsulating bisphosphonates (BPs) recently showed very promising results in preclinic experiments for the treatment of brain tumor. However, the poor knowledge on the architecture of hybrid nanovectors is certainly one of the main reasons hampering further clinical and industrial development of these technologies. Here we propose to combine different techniques, i.e. Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and X-ray Scattering (SAXS), with cryo-Electron Transmission Microscopy (cryo-TEM) to study the architecture of the final hsaNPs as well as of the four components before the assembling process...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Juan Manuel Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Davide Altamura, Roberto Jorge Candal, Francesco Scattarella, Dritan Siliqi, Cinzia Giannini, María Lidia Herrera
Films obtained by casting, starting from conventional emulsions (CE), nanoemulsions (NE) or their gels, which led to different structures, with the aim of explore the relationship between structure and physical properties, were prepared. Sodium caseinate was used as the matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, glucono-delta-lactone as acidulant to form the gels, and TiO2 nanoparticles as reinforcement to improve physical behavior. Structural characterization was performed by SAXS and WAXS (Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, respectively), combined with confocal and scanning electron microscopy...
March 2018: Food Research International
Junjie Ao, Jiaping Gu, Tao Yuan, Dan Li, Yuning Ma, Zhemin Shen
A highly selective sample cleanup method using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) was developed for the enrichment of domoic acid (DA, an amnesic shellfish toxin) from both seawater and shellfish samples. Molecular modelling was firstly applied to screening a suitable functional monomer and optimize the polymer preparation. Theoretical results were in a good agreement with those of the experimental studies. MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization using 1, 3, 5-pentanetricarboxylic acid and 2-(Trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as the template molecule and functional monomer, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Glenn N Saxe, Daniel Calderone, Leah J Morales
Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability...
2018: PloS One
Laura C E da Silva, Luiz G L Germiniani, Tomás S Plivelic, Maria C Gonçalves
Biocompatible chemically cross-linked organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrid nanocomposites were developed using a new atoxic, simple and fast, solvent-free pathway. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which are both biocompatible, were used as the organic moieties (at different PCL/PEG ratios), while in situ synthesized polysilsesquioxanes made up the inorganic moiety. The O-I hybrid nanocomposites' molecular structures were characterized using solid-state 29Si NMR, TGA and ATR-IR. Results showed an unusually high condensation yield of approximately 90% and two distinct silsesquioxane structures...
February 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Claudia Kästner, Alfonso Lampen, Andreas F Thünemann
An artificial digestion of silver nitrate is reported. It is shown that AgSCN nanoparticles emerge from ionic silver in saliva and remain present during the entire digestion process. The particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) regarding their composition and size distribution.
February 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Dionysia Aravopoulou, Konstantinos Kyriakos, Anna Miasnikova, André Laschewsky, Christine M Papadakis, Apostolos Kyritsis
The thermoresponsive behavior of two diblock copolymers PS-b-PNIPAM and PS-b-PMDEGA, which both comprise a hydrophobic polystyrene block but different thermoresponsive blocks, also differing in length, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(methoxy diethylene glycol acrylate) (PMDEGA), respectively, was comparatively investigated in a wide temperature range. Concentrated aqueous solutions containing 25 wt% polymer, were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jun-Hong Lin
In this paper, cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was employed to prevent the restack of the thermally reduce graphene oxide (TRG) sheets. A facile approach was demonstrated to effectively enlarge the interlayer distance of the TRG sheets through the ionic interaction between the intercalated CTAB and ionic liquids (ILs). The morphology of the composites and the interaction between the intercalated ionic species were systematically characterized by SEM, SAXS, XRD, TGA, and FTIR. In addition, the performance of the EDLC cells based on these TRG composites was evaluated...
February 8, 2018: Materials
Preeti Garg, Gurpreet Kaur, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Satwant Kaur, Santosh L Gawali, P A Hassan
Bovine Serum Albumin is major transport protein and is often used as a drug carrier in body organs. Knowledge of its binding with metallosurfactant can significantly influence the biodistribution of metallodrugs. Current work demonstrated a facile method to prepare four different double chained metallosurfactants containing Fe, Co, Ni and Cu as part of their counter ion. The as-synthesized metallosurfactants were characterized using FTIR, AAS, TGA and XRD in solid form. The aggregation of these metallosurfactants in aqueous medium was investigated through conductivity, surface tension and SAXS...
January 26, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Aline Wolfensberger, Angela H Meier, Stefan P Kuster, Tarun Mehra, Marie-Theres Meier, Hugo Sax
As surveillance of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is very resource intensive, alternatives for HAP-surveillance are urgently needed. We compared HAP-rates according to routine discharge diagnostic codes of the International Classification of Diseases, tenth Revision (ICD-10; ICD-HAP) and the validated surveillance definitions of the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS/IPSE; HELICS-HAP) by manual retrospective reevaluation of patient records. We found a positive predictive value and sensitivity of ICD-HAP for HELICS-HAP of 0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Anna Gustafsson, Neashan Mathavan, Mikael J Turunen, Jonas Engqvist, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Stephen A Hall, Hanna Isaksson
The incidence of fragility fractures is expected to increase in the near future due to an aging population. Therefore, improved tools for fracture prediction are required to treat and prevent these injuries efficiently. For such tools to succeed, a better understanding of the deformation mechanisms in bone over different length scales is needed. In this study, an experimental setup including mechanical tensile testing in combination with digital image correlation (DIC) and small/wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was used to study deformation at multiple length scales in bovine cortical bone...
February 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Linda Saxe Einbond, Fabiana Manservisi, Hsan-Au Wu, Michael Balick, Victoria Antonetti, Andrea Vornoli, Ilaria Menghetti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Stephen Redenti, Alan Roter
The spice turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has a long history of use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The active component curcumin induces a variety of diverse biological effects and forms a series of degradation and metabolic products in vivo. Our hypothesis is that the field of toxicogenomics provides tools that can be used to characterize the mode of action and toxicity of turmeric components and to predict turmeric-drug interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4 days with turmeric root containing about 3% curcumin (comparable to what people consume in the fresh or dried root) or a fraction of turmeric enriched for curcumin (∼74%) and liver tissue collected for gene expression analysis...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jing-Ting Weng, Tso-Fan Yeh, Ashok Zachariah Samuel, Yi-Fan Huang, Jyun-Hao Sie, Kuan-Yi Wu, Chi-How Peng, Hiro-O Hamaguchi, Chien-Lung Wang
A low generation amphiphilic dendrimer, POSS-AD, which has a POSS core and eight amphiphilic arms, was synthesized and used as a nano-reactor to produce well-defined polymer nano-cylinders. Confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman and NMR spectrometry, monodispersed cylindrical micelles that contain a hydrophilic cavity with a diameter of 2.09 nm and a length of 4.26 nm were produced via co-assembling POSS-AD with hydrophilic liquids, such as H2O and HEMA in hydrophobic solvents. Taking the HEMA/POSS-AD cylindrical micelles as nano-reactors, polymerization of HEMA within the micelles results in polymer nano-cylinders (POSS-ADNPs) with a diameter of 2...
February 6, 2018: Nanoscale
P Shaiju, N Sanjeeva Murthy, E Bhoje Gowd
The role of a nonsolvent in controlling the crystallization and morphology of solvent-crystallized poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) films was investigated using various microscopy techniques and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). PLLA films crystallized in THF and acetone had 40-80 μm spherulites. When water was present in the solvent, a completely different morphology was observed with nanosized voids and the surfaces of the films were smooth. In contrast, SEM studies revealed that the films crystallized in acetone and THF which had macroporous structures, had larger voids and film surfaces were rough because of the presence of globular structures...
February 6, 2018: Soft Matter
Marco Mendozza, Costanza Montis, Lucrezia Caselli, Marcell Wolf, Piero Baglioni, Debora Berti
The inclusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in lipid mesophases is a promising strategy for drug-delivery applications, combining the innate biocompatibility of lipid architectures with SPIONs' response to external magnetic fields. Moreover, the organization of SPIONs within the lipid scaffold can lead to locally enhanced SPIONs concentration and improved magnetic response, which is key to overcome the current limitations of hyperthermic treatments. Here we present a Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) structural investigation of the thermotropic and magnetotropic behavior of glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/water mesophases, loaded with hydrophobic SPIONs...
February 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Hendrik Glauninger, Yifan Zhang, Khadine A Higgins, Alexander D Jacobs, Julia E Martin, Yue Fu, H Jerome Coyne Rd, Kevin E Bruce, Michael J Maroney, David E Clemmer, Daiana A Capdevila, David P Giedroc
Resistance to copper (Cu) toxicity in the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by the Cu-specific metallosensor CopY. CopY is structurally related to the antibiotic-resistance regulatory proteins MecI and BlaI from Staphylococcus aureus, but is otherwise poorly characterized. Here we employ a multi-pronged experimental strategy to define the Spn CopY coordination chemistry and the unique mechanism of allosteric activation by Zn(ii) and allosteric inhibition by Cu(i) of cop promoter DNA binding...
January 7, 2018: Chemical Science
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