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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344458/case-based-learning-in-microbiology-observations-from-a-north-west-indian-medical-college
#1
Anita Singhal
Background: Microbiology is usually taught by conventional lectures, and its retention and application is observed to be poor among medical graduates/practitioners. Aim and Objectives: Introduction of case-based learning (CBL) in microbiology for second-year professional MBBS students. Materials and Methods: Students were divided into two groups of fifty each. Four clinical cases were used for CBL. One group had two CBL sessions whereas the other had didactic lectures (DLs) and then the groups were crossed over...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343691/use-of-nanoparticle-concentration-as-a-tool-to-understand-the-structural-properties-of-colloids
#2
Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Verônica Muniz Couto, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Eneida de Paula
Elucidation of the structural properties of colloids is paramount for a successful formulation. However, the intrinsic dynamism of colloidal systems makes their characterization a difficult task and, in particular, there is a lack of physicochemical techniques that can be correlated to their biological performance. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) allows measurements of size distribution and nanoparticle concentration in real time. Its analysis over time also enables the early detection of physical instability in the systems not assessed by subtle changes in size distribution...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341918/asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-for-the-characterization-of-globule-size-distribution-in-complex-formulations-a-cyclosporine-ophthalmic-emulsion-case
#3
Haiou Qu, Jiang Wang, Yong Wu, Jiwen Zheng, Yellela S R Krishnaiah, Mohammad Absar, Stephanie Choi, Muhammad Ashraf, Celia N Cruz, Xiaoming Xu
Commonly used characterization techniques such as cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS) are either time consuming or unable to offer high resolution to discern the poly-dispersity of complex drug products like cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsions. Here, a size-based separation and characterization method for globule size distribution using an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is reported for comparative assessment of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion drug products (model formulation) with a wide size span and poly-dispersity...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339972/evaluation-of-green-tea-extract-as-a-safe-personal-hygiene-against-viral-infections
#4
Yun Ha Lee, Yo Han Jang, Young-Seok Kim, Jinku Kim, Baik Lin Seong
Background: Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Results: Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339288/hyaluronic-acid-in-pluronic-f-127-f-108-hydrogels-for-postoperative-pain-in-arthroplasties-influence-on-physico-chemical-properties-and-structural-requirements-for-sustained-drug-release
#5
M H M Nascimento, M K K D Franco, F Yokaichyia, E de Paula, C B Lombello, D R de Araujo
In this study, we reported the hyaluronic acid (HA) on supramolecular structure of Pluronic F-127 (PLF-127) and/or Pluronic F-108 (PLF-127) hydrogels, as well as their effects on release mechanisms, looking forward their application as lidocaine (LDC) drug-delivery systems in arthroplastic surgeries. We have studied the HA-micelle interaction using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), the micellization and sol-gel transition processes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Rheology., of PL-based hydrogels and...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338346/foot-mobility-magnitude-and-stiffness-in-children-with-and-without-calcaneal-apophysitis
#6
Simon Christopher McSweeney, Lloyd Reed, Scott Wearing
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated quasi-static measures of foot mobility magnitude (FMM) and foot stiffness (FS) in children, aged 8 to 14 years, with and without calcaneal apophysitis. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, FMM and FS measurements were captured on 41 children (22 cases and 19 controls) using a custom-built foot assessment platform. The platform incorporated a portable force plate that allowed quantification of vertical force during double-limb stance (DLS)...
January 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338217/unprecedented-synergistic-effects-of-nanoscale-nutrients-on-growth-productivity-of-sweet-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-and-nutrient-biofortification
#7
Naseeruddin Ramapuram, Sumathi V, Nvkv Prasad Tollamadugu, P Sudhakar, Chandrika V, Balam Ravindra Reddy
Evidence based synergistic effects of nanoscale materials (size <100 nm in at least one dimension) were scantly documented in agriculture at field scale. Herein, we report for the first time on effects of nanoscale zinc oxide (n-ZnO), calcium oxide (n-CaO) and magnesium oxide (n-MgO) on growth and productivity of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Modified sol-gel method was used to prepare nanoscale materials under study. Characterization was done using Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337294/large-area-few-layers-hexagonal-boron-nitride-prepared-by-quadrupole-field-aided-exfoliation
#8
Lu Hanlun, Min Zhi Rong, Ming Qiu Zhang
A quadrupole electric field mediated exfoliation method is proposed to convert micron sized hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powders into few layers hexagonal boron nitride nano-sheets (h-BNNS). Under the optimum conditions (400 Hz, 40 V, 32μg/mL, sodium deoxycholate, TAE medium), the hBN powders (thickness > 200 nm, horizontal scale ~ 10 μm) are successfully exfoliated into 0.5-4 nm (1-10 layers) thick h-BNNS with the same horizontal scale. Dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscope (AFM) statistics show that the yield is 47...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336438/zein-derived-peptides-as-nanocarriers-to-increase-the-water-solubility-and-stability-of-lutein
#9
Yan Jiao, Xiqun Zheng, Ying Chang, Dajing Li, Xiaohong Sun, Xiaolan Liu
Zein and its derived peptides have been used as nanocarriers for bioactive components. Lutein, as well as other xanthophylls, are characterized by blue light filtering and anti-oxidant properties. However, lutein is unstable and has low water solubility, poor absorption, and low bioavailability. In order to protect lutein from oxidative degradation, and to enhance its solubility and dispersibility, stability and bioactivity, lutein-loaded zein nanoparticles (LLZ-NP) and zein-derived peptide nanoparticles (LLZ-PEP-NP) were prepared by the solvent diffusion method...
January 16, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335533/fc-modified-exenatide-loaded-nanoparticles-for-oral-delivery-to-improve-hypoglycemic-effects-in-mice
#10
Yanan Shi, Xinfeng Sun, Liping Zhang, Kaoxiang Sun, Keke Li, Youxin Li, Qiang Zhang
To improve the oral efficiency of exenatide, we prepared polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) NPs modified with Fc (NPs-Fc) for exenatide oral delivery. Exenatide was encapsulated into the NPs by the w/o/w emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particle size of the NPs-Fc was approximately 30 nm larger than that of the unmodified NPs with polydispersity indices in a narrow range (PDIs; PDI < 0.3) as detected by DLS, and the highest encapsulation efficiency of exenatide in the NPs was greater than 80%...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335424/functionalisation-of-detonation-nanodiamond-for-monodispersed-soluble-dna-nanodiamond-conjugates-using-mixed-silane-bead-assisted-sonication-disintegration
#11
Robert Edgington, Katelyn M Spillane, George Papageorgiou, William Wray, Hitoshi Ishiwata, Mariana Labarca, Sergio Leal-Ortiz, Gordon Reid, Martin Webb, John Foord, Nicholas Melosh, Andreas T Schaefer
Nanodiamonds have many attractive properties that make them suitable for a range of biological applications, but their practical use has been limited because nanodiamond conjugates tend to aggregate in solution during or after functionalisation. Here we demonstrate the production of DNA-detonation nanodiamond (DNA-DND) conjugates with high dispersion and solubility using an ultrasonic, mixed-silanization chemistry protocol based on the in situ Bead-Assisted Sonication Disintegration (BASD) silanization method...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334739/microfluidic-assisted-production-of-size-controlled-spions-loaded-pmma-nanohybrids
#12
Shukai Ding, Mohamed F Attia, Justine Wallyn, Chiara Taddei, Christophe A Serra, Nicolas Anton, Mohamad Kassem, Marc Schmutz, Meriem Er-Rafik, Nadia Messaddeq, Alexandre Collard, Wei Yu, Michele Giordano, Thierry F Vandamme
In this paper, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, around 6 nm) encapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA NPs) with controlled sizes ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm have been successfully produced. The hybrid polymeric nanoparticles were prepared following two different methods: (1) nanoprecipitation and (2) nanoemulsification-evaporation. These two methods were implemented in two different microprocesses based on the use of an impact jet micromixer and an elongational-flow microemulsifier respectively...
January 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334172/silica-nanoparticle-induced-cytokine-responses-in-beas-2b-and-hbec3-kt-cells-significance-of-particle-size-and-signalling-pathways-in-different-lung-cell-cultures
#13
Marit Låg, Tonje Skuland, Anna Godymchuk, Thu H T Nguyen, Hang L T Pham, Magne Refsnes
We have previously reported that silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) of nominal size 50 nm (Si50) induce the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL8 and IL-6 in BEAS-2B cells, via mechanisms involving MAPK p38, TACE-mediated TGFα release and the NFκB pathway. In the present study, we examined whether these findings are cell-specific or might be extended to another epithelial lung cell model, HBEC3-KT, and also to SiNPs of a smaller size (nominal size of 10 nm; Si10). The TEM average size of Si10 and Si50 was 10.9 nm and 34...
January 15, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331781/a-step-wise-self-assembly-approach-in-preparation-of-multi-responsive-poly-styrene-co-methyl-methacrylate-nanoparticles-containing-spiropyran
#14
Fahimeh Khakzad, Ali Reza Mahdavian, Hamid Salehi-Mobarakeh, Mohammad Hossain Sharifian
HYPOTHESIS: Surfactant-free emulsion polymerization has become favorable due to circumventing instability issues reasonably. Incorporation of an appropriate hydrophilic macroRAFT, could provide controlled in-situ self-assembly via copolymerization with hydrophobic monomers into polymer particles. So far, this approach has mostly been studied in dispersion systems and further studies are needed in emulsions. Beside the corresponding mechanistic studies, the prepared latex particles would potentially exhibit smart behaviors by choosing stimuli-responsive monomers...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331661/effect-of-laf3-ag-fluorescent-nanoparticles-on-photodynamic-efficiency-and-cytotoxicity-of-protoporphyrin-ix-photosensitizer
#15
F Tavakkoli, M Zahedifar, E Sadeghi
LaF3: Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The produced NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The emission spectrum of LaF3:Ag NPs is mostly overlapped with the absorption band of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and their conjugation was confirmed by studying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from LaF3:Ag donor to protoporphyrin IX acceptor...
January 10, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331201/impact-of-polymer-geometry-on-the-interactions-of-protein-peg-conjugates
#16
Jonathan Zarzar, Whitney Shatz, Nikhil Peer, Rosalynn Taing, Brian McGarry, Yun Liu, Daniel G Greene, Isidro E Zarraga
The conjugation of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is an attractive strategy for the modification of biophysical and biodistribution properties of the API. Indeed, several therapeutic proteins conjugated to PEG have been safely administered in the clinic. While there have been studies on the configuration of these conjugates in solution, investigations on the impact of PEG geometry on protein-PEG conjugate interactions is limited. In this study, we use dynamic light scattering (DLS), rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the biophysical solution and interaction behavior of a 50kDa Fab protein attached to either a linear or tetrameric (branched) 40kDa PEG molecule...
November 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329873/preparation-and-characterization-of-citral-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#17
Huaixiang Tian, Zhuoyan Lu, Danfeng Li, Jing Hu
Citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (citral-SLNs) were prepared via a high-pressure homogenization method, using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Tween 80 (T-80) and Span 80 (S-80) at a weight ratio of 1:1 as the surfactant. The microstructure and properties of the citral-SLNs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328286/information-weighted-constrained-regularization-for-particle-size-distribution-recovery-in-multiangle-dynamic-light-scattering
#18
Min Xu, Jin Shen, John C Thomas, Yu Huang, Xinjun Zhu, Luis A Clementi, Jorge R Vega
In particle size measurement with dynamic light scattering (DLS), it is difficult to get an accurate recovery of a bimodal particle size distribution (PSD) with a peak position ratio less than ~2:1, especially when large particles (>350nm) are present. This is due to the inherent noise in the autocorrelation function (ACF) data and the scarce utilization of PSD information during the inversion process. In this paper, the PSD information distribution in the ACF data is investigated. It was found that the initial decay section of the ACF contains more information, especially for a bimodal PSD...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324692/a-portable-dynamic-laser-speckle-system-for-sensing-long-term-changes-caused-by-treatments-in-painting-conservation
#19
Alberto J Pérez, Rolando J González-Peña, Roberto Braga, Ángel Perles, Eva Pérez-Marín, Fernando J García-Diego
Dynamic laser speckle (DLS) is used as a reliable sensor of activity for all types of materials. Traditional applications are based on high-rate captures (usually greater than 10 frames-per-second, fps). Even for drying processes in conservation treatments, where there is a high level of activity in the first moments after the application and slower activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images at a time rate that is the same in moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to track the drying process of protective layers and other painting conservation processes that take a long time to reduce their levels of activity...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323901/microbial-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-different-culture-media
#20
Ke Luo, Samuel Jung, Kyu-Hwan Park, Young-Rok Kim
Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, and DLS. The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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